A comparative analysis of different approaches to target differentiation and localization using infrared sensors

This study compares the performances of various techniques for the differentiation and localization of commonly encountered features in indoor environments, such as planes, corners, edges, and cylinders, possibly with different surface properties, using simple infrared sensors. The intensity measurements obtained from such sensors are highly dependent on the location, geometry, and surface properties of the reflecting feature in a way that cannot be represented by a simple analytical relationship, therefore complicating the localization and differentiation process. The techniques considered include rule-based, template-based, and neural network-based target differentiation, parametric surface differentiation, and statistical pattern recognition techniques such as parametric density estimation, various linear and quadratic classifiers, mixture of normals, kernel estimator, k-nearest neighbor, artificial neural network, and support vector machine classifiers. The geometrical properties of the targets are more distinctive than their surface properties, and surface recognition is the limiting factor ...

Aytac, Tayfun — Bilkent University


Theoretical aspects and real issues in an integrated multiradar system

In the last few years Homeland Security (HS) has gained a considerable interest in the research community. From a scientific point of view, it is a difficult task to provide a definition of this research area and to exactly draw up its boundaries. In fact, when we talk about the security and the surveillance, several problems and aspects must be considered. In particular, the following factors play a crucial role and define the complexity level of the considered application field: the number of potential threats can be high and uncertain; the threat detection and identification can be made more complicated by the use of camouflaging techniques; the monitored area is typically wide and it requires a large and heterogeneous sensor network; the surveillance operation is strongly related to the operational scenario, so that it is not possible to define a ...

Fortunati Stefano — University of Pisa


Communications for CubeSat Networks and Fractionalised Spacecraft

The use of low-cost CubeSats in the context of satellite formation flying appears favourable due to their small size, relatively low launch cost, short development cycle and utilisation of commercial off the shelf components. However, the task of managing complex formations using a large number of satellites in Earth orbit is not a trivial one, and is further exacerbated by low-power and processing constraints in CubeSats. With this in mind, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based system has been developed to provide next generation on-board computing capability. The features and functionality provided by this on-board computer, as well as the steps taken to ensure reliability, including design processes and mitigation techniques are presented in this work and compared to state of the art technology. Coupling reliable formation flying capabilities with the possibility of producing complex patterns using spacecraft will ...

Karagiannakis, Philippos — University of Strathclyde


Sparse Sensing for Statistical Inference: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

In today's society, we are flooded with massive volumes of data in the order of a billion gigabytes on a daily basis from pervasive sensors. It is becoming increasingly challenging to locally store and transport the acquired data to a central location for signal/data processing (i.e., for inference). To alleviate these problems, it is evident that there is an urgent need to significantly reduce the sensing cost (i.e., the number of expensive sensors) as well as the related memory and bandwidth requirements by developing unconventional sensing mechanisms to extract as much information as possible yet collecting fewer data. The first aim of this thesis is to develop theory and algorithms for data reduction. We develop a data reduction tool called sparse sensing, which consists of a deterministic and structured sensing function (guided by a sparse vector) that is optimally designed ...

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar — Delft University of Technology


Tracking and Planning for Surveillance Applications

Vision and infrared sensors are very common in surveillance and security applications, and there are numerous examples where a critical infrastructure, e.g. a harbor, an airport, or a military camp, is monitored by video surveillance systems. There is a need for automatic processing of sensor data and intelligent control of the sensor in order to obtain efficient and high performance solutions that can support a human operator. This thesis considers two subparts of the complex sensor fusion system; namely target tracking and sensor control.The multiple target tracking problem using particle filtering is studied. In particular, applications where road constrained targets are tracked with an airborne video or infrared camera are considered. By utilizing the information about the road network map it is possible to enhance the target tracking and prediction performance. A dynamic model suitable for on-road target tracking with ...

Skoglar, Per — Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering


Adaptive Nonlocal Signal Restoration and Enhancement Techniques for High-Dimensional Data

The large number of practical applications involving digital images has motivated a significant interest towards restoration solutions that improve the visual quality of the data under the presence of various acquisition and compression artifacts. Digital images are the results of an acquisition process based on the measurement of a physical quantity of interest incident upon an imaging sensor over a specified period of time. The quantity of interest depends on the targeted imaging application. Common imaging sensors measure the number of photons impinging over a dense grid of photodetectors in order to produce an image similar to what is perceived by the human visual system. Different applications focus on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum not visible by the human visual system, and thus require different sensing technologies to form the image. In all cases, even with the advance of ...

Maggioni, Matteo — Tampere University of Technology


On-board Processing for an Infrared Observatory

During the past two decades, image compression has developed from a mostly academic Rate-Distortion (R-D) field, into a highly commercial business. Various lossless and lossy image coding techniques have been developed. This thesis represents an interdisciplinary work between the field of astronomy and digital image processing and brings new aspects into both of the fields. In fact, image compression had its beginning in an American space program for efficient data storage. The goal of this research work is to recognize and develop new methods for space observatories and software tools to incorporate compression in space astronomy standards. While the astronomers benefit from new objective processing and analysis methods and improved efficiency and quality, for technicians a new field of application and research is opened. For validation of the processing results, the case of InfraRed (IR) astronomy has been specifically analyzed. ...

Belbachir, Ahmed Nabil — Vienna University of Technology


Robust Speech Recognition on Intelligent Mobile Devices with Dual-Microphone

Despite the outstanding progress made on automatic speech recognition (ASR) throughout the last decades, noise-robust ASR still poses a challenge. Tackling with acoustic noise in ASR systems is more important than ever before for a twofold reason: 1) ASR technology has begun to be extensively integrated in intelligent mobile devices (IMDs) such as smartphones to easily accomplish different tasks (e.g. search-by-voice), and 2) IMDs can be used anywhere at any time, that is, under many different acoustic (noisy) conditions. On the other hand, with the aim of enhancing noisy speech, IMDs have begun to embed small microphone arrays, i.e. microphone arrays comprised of a few sensors close each other. These multi-sensor IMDs often embed one microphone (usually at their rear) intended to capture the acoustic environment more than the speaker’s voice. This is the so-called secondary microphone. While classical microphone ...

López-Espejo, Iván — University of Granada


A multimicrophone approach to speech processing in a smart-room environment

Recent advances in computer technology and speech and language processing have made possible that some new ways of person-machine communication and computer assistance to human activities start to appear feasible. Concretely, the interest on the development of new challenging applications in indoor environments equipped with multiple multimodal sensors, also known as smart-rooms, has considerably grown. In general, it is well-known that the quality of speech signals captured by microphones that can be located several meters away from the speakers is severely distorted by acoustic noise and room reverberation. In the context of the development of hands-free speech applications in smart-room environments, the use of obtrusive sensors like close-talking microphones is usually not allowed, and consequently, speech technologies must operate on the basis of distant-talking recordings. In such conditions, speech technologies that usually perform reasonably well in free of noise and ...

Abad, Alberto — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


An iterative, residual-based approach to unsupervised musical source separation in single-channel mixtures

This thesis concentrates on a major problem within audio signal processing, the separation of source signals from musical mixtures when only a single mixture channel is available. Source separation is the process by which signals that correspond to distinct sources are identified in a signal mixture and extracted from it. Producing multiple entities from a single one is an extremely underdetermined task, so additional prior information can assist in setting appropriate constraints on the solution set. The approach proposed uses prior information such that: (1) it can potentially be applied successfully to a large variety of musical mixtures, and (2) it requires minimal user intervention and no prior learning/training procedures (i.e., it is an unsupervised process). This system can be useful for applications such as remixing, creative effects, restoration and for archiving musical material for internet delivery, amongst others. Here, ...

Siamantas, Georgios — University of York


Emotion assessment for affective computing based on brain and peripheral signals

Current Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) lack of “emotional intelligence”, i.e. they are not able to identify human emotional states and take this information into account to decide on the proper actions to execute. The goal of affective computing is to fill this lack by detecting emotional cues occurring during Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and synthesizing emotional responses. In the last decades, most of the studies on emotion assessment have focused on the analysis of facial expressions and speech to determine the emotional state of a person. Physiological activity also includes emotional information that can be used for emotion assessment but has received less attention despite of its advantages (for instance it can be less easily faked than facial expressions). This thesis reports on the use of two types of physiological activities to assess emotions in the context of affective computing: the activity ...

Chanel, Guillaume — University of Geneva


Digital Processing Based Solutions for Life Science Engineering Recognition Problems

The field of Life Science Engineering (LSE) is rapidly expanding and predicted to grow strongly in the next decades. It covers areas of food and medical research, plant and pests’ research, and environmental research. In each research area, engineers try to find equations that model a certain life science problem. Once found, they research different numerical techniques to solve for the unknown variables of these equations. Afterwards, solution improvement is examined by adopting more accurate conventional techniques, or developing novel algorithms. In particular, signal and image processing techniques are widely used to solve those LSE problems require pattern recognition. However, due to the continuous evolution of the life science problems and their natures, these solution techniques can not cover all aspects, and therefore demanding further enhancement and improvement. The thesis presents numerical algorithms of digital signal and image processing to ...

Hussein, Walid — Technische Universität München


Video Processing for Remote Respiration Monitoring

Monitoring of vital signs is a key tool in medical diagnostics to asses the onset and the evolution of several diseases. Among fundamental vital parameters, such as the hearth rate, blood pressure and body temperature, the Respiratory Rate (RR) plays an important role. For this reason, respiration needs to be carefully monitored in order to detect potential signs or events indicating possible changes of health conditions. Monitoring of the respiration is generally carried out in hospital and clinical environments by the use of expensive devices with several sensors connected to the patient's body. A new research trend, in order to reduce healthcare service costs and make monitoring of vital signs more comfortable, is the development of low-cost systems which may allow remote and contactless monitoring; in such a context, an appealing method is to rely on video processing-based solutions. In ...

Alinovi, Davide — University of Parma


Sensor Fusion for Automotive Applications

Mapping stationary objects and tracking moving targets are essential for many autonomous functions in vehicles. In order to compute the map and track estimates, sensor measurements from radar, laser and camera are used together with the standard proprioceptive sensors present in a car. By fusing information from different types of sensors, the accuracy and robustness of the estimates can be increased. Different types of maps are discussed and compared in the thesis. In particular, road maps make use of the fact that roads are highly structured, which allows relatively simple and powerful models to be employed. It is shown how the information of the lane markings, obtained by a front looking camera, can be fused with inertial measurement of the vehicle motion and radar measurements of vehicles ahead to compute a more accurate and robust road geometry estimate. Further, it ...

Lundquist, Christian — Linköping University


Advanced Multi-Dimensional Signal Processing for Wireless Systems

The thriving development of wireless communications calls for innovative and advanced signal processing techniques targeting at an enhanced performance in terms of reliability, throughput, robustness, efficiency, flexibility, etc.. This thesis addresses such a compelling demand and presents new and intriguing progress towards fulfilling it. We mainly concentrate on two advanced multi-dimensional signal processing challenges for wireless systems that have attracted tremendous research attention in recent years, multi-carrier Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems and multi-dimensional harmonic retrieval. As the key technologies of wireless communications, the numerous benefits of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation, e.g., boosting the data rate and improving the link reliability, have long been identified and have ignited great research interest. In particular, the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based multi-user MIMO downlink with Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) combines the twofold advantages of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation. It is the essential element ...

Cheng, Yao — Ilmenau University of Technology

The current layout is optimized for mobile phones. Page previews, thumbnails, and full abstracts will remain hidden until the browser window grows in width.

The current layout is optimized for tablet devices. Page previews and some thumbnails will remain hidden until the browser window grows in width.