Short-length Low-density Parity-check Codes: Construction and Decoding Algorithms

Error control coding is an essential part of modern communications systems. LDPC codes have been demonstrated to offer performance near the fundamental limits of channels corrupted by random noise. Optimal maximum likelihood decoding of LDPC codes is too complex to be practically useful even at short block lengths and so a graph-based message passing decoder known as the belief propagation algorithm is used instead. In fact, on graphs without closed paths known as cycles the iterative message passing decoding is known to be optimal and may converge in a single iteration, although identifying the message update schedule which allows single-iteration convergence is not trivial. At finite block lengths graphs without cycles have poor minimum distance properties and perform poorly even under optimal decoding. LDPC codes with large block length have been demonstrated to offer performance close to that predicted for ...

Healy, Cornelius Thomas — University of York


Robust and multiresolution video delivery : From H.26x to Matching pursuit based technologies

With the joint development of networking and digital coding technologies multimedia and more particularly video services are clearly becoming one of the major consumers of the new information networks. The rapid growth of the Internet and computer industry however results in a very heterogeneous infrastructure commonly overloaded. Video service providers have nevertheless to oer to their clients the best possible quality according to their respective capabilities and communication channel status. The Quality of Service is not only inuenced by the compression artifacts, but also by unavoidable packet losses. Hence, the packet video stream has clearly to fulll possibly contradictory requirements, that are coding eciency and robustness to data loss. The rst contribution of this thesis is the complete modeling of the video Quality of Service (QoS) in standard and more particularly MPEG-2 applications. The performance of Forward Error Control (FEC) ...

Frossard, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


OFDM Multi-User Communication Over Time-Variant Channels

Wireless broadband communications for users moving at vehicular speed is a cor- nerstone of future fourth generation (4G) mobile communication systems. We inves- tigate a multi-carrier (MC) code division multiple access (CDMA) system which is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). A spreading sequence is used in the frequency domain in order to distinguish individual users and to take advantage of the multipath diversity of the wireless channel. The transmission is block oriented. A block consists of OFDM pilot and OFDM data symbols. At pedestrian velocities the channel can be modelled as block fading. We ap- ply iterative multi-user detection and channel estimation. In iterative receivers soft symbols are derived from the output of an soft-input soft-output decoder. These soft symbols are used in order to reduce the interference from other users and to enhance the channel estimates. We ...

Zemen, T. — Vienna University of Technology


MIMO Designs for filter bank multicarrier and multiantenna systems based on OQAM

From the perspective of increasingly data rate requirements in mobile communications, it is deemed necessary to do further research so that the future goals can be reached. To that end, the radio-based communications are resorting to multicarrier modulations and spatial diversity. Until today, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is regarded as the dominant technology. On one hand, the OFDM modulation is able to accommodate multiantenna configurations in a very straightforward manner. On the other hand, the poor stopband attenuation exhibited by the OFDM modulation, highlights that a definitely tight synchronization is required. In addition, the cyclic prefix (CP) has to be sufficiently long to avoid inter-block interference, which may substantially reduce the spectral efficiency. In order to overcome the OFDM drawbacks, the filter bank multicarrier modulation based on OQAM (FBMC/OQAM) is introduced. This modulation does not need any ...

López, Màrius Caus — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)


Filter Bank Techniques for the Physical Layer in Wireless Communications

Filter bank based multicarrier is an evolution with many advantages over the widespread OFDM multicarrier scheme. The author of the thesis stands behind this statement and proposes various solutions for practical physical layer problems based on filter bank processing of wireless communications signals. Filter banks are an evolved form of subband processing, harnessing the key advantages of original efficient subband processing based on the fast Fourier transforms and addressing some of its shortcomings, at the price of a somewhat increased implementation complexity. The main asset of the filter banks is the possibility to design very frequency selective subband filters to compartmentalize the overall spectrum into well isolated subbands, while still making very efficient use of the assigned bandwidth. This thesis first exploits this main feature of the filter banks in the subband system configuration, in which the analysis filter bank ...

Hidalgo Stitz, Tobias — Tampere University of Technology


Contributions to Improved Hard- and Soft-Decision Decoding in Speech and Audio Codecs

Source coding is an essential part in digital communications. In error-prone transmission conditions, even with the help of channel coding, which normally introduces delay, bit errors may still occur. Single bit errors can result in significant distortions. Therefore, a robust source decoder is desired for adverse transmission conditions. Compared to the traditional hard-decision (HD) decoding and error concealment, soft-decision (SD) decoding offers a higher robustness by exploiting the source residual redundancy and utilizing the bit-wise channel reliability information. Moreover, the quantization codebook index can be either mapped to a fixed number of bits using fixed-length (FL) codes, or a variable number of bits employing variable-length (VL) codes. The codebook entry can be either fixed over time or time-variant. However, using a fixed scalar quantization codebook leads to the same performance for correlated and uncorrelated processes. This thesis aims to improve ...

Han, Sai — Technische Universität Braunschweig


Iterative Multi-User Receivers for CDMA Systems

Mobile communication networks of the third and future generations are designed to offer high-data rate services like video-telephony and data-transfer. The current Rake receiver architecture will create a shortage in available bandwidth offered to the users. This is not due to a shortage in spectrum but results from inefficient receiver architectures. Spectral efficiency can be increased considerably through multi-user detection techniques in the receiver algorithms. The present thesis investigates iterative re- ceivers for encoded CDMA transmission in the uplink. The iterative receiver is a suboptimal receiver algorithm with manageable complexity. It consists of an inter- ference mitigating multi-user detector, a bank of single-user decoders, and a channel estimator. Instead of deciding on the transmitted symbols right after the first decod- ing, the receiver feeds back tentative decision symbols to mitigate multiple-access interference in the next iteration. Similarly, soft decision symbols ...

Wehinger, J. — Vienna University of Technology


Parallelized Architectures for Low Latency Turbo Structures

In this thesis, we present low latency general concatenated code structures suitable for parallel processing. We propose parallel decodable serially con- catenated codes (PDSCCs) which is a general structure to construct many variants of serially concatenated codes. Using this most general structure we derive parallel decodable serially concatenated convolutional codes (PDSC- CCs). Convolutional product codes which are instances of PDSCCCs are studied in detail. PDSCCCs have much less decoding latency and show al- most the same performance compared to classical serially concatenated con- volutional codes. Using the same idea, we propose parallel decodable turbo codes (PDTCs) which represent a general structure to construct parallel con- catenated codes. PDTCs have much less latency compared to classical turbo codes and they both achieve similar performance. We extend the approach proposed for the construction of parallel decod- able concatenated codes to trellis coded ...

Gazi, Orhan — Middle East Technical University


Exploiting Correlation Noise Modeling in Wyner-Ziv Video Coding

Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding is a particular case of distributed video coding, a new video coding paradigm based on the Slepian-Wolf and Wyner-Ziv theorems which mainly exploit the source correlation at the decoder and not only at the encoder as in predictive video coding. Therefore, this new coding paradigm may provide a flexible allocation of complexity between the encoder and the decoder and in-built channel error robustness, interesting features for emerging applications such as low-power video surveillance and visual sensor networks among others. Although some progress has been made in the last eight years, the rate-distortion performance of WZ video coding is still far from the maximum performance attained with predictive video coding. The WZ video coding compression efficiency depends critically on the capability to model the correlation noise between the original information at the encoder and its estimation generated ...

Brites, Catarina — Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST)


Adaptive Signal Processing for Power Line Communications

This thesis represents a significant part of the research activity conducted during the PhD program in Information Technologies, supported by Selta S.p.A, Cadeo, Italy, focused on the analysis and design of a Power Line Communications (PLC) system. In recent times the PLC technologies have been considered for integration in Smart Grids architectures, as they are used to exploit the existing power line infrastructure for information transmission purposes on low, medium and high voltage lines. The characterization of a reliable PLC system is a current object of research as well as it is the design of modems for communications over the power lines. In this thesis, the focus is on the analysis of a full-duplex PLC modem for communication over high-voltage lines, and, in particular, on the design of the echo canceller device and innovative channel coding schemes. The first part ...

Tripodi, Carlo — Università degli Studi di Parma


Multi-user Receiver Structures for Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access

This thesis reports on an investigation of various system architectures and receiver structures for cellular communications systems which discriminate users by direct sequence code division multiple access (DSCDMA). Attention is focussed on the downlink of such a spread spectrum system and the influence of a number of design parameters is considered. The objective of the thesis is to investigate signal processing techniques which may be employed either at the receiver, or throughout the system to improve the overall capacity. The principles of spread spectrum communication are first outlined, including a discussion of the relative merits of spreading sequence sets, and a description of various signal processing techniques which are to be applied to the multi-user environment. The measure of system performance is introduced, and the conventional DS-CDMA system is analysed theoretically and through simulation to provide a reference performance level. ...

Band, Ian W. — University Of Edinburgh


Compression methods for digital holographic data

Digital holography plays a crucial role in recent three dimensional imaging as well as microscopic applications. As a result, huge amounts of storage capacity will be involved for this kind of data. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop efficient hologram compression schemes for storage and transmission purposes, which is the aim of this thesis. Particularly, the objective is the compression of digital holographic data obtained from phase-shifting interferometry. Unlike conventional approaches which encode certain representation of phase-shifting holographic data independently, the proposed work first studies the possible representations of phase-shifting holographic data and analyzes the redundancies in each representation. A new representation, referred to as shifted distance information, is selected as the compression target. Then, a vector lifting schemes based compression method is proposed to jointly encode this data. We also show the benefits that can be drawn from improving ...

Xing, Yafei — Institute Mines-Telecom, Telecom ParisTech


Advanced Signal Processing Concepts for Multi-Dimensional Communication Systems

The widespread use of mobile internet and smart applications has led to an explosive growth in mobile data traffic. With the rise of smart homes, smart buildings, and smart cities, this demand is ever growing since future communication systems will require the integration of multiple networks serving diverse sectors, domains and applications, such as multimedia, virtual or augmented reality, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication / the Internet of things (IoT), automotive applications, and many more. Therefore, in the future, the communication systems will not only be required to provide Gbps wireless connectivity but also fulfill other requirements such as low latency and massive machine type connectivity while ensuring the quality of service. Without significant technological advances to increase the system capacity, the existing telecommunications infrastructure will be unable to support these multi-dimensional requirements. This poses an important demand for suitable waveforms with ...

Cheema, Sher Ali — Technische Universität Ilmenau


On Adaptive Filtering in Oversampled Subbands

For a number of applications like acoustic echo cancellation, adaptive filters are required to identify very long impulse responses. To reduce the computational cost in implementations, adaptive filtering in subband is known to be beneficial. Based on a review of popular fullband adaptive filtering algorithms and various subband approaches, this thesis investigates the implementation, design, and limitations of oversampled subband adaptive filter systems based on modulated complex and real valued filter banks. The main aim is to achieve a computationally efficient implementation for adaptive filter systems, for which fast methods of performing both the subband decomposition and the subband processing are researched. Therefore, a highly efficient polyphase implementation of a complex valued modulated generalized DFT (GDFT) lter bank with a judicious selection of properties for non-integer oversampling ratios is introduced. By modification, a real valued single sideband modulated lter bank ...

Weiss, Stephan — University of Strathclyde


Analog Joint Source Channel Coding for Wireless Communications

In 1948, the Shannon’s work titled ”A mathematical theory of communication” completely revolutionized the way to understand the problem of the reliable communications. He showed that any communications system is able to transmit with an arbitrarily low error probability as long as the transmission rate is kept below a certain limit. The separation between the source and channel coding was also shown as the optimal strategy to achieve the theoretical limits. Those ideas inspire the development of a whole digital communication theory focused on building more and more sophisticated coding schemes. It leads to most of communication systems were designed according to a digital approach and the separation principle from that moment, whereas other alternatives were set aside. However, in the last years, communication systems based on a jointly optimization of the source and channel encoder has aroused the interest ...

Fresnedo Arias, Óscar — University of A Coruña

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