Melody Extraction from Polyphonic Music Signals

Music was the first mass-market industry to be completely restructured by digital technology, and today we can have access to thousands of tracks stored locally on our smartphone and millions of tracks through cloud-based music services. Given the vast quantity of music at our fingertips, we now require novel ways of describing, indexing, searching and interacting with musical content. In this thesis we focus on a technology that opens the door to a wide range of such applications: automatically estimating the pitch sequence of the melody directly from the audio signal of a polyphonic music recording, also referred to as melody extraction. Whilst identifying the pitch of the melody is something human listeners can do quite well, doing this automatically is highly challenging. We present a novel method for melody extraction based on the tracking and characterisation of the pitch ...

Salamon, Justin — Universitat Pompeu Fabra


Integrating monaural and binaural cues for sound localization and segregation in reverberant environments

The problem of segregating a sound source of interest from an acoustic background has been extensively studied due to applications in hearing prostheses, robust speech/speaker recognition and audio information retrieval. Computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) approaches the segregation problem by utilizing grouping cues involved in the perceptual organization of sound by human listeners. Binaural processing, where input signals resemble those that enter the two ears, is of particular interest in the CASA field. The dominant approach to binaural segregation has been to derive spatially selective filters in order to enhance the signal in a direction of interest. As such, the problems of sound localization and sound segregation are closely tied. While spatial filtering has been widely utilized, substantial performance degradation is incurred in reverberant environments and more fundamentally, segregation cannot be performed without sufficient spatial separation between sources. This dissertation ...

Woodruff, John — The Ohio State University


Sound Source Separation in Monaural Music Signals

Sound source separation refers to the task of estimating the signals produced by individual sound sources from a complex acoustic mixture. It has several applications, since monophonic signals can be processed more efficiently and flexibly than polyphonic mixtures. This thesis deals with the separation of monaural, or, one-channel music recordings. We concentrate on separation methods, where the sources to be separated are not known beforehand. Instead, the separation is enabled by utilizing the common properties of real-world sound sources, which are their continuity, sparseness, and repetition in time and frequency, and their harmonic spectral structures. One of the separation approaches taken here use unsupervised learning and the other uses model-based inference based on sinusoidal modeling. Most of the existing unsupervised separation algorithms are based on a linear instantaneous signal model, where each frame of the input mixture signal is modeled ...

Virtanen, Tuomas — Tampere University of Technology


An iterative, residual-based approach to unsupervised musical source separation in single-channel mixtures

This thesis concentrates on a major problem within audio signal processing, the separation of source signals from musical mixtures when only a single mixture channel is available. Source separation is the process by which signals that correspond to distinct sources are identified in a signal mixture and extracted from it. Producing multiple entities from a single one is an extremely underdetermined task, so additional prior information can assist in setting appropriate constraints on the solution set. The approach proposed uses prior information such that: (1) it can potentially be applied successfully to a large variety of musical mixtures, and (2) it requires minimal user intervention and no prior learning/training procedures (i.e., it is an unsupervised process). This system can be useful for applications such as remixing, creative effects, restoration and for archiving musical material for internet delivery, amongst others. Here, ...

Siamantas, Georgios — University of York


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


Pitch-informed solo and accompaniment separation

This thesis addresses the development of a system for pitch-informed solo and accompaniment separation capable of separating main instruments from music accompaniment regardless of the musical genre of the track, or type of music accompaniment. For the solo instrument, only pitched monophonic instruments were considered in a single-channel scenario where no panning or spatial location information is available. In the proposed method, pitch information is used as an initial stage of a sinusoidal modeling approach that attempts to estimate the spectral information of the solo instrument from a given audio mixture. Instead of estimating the solo instrument on a frame by frame basis, the proposed method gathers information of tone objects to perform separation. Tone-based processing allowed the inclusion of novel processing stages for attack re nement, transient interference reduction, common amplitude modulation (CAM) of tone objects, and for better ...

Cano Cerón, Estefanía — Ilmenau University of Technology


Implementation of the radiation characteristics of musical instruments in wave field synthesis applications

In this thesis a method to implement the radiation characteristics of musical instruments in wave field synthesis systems is developed. It is applied and tested in two loudspeaker systems. Because the loudspeaker systems have a comparably low number of loudspeakers the wave field is synthesized at discrete listening positions by solving a linear equation system. Thus, for every constellation of listening and source position all loudspeakers can be used for the synthesis. The calculations are done in spectral domain, denying sound propagation velocity at first. This approach causes artefacts in the loudspeaker signals and synthesis errors in the listening area which are compensated by means of psychoacoustic methods. With these methods the aliasing frequency is determined by the extent of the listening area whereas in other wave field synthesis systems it is determined by the distance of adjacent loudspeakers. Musical ...

Ziemer, Tim — University of Hamburg


Signal Separation of Musical Instruments

This thesis presents techniques for the modelling of musical signals, with particular regard to monophonic and polyphonic pitch estimation. Musical signals are modelled as a set of notes, each comprising of a set of harmonically-related sinusoids. An hierarchical model is presented that is very general and applicable to any signal that can be decomposed as the sum of basis functions. Parameter estimation is posed within a Bayesian framework, allowing for the incorporation of prior information about model parameters. The resulting posterior distribution is of variable dimension and so reversible jump MCMC simulation techniques are employed for the parameter estimation task. The extension of the model to time-varying signals with high posterior correlations between model parameters is described. The parameters and hyperparameters of several frames of data are estimated jointly to achieve a more robust detection. A general model for the ...

Walmsley, Paul Joseph — University of Cambridge


Automatic Transcription of Polyphonic Music Exploiting Temporal Evolution

Automatic music transcription is the process of converting an audio recording into a symbolic representation using musical notation. It has numerous applications in music information retrieval, computational musicology, and the creation of interactive systems. Even for expert musicians, transcribing polyphonic pieces of music is not a trivial task, and while the problem of automatic pitch estimation for monophonic signals is considered to be solved, the creation of an automated system able to transcribe polyphonic music without setting restrictions on the degree of polyphony and the instrument type still remains open. In this thesis, research on automatic transcription is performed by explicitly incorporating information on the temporal evolution of sounds. First efforts address the problem by focusing on signal processing techniques and by proposing audio features utilising temporal characteristics. Techniques for note onset and offset detection are also utilised for improving ...

Benetos, Emmanouil — Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary University of London


Application of Sound Source Separation Methods to Advanced Spatial Audio Systems

This thesis is related to the field of Sound Source Separation (SSS). It addresses the development and evaluation of these techniques for their application in the resynthesis of high-realism sound scenes by means of Wave Field Synthesis (WFS). Because the vast majority of audio recordings are preserved in two-channel stereo format, special up-converters are required to use advanced spatial audio reproduction formats, such as WFS. This is due to the fact that WFS needs the original source signals to be available, in order to accurately synthesize the acoustic field inside an extended listening area. Thus, an object-based mixing is required. Source separation problems in digital signal processing are those in which several signals have been mixed together and the objective is to find out what the original signals were. Therefore, SSS algorithms can be applied to existing two-channel mixtures to ...

Cobos, Maximo — Universidad Politecnica de Valencia


Perceptually-Based Signal Features for Environmental Sound Classification

This thesis faces the problem of automatically classifying environmental sounds, i.e., any non-speech or non-music sounds that can be found in the environment. Broadly speaking, two main processes are needed to perform such classification: the signal feature extraction so as to compose representative sound patterns and the machine learning technique that performs the classification of such patterns. The main focus of this research is put on the former, studying relevant signal features that optimally represent the sound characteristics since, according to several references, it is a key issue to attain a robust recognition. This type of audio signals holds many differences with speech or music signals, thus specific features should be determined and adapted to their own characteristics. In this sense, new signal features, inspired by the human auditory system and the human perception of sound, are proposed to improve ...

Valero, Xavier — La Salle-Universitat Ramon Llull


Audio Signal Processing for Binaural Reproduction with Improved Spatial Perception

Binaural technology aims to reproduce three-dimensional auditory scenes with a high level of realism by providing the auditory display with spatial hearing information. This technology has various applications in virtual acoustics, architectural acoustics, telecommunication and auditory science. One key element in binaural technology is the actual binaural signals, produced by filtering a sound-field with free-field head related transfer functions (HRTFs). With the increased popularity of spherical microphone arrays for sound-field recording, methods have been developed for rendering binaural signals from these recordings. The use of spherical arrays naturally leads to processing methods that are formulated in the spherical harmonics (SH) domain. For accurate SH representation, high-order functions, of both the sound-field and the HRTF, are required. However, a limited number of microphones, on one hand, and challenges in acquiring high resolution individual HRTFs, on the other hand, impose limitations on ...

Ben-Hur, Zamir — Ben-Gurion University of the Negev


Synthetic reproduction of head-related transfer functions by using microphone arrays

Spatial hearing for human listeners is based on the interaural as well as on the monaural analysis of the signals arriving at both ears, enabling the listeners to assign certain spatial components to these signals. This spatial aspect gets lost when the signals are reproduced via headphones without considering the acoustical influence of the head and torso, i.e. head-related transfer function (HRTFs). A common procedure to take into account spatial aspects in a binaural reproduction is to use so-called artificial heads. Artificial heads are replicas of a human head and torso with average anthropometric geometries and built-in microphones in the ears. Although, the signals recorded with artificial heads contain relevant spatial aspects, binaural recordings using artificial heads often suffer from front-back confusions and the perception of the sound source being inside the head (internalization). These shortcomings can be attributed to ...

Rasumow, Eugen — University of Oldenburg


When the deaf listen to music. Pitch perception with cochlear implants

Cochlear implants (CI) are surgically implanted hearing aids that provide auditory sensations to deaf people through direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Although relatively good speech understanding can be achieved by implanted subjects, pitch perception by CI subjects is about 50 times worse than observed for normal-hearing (NH) persons. Pitch is, however, important for intonation, music, speech understanding in tonal languages, and for separating multiple simultaneous sound sources. The major goal of this work is to improve pitch perception by CI subjects. In CI subjects two fundamental mechanisms are used for pitch perception: place pitch and temporal pitch. Our results show that place pitch is correlated to the sound¢s brightness because place pitch sensation is related to the centroid of the excitation pattern along the cochlea. The slopes of the excitation pattern determine place pitch sensitivity. Our results also ...

Laneau, Johan — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Identification of versions of the same musical composition by processing audio descriptions

Automatically making sense of digital information, and specially of music digital documents, is an important problem our modern society is facing. In fact, there are still many tasks that, although being easily performed by humans, cannot be effectively performed by a computer. In this work we focus on one of such tasks: the identification of musical piece versions (alternate renditions of the same musical composition like cover songs, live recordings, remixes, etc.). In particular, we adopt a computational approach solely based on the information provided by the audio signal. We propose a system for version identification that is robust to the main musical changes between versions, including timbre, tempo, key and structure changes. Such a system exploits nonlinear time series analysis tools and standard methods for quantitative music description, and it does not make use of a specific modeling strategy ...

Serra, Joan — Universitat Pompeu Fabra

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