Adaptive Edge-Enhanced Correlation Based Robust and Real-Time Visual Tracking Framework and Its Deployment in Machine Vision Systems

An adaptive edge-enhanced correlation based robust and real-time visual tracking framework, and two machine vision systems based on the framework are proposed. The visual tracking algorithm can track any object of interest in a video acquired from a stationary or moving camera. It can handle the real-world problems, such as noise, clutter, occlusion, uneven illumination, varying appearance, orientation, scale, and velocity of the maneuvering object, and object fading and obscuration in low contrast video at various zoom levels. The proposed machine vision systems are an active camera tracking system and a vision based system for a UGV (unmanned ground vehicle) to handle a road intersection. The core of the proposed visual tracking framework is an Edge Enhanced Back-propagation neural-network Controlled Fast Normalized Correlation (EE-BCFNC), which makes the object localization stage efficient and robust to noise, object fading, obscuration, and uneven ...

Ahmed, Javed — Electrical (Telecom.) Engineering Department, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.


Deep learning for semantic description of visual human traits

The recent progress in artificial neural networks (rebranded as “deep learning”) has significantly boosted the state-of-the-art in numerous domains of computer vision offering an opportunity to approach the problems which were hardly solvable with conventional machine learning. Thus, in the frame of this PhD study, we explore how deep learning techniques can help in the analysis of one the most basic and essential semantic traits revealed by a human face, namely, gender and age. In particular, two complementary problem settings are considered: (1) gender/age prediction from given face images, and (2) synthesis and editing of human faces with the required gender/age attributes. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has currently become a standard model for image-based object recognition in general, and therefore, is a natural choice for addressing the first of these two problems. However, our preliminary studies have shown that the ...

Antipov, Grigory — Télécom ParisTech (Eurecom)


Deep Learning for Distant Speech Recognition

Deep learning is an emerging technology that is considered one of the most promising directions for reaching higher levels of artificial intelligence. Among the other achievements, building computers that understand speech represents a crucial leap towards intelligent machines. Despite the great efforts of the past decades, however, a natural and robust human-machine speech interaction still appears to be out of reach, especially when users interact with a distant microphone in noisy and reverberant environments. The latter disturbances severely hamper the intelligibility of a speech signal, making Distant Speech Recognition (DSR) one of the major open challenges in the field. This thesis addresses the latter scenario and proposes some novel techniques, architectures, and algorithms to improve the robustness of distant-talking acoustic models. We first elaborate on methodologies for realistic data contamination, with a particular emphasis on DNN training with simulated data. ...

Ravanelli, Mirco — Fondazione Bruno Kessler


Deep Learning for Event Detection, Sequence Labelling and Similarity Estimation in Music Signals

When listening to music, some humans can easily recognize which instruments play at what time or when a new musical segment starts, but cannot describe exactly how they do this. To automatically describe particular aspects of a music piece – be it for an academic interest in emulating human perception, or for practical applications –, we can thus not directly replicate the steps taken by a human. We can, however, exploit that humans can easily annotate examples, and optimize a generic function to reproduce these annotations. In this thesis, I explore solving different music perception tasks with deep learning, a recent branch of machine learning that optimizes functions of many stacked nonlinear operations – referred to as deep neural networks – and promises to obtain better results or require less domain knowledge than more traditional techniques. In particular, I employ ...

Schlüter, Jan — Department of Computational Perception, Johannes Kepler University Linz


An Attention Model and its Application in Man-Made Scene Interpretation

The ultimate aim of research into computer vision is designing a system which interprets its surrounding environment in a similar way the human can do effortlessly. However, the state of technology is far from achieving such a goal. In this thesis different components of a computer vision system that are designed for the task of interpreting man-made scenes, in particular images of buildings, are described. The flow of information in the proposed system is bottom-up i.e., the image is first segmented into its meaningful components and subsequently the regions are labelled using a contextual classifier. Starting from simple observations concerning the human vision system and the gestalt laws of human perception, like the law of 'good (simple) shape' and 'perceptual grouping', a blob detector is developed, that identifies components in a 2D image. These components are convex regions of interest, ...

Jahangiri, Mohammad — Imperial College London


Biological Image Analysis

In biological research images are extensively used to monitor growth, dynamics and changes in biological specimen, such as cells or plants. Many of these images are used solely for observation or are manually annotated by an expert. In this dissertation we discuss several methods to automate the annotating and analysis of bio-images. Two large clusters of methods have been investigated and developed. A first set of methods focuses on the automatic delineation of relevant objects in bio-images, such as individual cells in microscopic images. Since these methods should be useful for many different applications, e.g. to detect and delineate different objects (cells, plants, leafs, ...) in different types of images (different types of microscopes, regular colour photographs, ...), the methods should be easy to adjust. Therefore we developed a methodology relying on probability theory, where all required parameters can easily ...

De Vylder, Jonas — Ghent University


Motion Estimation and Compensation of Video Sequences using Affine Transforms

Motion estimation and compensation is of great importance for the compression of video sequences. In this dissertation a motion estimation/compensation approach based on a non-overlapping connected mesh of triangles is proposed. To manipulate the triangles within the connected mesh or ‘rubber sheet’ structure affin transforms are used which allow many different types of motion to be accurately modelled. Another advantage of this structure is that the non-overlapping triangles do not generate the typical artefacts associated with the current block based standards when operating at very low bitrates. The initial motion estimation/ compensation algorithms investigated implement a full search method which updates one vertex at a time matching sets of triangles between adjacent frames. Although the prediction performance is good the resulting computational load is high. This issue is addressed by deriving gradient-based algorithms which are found to be between one ...

Bradshaw, David Benedict — University of Cambridge


Biomechanics based analysis of sleep

The fact that a third of a human life is spent in a bed indicates the essential character of sleep. While some people might opt voluntarily for sleep deprivation, others don’t get to choose. Their healthy pattern of sleep is disrupted due to sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, insomnia and restless legs syndrome. Most clinical diagnoses revolve around complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness. People usually wait quite long however before contacting professional help, and might only do so when complaints have gone from minor to serious. It can be argued that people with minor complaints will have negligible compliance to rather obtrusive therapies, and should not be treated with pharmaceuticals. However, cognitive and behavioral therapy has proven its effectiveness for clinically diagnosed patients in different domains, and might thus also enhance the quality of life for people with minor ...

Willemen, Tim — KU Leuven


Unsupervised and semi-supervised Non-negative Matrix Factorization methods for brain tumor segmentation using multi-parametric MRI data

Gliomas represent about 80% of all malignant primary brain tumors. Despite recent advancements in glioma research, patient outcome remains poor. The 5 year survival rate of the most common and most malignant subtype, i.e. glioblastoma, is about 5%. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the imaging modality of choice in the management of brain tumor patients. Conventional MRI (cMRI) provides excellent soft tissue contrast without exposing the patient to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, advanced MRI modalities, such as perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) have gained interest in the clinical field, and their added value regarding brain tumor diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up has been recognized. Tumor segmentation involves the imaging-based delineation of a tumor and its subcompartments. In gliomas, segmentation plays an important role in treatment planning as well ...

Sauwen, Nicolas — KU Leuven


Camera based motion estimation and recognition for human-computer interaction

Communicating with mobile devices has become an unavoidable part of our daily life. Unfortunately, the current user interface designs are mostly taken directly from desktop computers. This has resulted in devices that are sometimes hard to use. Since more processing power and new sensing technologies are already available, there is a possibility to develop systems to communicate through different modalities. This thesis proposes some novel computer vision approaches, including head tracking, object motion analysis and device ego-motion estimation, to allow efficient interaction with mobile devices. For head tracking, two new methods have been developed. The first method detects a face region and facial features by employing skin detection, morphology, and a geometrical face model. The second method, designed especially for mobile use, detects the face and eyes using local texture features. In both cases, Kalman filtering is applied to estimate ...

Hannuksela, Jari — University of Oulou


Automatic Analysis of Head and Facial Gestures in Video Streams

Automatic analysis of head gestures and facial expressions is a challenging research area and it has significant applications for intelligent human-computer interfaces. An important task is the automatic classification of non-verbal messages composed of facial signals where both facial expressions and head rotations are observed. This is a challenging task, because there is no definite grammar or code-book for mapping the non-verbal facial signals into a corresponding mental state. Furthermore, non-verbal facial signals and the observed emotions have dependency on personality, society, state of the mood and also the context in which they are displayed or observed. This thesis mainly addresses the three desired tasks for an effective visual information based automatic face and head gesture (FHG) analyzer. First we develop a fully automatic, robust and accurate 17-point facial landmark localizer based on local appearance information and structural information of ...

Cinar Akakin, Hatice — Bogazici University


Audio-visual processing and content management techniques, for the study of (human) bioacoustics phenomena

The present doctoral thesis aims towards the development of new long-term, multi-channel, audio-visual processing techniques for the analysis of bioacoustics phenomena. The effort is focused on the study of the physiology of the gastrointestinal system, aiming at the support of medical research for the discovery of gastrointestinal motility patterns and the diagnosis of functional disorders. The term "processing" in this case is quite broad, incorporating the procedures of signal processing, content description, manipulation and analysis, that are applied to all the recorded bioacoustics signals, the auxiliary audio-visual surveillance information (for the monitoring of experiments and the subjects' status), and the extracted audio-video sequences describing the abdominal sound-field alterations. The thesis outline is as follows. The main objective of the thesis, which is the technological support of medical research, is presented in the first chapter. A quick problem definition is initially ...

Dimoulas, Charalampos — Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece


Audio Visual Speech Enhancement

This thesis presents a novel approach to speech enhancement by exploiting the bimodality of speech production and the correlation that exists between audio and visual speech information. An analysis into the correlation of a range of audio and visual features reveals significant correlation to exist between visual speech features and audio filterbank features. The amount of correlation was also found to be greater when the correlation is analysed with individual phonemes rather than across all phonemes. This led to building a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) that is capable of estimating filterbank features from visual features. Phoneme-specific GMMs gave lower filterbank estimation errors and a phoneme transcription is decoded using audio-visual Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Clean filterbank estimates along with mean noise estimates were then utilised to construct visually-derived Wiener filters that are able to enhance noisy speech. The mean noise ...

Almajai, Ibrahim — University of East Anglia


Real Time Stereo to Multi-view Video Conversion

A novel and efficient methodology is presented for the conversion of stereo to multi-view video in order to address the 3D content requirements for the next generation 3D-TVs and auto-stereoscopic multi-view displays. There are two main algorithmic blocks in such a conversion system; stereo matching and virtual view rendering that enable extraction of 3D information from stereo video and synthesis of inexistent virtual views, respectively. In the intermediate steps of these functional blocks, a novel edge-preserving filter is proposed that recursively constructs connected support regions for each pixel among color-wise similar neighboring pixels. The proposed recursive update structure eliminates pre-defined window dependency of the conventional approaches, providing complete content adaptibility with quite low computational complexity. Based on extensive tests, it is observed that the proposed filtering technique yields better or competetive results against some leading techniques in the literature. The ...

Cigla, Cevahir — Middle East Technical University


Collective analysis of multiple high-throughput gene expression datasets

Modern technologies have resulted in the production of numerous high-throughput biological datasets. However, the pace of development of capable computational methods does not cope with the pace of generation of new high-throughput datasets. Amongst the most popular biological high-throughput datasets are gene expression datasets (e.g. microarray datasets). This work targets this aspect by proposing a suite of computational methods which can analyse multiple gene expression datasets collectively. The focal method in this suite is the unification of clustering results from multiple datasets using external specifications (UNCLES). This method applies clustering to multiple heterogeneous datasets which measure the expression of the same set of genes separately and then combines the resulting partitions in accordance to one of two types of external specifications; type A identifies the subsets of genes that are consistently co-expressed in all of the given datasets while type ...

Abu-Jamous, Basel — Brunel University London

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