Robust GNSS Carrier Phase-based Position and Attitude Estimation

Navigation information is an essential element for the functioning of robotic platforms and intelligent transportation systems. Among the existing technologies, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have established as the cornerstone for outdoor navigation, allowing for all-weather, all-time positioning and timing at a worldwide scale. GNSS is the generic term for referring to a constellation of satellites which transmit radio signals used primarily for ranging information. Therefore, the successful operation and deployment of prospective autonomous systems is subject to our capabilities to support GNSS in the provision of robust and precise navigational estimates. GNSS signals enable two types of ranging observations: --code pseudorange, which is a measure of the time difference between the signal's emission and reception at the satellite and receiver, respectively, scaled by the speed of light; --carrier phase pseudorange, which measures the beat of the carrier signal and ...

Daniel Medina — German Aerospace Center (DLR)


GNSS Signal Processing and Spatial Diversity Exploitation

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals are broadly used for positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) in many different applications and use cases. Although different PNT technologies are available, GNSS is expected to be a key player in the derivation of positioning and timing for many future applications, including those in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) or autonomous vehicles, since it has the important advantage of being open access and worldwide available. Indeed, GNSS is performing very well in mild propagation conditions, achieving position and time synchronization accuracies down to the cm and ns levels, respectively. Nevertheless, the exploitation of GNSS in harsh propagation conditions typical of urban and indoor scenarios is very challenging, resulting in position errors of up to tens or even hundreds of meters, and timing accuracies of hundreds of ns. This thesis deals with ...

Garcia Molina, Jose Antonio — UPC


Reduced-Complexity Code Synchronization in Multipath Channels for BOC Modulated CDMA Signals with Applications in Galileo and Modernized GPS Systems

Applications for the new generations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are developing rapidly and attract a great interest. Both US Global Positioning System (GPS) and European Galileo signals use Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) technology, where code and frequency synchronization are important stages at the receiver. The GNSS receivers estimate jointly the code phase and the Doppler spread through a two-dimensional searching process in time-frequency plane. Since both GPS and Galileo systems will send several signals on the same carriers, a new modulation type - the Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation, has been selected. The main target of this modulation is to provide a better spectral separation with the existing BPSK-modulated GPS signals, while allowing optimal usage of the available bandwidth for different GNSS signals. The BOC modulation family includes several BOC variants, such as sine BOC (SinBOC), ...

Burian, Adina — Universitat Trier


Bayesian Signal Processing Techniques for GNSS Receivers: from multipath mitigation to positioning

This dissertation deals with the design of satellite-based navigation receivers. The term Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) refers to those navigation systems based on a constellation of satellites, which emit ranging signals useful for positioning. Although the american GPS is probably the most popular, the european contribution (Galileo) will be operative soon. Other global and regional systems exist, all with the same objective: aid user's positioning. Initially, the thesis provides the state-of-the-art in GNSS: navigation signals structure and receiver architecture. The design of a GNSS receiver consists of a number of functional blocks. From the antenna to the fi nal position calculation, the design poses challenges in many research areas. Although the Radio Frequency chain of the receiver is commented in the thesis, the main objective of the dissertation is on the signal processing algorithms applied after signal digitation. These ...

Closas, Pau — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Advanced Tracking Loop Architectures for Multi-frequency GNSS Receiver

The multi-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are designed to overcome the inherent performance limitations of single-frequency receivers. However, the processing of multiple frequency signals in a time-varying GNSS signal environment which are potentially affected by multipath, ionosphere scintillation, blockage, and interference is quite challenging, as each signal is influenced differently by channel effects according to its Radio Frequency (RF). In order to get the benefit of synchronously/coherently generated multiple frequency signals, advanced receiver signal processing techniques need to be developed. The aim of this research thesis is to extract the best performance benefits out of multifrequency GNSS signals in a time-varying GNSS signal environment. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to analyze the multi-frequency signal characteristics and to investigate suitable signal processing algorithms in order to enable the best performance of each signal. The GNSS receiver position ...

Bolla, Padma — Tampere University of Technology, Finland and Samara University, Russia


Advanced Signal Processing Techniques for Global Navigation Satellite Systems

This Dissertation addresses the synchronization problem using an array of antennas in the general framework of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. Positioning systems are based on time delay and frequency-shift estimation of the incoming signals in the receiver side, in order to compute the user's location. Sources of accuracy degradation in satellite-based navigation systems are well-known, and their mitigation has deserved the attention of a number of researchers in latter times. While atmospheric-dependant sources (delays that depend on the ionosphere and troposphere conditions) can be greatly mitigated by differential systems external to the receiver's operation, the multipath effect is location-dependant and remains as the most important cause of accuracy degradation in time delay estimation, and consequently in position estimation, becoming a signal processing challenge. Traditional approaches to time delay estimation are often embodied in a communication systems framework. Indeed, ...

Fernandez-Prades, Carles — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Receiver synchronisation techniques for CDMA mobile radio communications based on the use of a priori information

Receiver synchronisation can be a major problem in a mobile radio environment where the communication channel is subject to rapid changes. Communication in spread spectrum systems is impossible unless the received spreading waveform and receiver-generated replica of the spreading waveform are initially synchronised in both phase and frequency. Phase and frequency synchronisation is usually accomplished by performing a two-dimensional search in the time/frequency ambiguity area. Generally, this process must be accomplished at very low SNRs, as quickly as possible, using the minimum amount of hardware. This thesis looks into techniques for improving spread spectrum receiver synchronisation in terms of the mean acquisition time. In particular, the thesis is focused on receiver structures that provide and/or use a priori information in order to minimise the mean acquisition time. The first part of this work is applicable to synchronisation scenarios involving LEO ...

Vardoulias, George — University Of Edinburgh


Performance Evaluation of Practical OFDM Systems with Imperfect Synchronization

This work aims to expose the potential performance loss due to synchronization errors in the downlink of the two major cellular standards of OFDM systems, i.e., the WiMAX OFDM physical layer and the LTE. Different to most results in literature, the physical layer coded throughput is utilized as the major performance measure. The influence of an imperfect carrier frequency synchronization or symbol timing is evaluated via analytical modeling and standard compliant link level simulations. In the frequency aspect, a modified differential estimator for the residual frequency offset in WiMAX is proposed. It is shown that the theoretical performance of such an estimator approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound and provides a significant gain in terms of the mean squared error. However, such an improvement becomes negligible in terms of the coded throughput. Therefore, a throughput loss prediction model is proposed for ...

Wang, Qi — Vienna University of Technology


Antenna Arrays for Multipath and Interference Mitigation in GNSS Receivers

This thesis deals with the synchronization of one or several replicas of a known signal received in a scenario with multipath propagation and directional interference. A connecting theme along this work is the systematic application of the maximum likelihood (ML) principle together with a signal model in which the spatial signatures are unstructured and the noise term is Gaussian- distributed with an unknown correlation matrix. This last assumption is key in obtaining estimators that are capable of mitigating the disturbing signals that exhibit a certain structure, and this is achieved without resorting to the estimation of the parameters of those signals. On the other hand, the assumption of unstructured spatial signatures is interesting from a practical standpoint and facilitates the estimation problem since the estimates of these signatures can be obtained in closed form. This constitutes a first step towards ...

Seco-Granados, Gonzalo — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


AOA-based Ultrasonic 3-D Location for Ubiquitous Computing

This thesis addresses the problem of simplifying indoor ultrasonic location systems through the disposal of the radio synchronization subsystem. The location approach proposed herein is completely based on angle-of arrival (AOA) estimation of ultrasonic frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) signals transmitted by fixed beacons with known positions. The proposed system is privacy-oriented, that is the device to be located only receives and does not transmit signals. In the proposed location system, the beacons transmit their IDs using ultrasonic signals. The receiver acquires these IDs and determines its room-level position by table lookup. Following beacon identification, the receiver exploits a priori knowledge of the hopping patterns associated with the beacons and a sensor array to determine the AOA of the signal from each beacon. Next, the AOA information is used to determine the receiver's 3-D location using location algorithms proposed herein. In ...

Ballal, Tarig — University College Dublin


Adaptive Communications for Next Generation Broadband Wireless Access Systems

In Broadband Wireless Access systems the efficient use of the resources is crucial from many points of views. From the operator point of view, the bandwidth is a scarce, valuable, and expensive resource which must be exploited in an efficient manner while the Quality of Service (QoS) provided to the users is guaranteed. On the other hand, a tight delay and link quality constraints are imposed on each data flow hence the user experiences the same quality as in fixed networks. During the last few years many techniques have been developed in order to increase the spectral efficiency and the throughput. Among them, the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver (exploiting spatial multiplexing) with the joint optimization of the medium access control layer and the physical layer parameters. In this Ph.D. thesis, different adaptive techniques for ...

Ismael Gutierrez Gonz├ílez — Universitat Ramon Llull


Synchronization and Multipath Delay Estimation Algorithms for Digital Receivers

This thesis considers the development of synchronization and signal processing techniques for digital communication receivers, which is greatly influenced by the digital revolution of electronic systems. Eventhough synchronization concepts are well studied and established in the literature, there is always a need for new algorithms depending on new system requirements and new trends in receiver architecture design. The new trend of using digital receivers where the sampling of the baseband signal is performed by a free running oscillator reduces the analog components by performing most of the functions digitally, which increases the flexibility, configurability, and integrability of the receiver. Also, this new design approach contributes greatly to the software radio (SWR) concept which is the natural progression of digital radio receivers towards multimode, multistandard terminals where the radio functionalities are defined by software. The first part of this research work ...

Hamila, Ridha — Tampere University of Technology


OFDM Air-Interface Design for Multimedia Communications

The aim of this dissertation is the investigation of the key issues encountered in the development of wideband radio air-interfaces. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as the enabling technology for transmitting data at extremely high rates over time-dispersive radio channels. OFDM is a transmission scheme, which splits up the data stream, sending the data symbols simultaneously at a drastically reduced symbol rate over a set of parallel sub-carriers. The first part of this thesis deals with the modeling of the time-dispersive and frequency-selective radio channel, utilizing second order Gaussian stochastic processes. A novel channel measurement technique is developed, in which the RMS delay spread of the channel is estimated from the level-crossing rate of the frequency-selective channel transfer function. This method enables the empirical channel characterization utilizing simplified non-coherent measurements of the received power versus frequency. Air-interface and multiple ...

Witrisal, Klaus — Delft University of Technology


GNSS Array-based Acquisition: Theory and Implementation

This Dissertation addresses the signal acquisition problem using antenna arrays in the general framework of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. GNSSs provide the necessary infrastructures for a myriad of applications and services that demand a robust and accurate positioning service. GNSS ranging signals are received with very low signal-to-noise ratio. Despite that the GNSS CDMA modulation offers limited protection against Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI), an interference that exceeds the processing gain can easily degrade receivers' performance or even deny completely the GNSS service. A growing concern of this problem has appeared in recent times. A single-antenna receiver can make use of time and frequency diversity to mitigate interferences, even though the performance of these techniques is compromised in the presence of wideband interferences. Antenna arrays receivers can benefit from spatial-domain processing, and thus mitigate the effects of interfering signals. ...

Arribas, Javier — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-based Positioning Applications

Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in any Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or the developing European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can create significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used in the time delay estimate of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) of a navigation receiver, leading to an error in the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on a navigation receiver, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. Many of these techniques rely on modifying the tracking loop discriminator (i.e., the DLL and its enhanced variants) in order to make it resistant to multipath, but their performance in severe ...

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul Hasan — Tampere University of Technology

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