Theoretical aspects and real issues in an integrated multiradar system

In the last few years Homeland Security (HS) has gained a considerable interest in the research community. From a scientific point of view, it is a difficult task to provide a definition of this research area and to exactly draw up its boundaries. In fact, when we talk about the security and the surveillance, several problems and aspects must be considered. In particular, the following factors play a crucial role and define the complexity level of the considered application field: the number of potential threats can be high and uncertain; the threat detection and identification can be made more complicated by the use of camouflaging techniques; the monitored area is typically wide and it requires a large and heterogeneous sensor network; the surveillance operation is strongly related to the operational scenario, so that it is not possible to define a ...

Fortunati Stefano — University of Pisa


Tracking and Planning for Surveillance Applications

Vision and infrared sensors are very common in surveillance and security applications, and there are numerous examples where a critical infrastructure, e.g. a harbor, an airport, or a military camp, is monitored by video surveillance systems. There is a need for automatic processing of sensor data and intelligent control of the sensor in order to obtain efficient and high performance solutions that can support a human operator. This thesis considers two subparts of the complex sensor fusion system; namely target tracking and sensor control.The multiple target tracking problem using particle filtering is studied. In particular, applications where road constrained targets are tracked with an airborne video or infrared camera are considered. By utilizing the information about the road network map it is possible to enhance the target tracking and prediction performance. A dynamic model suitable for on-road target tracking with ...

Skoglar, Per — Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering


ULTRA WIDEBAND LOCATION IN SCENARIOS WITHOUT CLEAR LINE OF SIGHT: A PRACTICAL APPROACH

Indoor location has experienced a major boost in recent years. location based services (LBS), which until recently were restricted to outdoor scenarios and the use of GPS, have also been extended into buildings. From large public structures such as airports or hospitals to a multitude of industrial scenarios, LBS has become increasingly present in indoor scenarios. Of the various technologies that can be used to achieve this indoor location, the ones based on ultra- wideband (UWB) signals have become ones of the most demanded due primarily to their accuracy in position estimation. Additionally, the appearance in the market of more and more manufacturers and products has lowered the prices of these devices to levels that allow to think about their use for large deployments with a contained budget. By their nature, UWB signals are very resistant to the multi-path phenomenon, ...

Barral, Valentín — Universidade da Coruña


Acoustic sensor network geometry calibration and applications

In the modern world, we are increasingly surrounded by computation devices with communication links and one or more microphones. Such devices are, for example, smartphones, tablets, laptops or hearing aids. These devices can work together as nodes in an acoustic sensor network (ASN). Such networks are a growing platform that opens the possibility for many practical applications. ASN based speech enhancement, source localization, and event detection can be applied for teleconferencing, camera control, automation, or assisted living. For this kind of applications, the awareness of auditory objects and their spatial positioning are key properties. In order to provide these two kinds of information, novel methods have been developed in this thesis. Information on the type of auditory objects is provided by a novel real-time sound classification method. Information on the position of human speakers is provided by a novel localization ...

Plinge, Axel — TU Dortmund University


Extended target tracking using PHD filters

The world in which we live is becoming more and more automated, exemplified by the numerous robots, or autonomous vehicles, that operate in air, on land, or in water. These robots perform a wide array of different tasks, ranging from the dangerous, such as underground mining, to the boring, such as vacuum cleaning. In common for all different robots is that they must possess a certain degree of awareness, both of themselves and of the world in which they operate. This thesis considers aspects of two research problems associated with this, more specifically the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) problem and the Multiple Target Tracking (MTT) problem. The SLAM problem consists of having the robot create a map of an environment and simultaneously localize itself in the same map. One way to reduce the effect of small errors that inevitably ...

Granström, Karl — Linköping University


Acoustic Event Detection: Feature, Evaluation and Dataset Design

It takes more time to think of a silent scene, action or event than finding one that emanates sound. Not only speaking or playing music but almost everything that happens is accompanied with or results in one or more sounds mixed together. This makes acoustic event detection (AED) one of the most researched topics in audio signal processing nowadays and it will probably not see a decline anywhere in the near future. This is due to the thirst for understanding and digitally abstracting more and more events in life via the enormous amount of recorded audio through thousands of applications in our daily routine. But it is also a result of two intrinsic properties of audio: it doesn’t need a direct sight to be perceived and is less intrusive to record when compared to image or video. Many applications such ...

Mina Mounir — KU Leuven, ESAT STADIUS


Advances in Detection and Classification for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging

In this PhD thesis the problem of detection and classification of stationary targets in Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging is considered. A multiple-view framework is used in which a 3D scene of interest is imaged from a set of vantage points. By doing so, clutter and noise is strongly suppressed and target detectability increased. In target detection, centralized as well as decentralized frameworks for simultaneous image fusion and detection are examined. The practical case when no prior knowledge on image statistics is available and all inference must be drawn from the data at hand is specifically considered. An adaptive detection scheme is proposed which iteratively adapts in a non-stationary environment. Optimal configurations for this scheme are derived based on morphological operations which allow for automatic and reliable target detection. In a decentralized framework, local decisions are transmitted to a fusion center to ...

Debes, Christian — Technical University of Darmstad


Selected Topics In Direct Geolocation Of Radio Transmitters & Passive Targets

This dissertation is dedicated to the exploration of various direct positioning algorithms for radio transmitters and passive target geolocation. Contrary to the traditional ``two-step'' approach, the ``direct positioning'' approach states that the radio transmitter's position can be extracted directly from the raw samples of the radio transmitter signals collected by the system sensors, without explicitly going through an estimation of position-related parameters such as time-delay, angular or amplitude information. In this work, the concept of direct positioning is applied to various models and consistently outperforms the traditional two-step position estimators, while tightly attaining the theoretical performance bounds. In the sequel, we explore 3 models for radio transmitters and passive target geolocation. The first model discussed in chapter 3, harnesses the transmit signal diversity of MIMO Radar systems to enhance passive-target position estimation via direct estimation algorithms. The algorithms are developed ...

Bar-Shalom, Ofer — Tel-Aviv University


Change Detection Techniques for GNSS Signal-Level Integrity

The provision of accurate positioning is becoming essential to our modern society. One of the main reasons is the great success and ease of use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), which has led to an unprecedented amount of GNSS-based applications. In particular, the current trend shows that a new era of GNSS-based applications and services is emerging. These applications are the so-called critical applications, in which the physical safety of users may be in danger due to a miss-performance of the positioning system. These applications have very stringent requirements in terms of integrity. Integrity is a measure of reliability and trust that can be placed on the information provided by the system. Integrity algorithms were originally designed for civil aviation in the 1980s. Unfortunately, GNSS-based critical applications are often associated with terrestrial environments and original integrity algorithms usually fail. ...

Egea-Roca, Daniel — Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona


Statistical Signal Processing for Data Fusion

In this dissertation we focus on statistical signal processing for Data Fusion, with a particular focus on wireless sensor networks. Six topics are studied: (i) Data Fusion for classification under model uncertainty; (ii) Decision Fusion over coherent MIMO channels; (iii) Performance analysis of Maximum Ratio Combining in MIMO decision fusion; (iv) Decision Fusion over non-coherent MIMO channels; (v) Decision Fusion for distributed classification of multiple targets; (vi) Data Fusion for inverse localization problems, with application to wideband passive sonar platform estimation. The first topic of this thesis addresses the problem of lack of knowledge of the prior distribution in classification problems that operate on small data sets that may make the application of Bayes' rule questionable. Uniform or arbitrary priors may provide classification answers that, even in simple examples, may end up contradicting our common sense about the problem. Entropic ...

Ciuonzo, Domenico — Second University of Naples


Sensor Fusion for Automotive Applications

Mapping stationary objects and tracking moving targets are essential for many autonomous functions in vehicles. In order to compute the map and track estimates, sensor measurements from radar, laser and camera are used together with the standard proprioceptive sensors present in a car. By fusing information from different types of sensors, the accuracy and robustness of the estimates can be increased. Different types of maps are discussed and compared in the thesis. In particular, road maps make use of the fact that roads are highly structured, which allows relatively simple and powerful models to be employed. It is shown how the information of the lane markings, obtained by a front looking camera, can be fused with inertial measurement of the vehicle motion and radar measurements of vehicles ahead to compute a more accurate and robust road geometry estimate. Further, it ...

Lundquist, Christian — Linköping University


Antenna Array Processing: Autocalibration and Fast High-Resolution Methods for Automotive Radar

In this thesis, advanced techniques for antenna array processing are addressed. The problem of autocalibration is considered and a novel method for a two-dimensional array is developed. Moreover, practicable methods for high-resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and detection in automotive radar are proposed. A precise model of the array response is required to maintain the performance of DOA estimation. When the sensor environment is time-varying, this can only be achieved with autocalibration. The fundamental problem of autocalibration of an unknown phase response for uniform rectangular arrays is considered. For the case with a single source, a simple and robust least squares algorithm for joint two-dimensional DOA estimation and phase calibration is developed. An identification problem is determined and a suitable constraint is proposed. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed estimator is close to the approximate CRB for both ...

Heidenreich, Philipp — Technische Universität Darmstadt


Best Signal Selection with Automatic Delay Compensation in VoIP Environment

In the last decades, air traffic spread more and more in the world, connecting more and more places. At the same time, the need to manage all the flights correctly and securely increased. Air traffic authorities imposed and updated several standards for the air traffic management (ATM) system, keeping in pace with the growing traffic flow. To achieve this, special voice communication systems (VCS) were developed. They ensure the communication between the pilots and the operators from the ground control centers. When a communication is initiated between the aircraft’s pilot and the ground air traffic control operator, various systems are used. The pilot speaks through the aircraft’s radio station and the signal is received by several ground radio stations. Then, the signal from each ground radio station arrives on different paths to the control center. Here one of the received ...

Marinescu, Radu-Sebastian — University Politehnica of Bucharest


Signal processing of FMCW Synthetic Aperture Radar data

In the field of airborne earth observation there is special attention to compact, cost effective, high resolution imaging sensors. Such sensors are foreseen to play an important role in small-scale remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of dikes, watercourses, or highways. Furthermore, such sensors are of military interest; reconnaissance tasks could be performed with small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), reducing in this way the risk for one's own troops. In order to be operated from small, even unmanned, aircrafts, such systems must consume little power and be small enough to fulfill the usually strict payload requirements. Moreover, to be of interest for the civil market, cost effectiveness is mandatory. Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar systems are generally compact and relatively cheap to purchase and to exploit. They consume little power and, due to the fact that they are ...

Meta, Adriano — Delft University of Technology


On-board Processing for an Infrared Observatory

During the past two decades, image compression has developed from a mostly academic Rate-Distortion (R-D) field, into a highly commercial business. Various lossless and lossy image coding techniques have been developed. This thesis represents an interdisciplinary work between the field of astronomy and digital image processing and brings new aspects into both of the fields. In fact, image compression had its beginning in an American space program for efficient data storage. The goal of this research work is to recognize and develop new methods for space observatories and software tools to incorporate compression in space astronomy standards. While the astronomers benefit from new objective processing and analysis methods and improved efficiency and quality, for technicians a new field of application and research is opened. For validation of the processing results, the case of InfraRed (IR) astronomy has been specifically analyzed. ...

Belbachir, Ahmed Nabil — Vienna University of Technology

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