Spatial Consistency of 3D Channel Models

Developing realistic channel models is one of the greatest challenges for describing wireless communications. Their quality is crucial for accurately predicting the performance of a wireless system. While on the one hand, channel models have to be accurate in describing the physical properties of wave propagation, on the other hand, they have to be as least complex as possible. With the recent emergence of antennas with a massive amount of elements as a promising technology for a further enhancement of spectral efficiency, new channel models that characterize the propagation environment in both azimuth and elevation become necessary. While standardization bodies such as 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and International Telecommunications Unit (ITU) have introduced a 3-dimensional (3D) geometry-based stochastic channel model, a system-level modeling has been missing to serve the purpose of further analysis and evaluations. Furthermore, with such a ...

Fjolla Ademaj — TU Wien


On the Occurrence of Two-Wave with Diffuse Power Fading in MillimeterWave Communications

Mobile communications has become so successful today that conventional radio technologies, in traditional frequency bands below 6 GHz, are soon reaching their limits. To be able to develop massively deployed, ubiquitous, data-hungry, mobile applications, this study explores the use of higher frequency bands, or so-called millimeter waves in mobile communications. These radio bands above 30 GHz are mostly unoccupied and have dozens of gigahertz of bandwidth available. Moreover, advances in electronics have now made it possible to utilize these bands cost effectively. This thesis studied the millimeter wave wireless channel through conducting the following experiments: (1) two indoor millimeter wave measurement campaigns with directive horn antennas on both link ends, (2) an outdoor vehicular millimeter wave measurement campaign employing a horn antenna and an omni directional antenna, and (3) a railway communications ray-tracing study with directive antennas on both sides. ...

Erich Zoechmann — TU Wien


OFDM Air-Interface Design for Multimedia Communications

The aim of this dissertation is the investigation of the key issues encountered in the development of wideband radio air-interfaces. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as the enabling technology for transmitting data at extremely high rates over time-dispersive radio channels. OFDM is a transmission scheme, which splits up the data stream, sending the data symbols simultaneously at a drastically reduced symbol rate over a set of parallel sub-carriers. The first part of this thesis deals with the modeling of the time-dispersive and frequency-selective radio channel, utilizing second order Gaussian stochastic processes. A novel channel measurement technique is developed, in which the RMS delay spread of the channel is estimated from the level-crossing rate of the frequency-selective channel transfer function. This method enables the empirical channel characterization utilizing simplified non-coherent measurements of the received power versus frequency. Air-interface and multiple ...

Witrisal, Klaus — Delft University of Technology


Low-Complexity Localization using Standard-Compliant UWB Signals

This thesis puts a focus on the analysis of key aspects of low-complexity Ultra Wideband (UWB) localizations systems. It is well known that UWB allows for highly robust and accurate ranging even in multipath intensive environments. On the other hand, the huge bandwidth leads to very challenging receiver designs and so low complexity and low power consumption are not achieveable for common receiver structures. The energy detector is a promising alternative. But in contrast to high-complexity coherent receivers, their performance is strongly dependent on the system parameters of the air interface protocol. IEEE 802.15.4a is a UWB standard with high-precision localization capability (better than 1m). The standard defines many system parameters, whose impact on the ranging and localization performance is studied in the thesis. These parameters have also a significant impact on the maximum allowed transmit energy, which limits the ...

Gigl, Thomas — Graz University of Technology


Transmission Strategies for Interfering Networks with Finite Rate and Outdated Channel Feedback

The emergence of very capable mobile terminals, e.g. smartphones or tablets, has dramatically increased the demand of wireless data traffic in recent years. Current growth forecasts elucidate that wireless communication standards will not be able to afford future traffic demands, thus many research efforts have been oriented towards increasing the efficiency of wireless networks. Wireless communications introduce many issues not present in wired systems, e.g. multipath effects or interference. Some of these issues may be tackled by the use of multiple antennas, i.e. MIMO technologies. This solution allows increasing not only the reliability and robustness of the communications, i.e. the diversity gain, but also its efficiency, i.e. the multiplexing gain or degrees of freedom (DoF). The DoF describe the slope of channel capacity at very high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. For a point-to-point (P2P) communication, assuming that the wireless channel response ...

Torrellas, Marc — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya


GNSS Signal Processing and Spatial Diversity Exploitation

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals are broadly used for positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) in many different applications and use cases. Although different PNT technologies are available, GNSS is expected to be a key player in the derivation of positioning and timing for many future applications, including those in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) or autonomous vehicles, since it has the important advantage of being open access and worldwide available. Indeed, GNSS is performing very well in mild propagation conditions, achieving position and time synchronization accuracies down to the cm and ns levels, respectively. Nevertheless, the exploitation of GNSS in harsh propagation conditions typical of urban and indoor scenarios is very challenging, resulting in position errors of up to tens or even hundreds of meters, and timing accuracies of hundreds of ns. This thesis deals with ...

Garcia Molina, Jose Antonio — UPC


Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-based Positioning Applications

Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in any Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or the developing European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can create significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used in the time delay estimate of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) of a navigation receiver, leading to an error in the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on a navigation receiver, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. Many of these techniques rely on modifying the tracking loop discriminator (i.e., the DLL and its enhanced variants) in order to make it resistant to multipath, but their performance in severe ...

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul Hasan — Tampere University of Technology


Efficient Communication over Wireless Channels: New Results in Equalization, Diversity and Interference Alignment

When data is transmitted over the wireless communication channel, the transmit signal experiences distortion depending on the channel¢s fading characteristics. On the one hand, this calls for efficient processing at the receiver to mitigate the detrimental effects of the channel and maximize data throughput. On the other hand, the diversity inherently present in these channels can be leveraged with appropriate transmit processing in order to increase the reliability of the transmission link. Recently, in [1] it was shown that the channel characteristics can be exploited to maximize the total data throughput in the interference channel where multiple user pairs rely on the same resource to communicate among themselves. In this PhD dissertation, we first propose novel equalizer designs for frequency selective channels. We then present new results on the diversity gain of equalizers in fading channels when appropriate precoding is ...

Shenoy, Shakti Prasad — EURECOM/Mobile Communications


System Level Modeling and Evaluation of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

The cumulative impact of co-channel interferers, commonly referred to as aggregate network interference, is one of the main performance limiting factors in today’s mobile cellular networks. Thus, its careful statistical description is decisive for system analysis and design. A system model for interference analysis is required to capture essential network variation effects, such as base station deployment- and signal propagation characteristics. Furthermore it should be simple and tractable so as to enable first-order insights on design fundamentals and rapid exchange of new ideas. Interference modeling has posed a challenge ever since the establishment of traditional macro cellular deployments. The recent emergence of heterogeneous network topologies complicates matters by contesting many established aspects of time-honored approaches. This thesis presents user-centric system models that enable to investigate scenarios with an asymmetric interference impact. The first approach simplifies the interference analysis in a ...

Taranetz, Martin — Technische Universität Wien


Multipath delay estimators for fading channels with applications in CDMA receivers and mobile positioning

CDMA is the multiple access technique selected for the 3G mobile communications systems and it has a significant role in the research beyond 3G systems. CDMA systems over wireless channels have to cope with fading multipath propagation, which makes the channel estimation an important issue in CDMA receivers. Despite a significant amount of scientific literature on CDMA receivers, there are still open problems regarding the multipath delay and coefficient estimation in hostile environments and the design of low-complexity DSP-based channel estimators for CDMA applications. Good multipath delay estimation techniques can also find their applicability in mobile phone positioning, which is an area with many challenging questions. Additionally, theoretical measures of performance in CDMA detection in the presence of fading multipath channels have mainly been derived for ideal channel estimators. However, developing such analytical models in the presence of channel estimation ...

Lohan, Elena Simona — Tampere University of Technology


ULTRA WIDEBAND LOCATION IN SCENARIOS WITHOUT CLEAR LINE OF SIGHT: A PRACTICAL APPROACH

Indoor location has experienced a major boost in recent years. location based services (LBS), which until recently were restricted to outdoor scenarios and the use of GPS, have also been extended into buildings. From large public structures such as airports or hospitals to a multitude of industrial scenarios, LBS has become increasingly present in indoor scenarios. Of the various technologies that can be used to achieve this indoor location, the ones based on ultra- wideband (UWB) signals have become ones of the most demanded due primarily to their accuracy in position estimation. Additionally, the appearance in the market of more and more manufacturers and products has lowered the prices of these devices to levels that allow to think about their use for large deployments with a contained budget. By their nature, UWB signals are very resistant to the multi-path phenomenon, ...

Barral, Valentín — Universidade da Coruña


Reduced-Complexity Code Synchronization in Multipath Channels for BOC Modulated CDMA Signals with Applications in Galileo and Modernized GPS Systems

Applications for the new generations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are developing rapidly and attract a great interest. Both US Global Positioning System (GPS) and European Galileo signals use Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) technology, where code and frequency synchronization are important stages at the receiver. The GNSS receivers estimate jointly the code phase and the Doppler spread through a two-dimensional searching process in time-frequency plane. Since both GPS and Galileo systems will send several signals on the same carriers, a new modulation type - the Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation, has been selected. The main target of this modulation is to provide a better spectral separation with the existing BPSK-modulated GPS signals, while allowing optimal usage of the available bandwidth for different GNSS signals. The BOC modulation family includes several BOC variants, such as sine BOC (SinBOC), ...

Burian, Adina — Universitat Trier


A Statistical Theory for GNSS Signal Acquisition

Acquisition is the first stage of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver and has the goal to determine which signals are in view and provide rough estimates of the signal parameters. The main objective of the thesis was to provide a complete and cohesive analysis of the acquisition process clarifying different aspects often neglected in the literature. The thesis provides the statistical tools required for the characterization of the acquisition process. In particular, the signal presence is determined by searching several candidates for the signal code delay and Doppler frequency which define a cell of the acquisition search space. Thus, the acquisition process is characterized by the strategy adopted for searching for the signal parameters and the way a decision metric is compute for each cell of the search space. Given this observation, the thesis introduces the concepts of ...

Daniele, Borio — Politecnico di Torino


Analog Joint Source Channel Coding for Wireless Communications

In 1948, the Shannon’s work titled ”A mathematical theory of communication” completely revolutionized the way to understand the problem of the reliable communications. He showed that any communications system is able to transmit with an arbitrarily low error probability as long as the transmission rate is kept below a certain limit. The separation between the source and channel coding was also shown as the optimal strategy to achieve the theoretical limits. Those ideas inspire the development of a whole digital communication theory focused on building more and more sophisticated coding schemes. It leads to most of communication systems were designed according to a digital approach and the separation principle from that moment, whereas other alternatives were set aside. However, in the last years, communication systems based on a jointly optimization of the source and channel encoder has aroused the interest ...

Fresnedo Arias, Óscar — University of A Coruña


Large Multiuser MIMO Detection: Algorithms and Architectures

After decades of research on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, including paradigm shifts from point-to-point to multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO), an ample literature exists on techniques to exploit the spatial dimension to increase link throughput and network capacity of wireless communication systems. Massive MIMO, which supports hundreds of antennas at the base station (BS), is celebrated as the key enabling technology of the upcoming fifth generation (5G) wireless communication standard. However, the use of large MIMO systems in the future is also indispensable, especially for high-speed wireless backhaul connectivity. Large MIMO systems use tens of antennas in communication terminals, and can afford a large number of antennas on both the transmitter and the receiver sides. While favorable propagation in massive MIMO ensures that reliable performance can be achieved by simple linear processing, the inherent symmetry in large MIMO renders the computational complexity ...

Sarieddeen, Hadi — American University of Beirut (AUB)

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