## Signal Separation of Musical Instruments (2000)

Sound Source Separation in Monaural Music Signals

Sound source separation refers to the task of estimating the signals produced by individual sound sources from a complex acoustic mixture. It has several applications, since monophonic signals can be processed more efficiently and flexibly than polyphonic mixtures. This thesis deals with the separation of monaural, or, one-channel music recordings. We concentrate on separation methods, where the sources to be separated are not known beforehand. Instead, the separation is enabled by utilizing the common properties of real-world sound sources, which are their continuity, sparseness, and repetition in time and frequency, and their harmonic spectral structures. One of the separation approaches taken here use unsupervised learning and the other uses model-based inference based on sinusoidal modeling. Most of the existing unsupervised separation algorithms are based on a linear instantaneous signal model, where each frame of the input mixture signal is modeled ...

Virtanen, Tuomas — Tampere University of Technology

A Computational Framework for Sound Segregation in Music Signals

Music is built from sound, ultimately resulting from an elaborate interaction between the sound-generating properties of physical objects (i.e. music instruments) and the sound perception abilities of the human auditory system. Humans, even without any kind of formal music training, are typically able to ex- tract, almost unconsciously, a great amount of relevant information from a musical signal. Features such as the beat of a musical piece, the main melody of a complex musical ar- rangement, the sound sources and events occurring in a complex musical mixture, the song structure (e.g. verse, chorus, bridge) and the musical genre of a piece, are just some examples of the level of knowledge that a naive listener is commonly able to extract just from listening to a musical piece. In order to do so, the human auditory system uses a variety of cues ...

Martins, Luis Gustavo — Universidade do Porto

Sequential Bayesian Modeling of non-stationary signals

are involved until the development of Sequential Monte Carlo techniques which are also known as the particle filters. In particle filtering, the problem is expressed in terms of state-space equations where the linearity and Gaussianity requirements of the Kalman filtering are generalized. Therefore, we need information about the functional form of the state variations. In this thesis, we bring a general solution for the cases where these variations are unknown and the process distributions cannot be expressed by any closed form probability density function. Here, we propose a novel modeling scheme which is as unified as possible to cover all these problems. Therefore we study the performance analysis of our unifying particle filtering methodology on non-stationary Alpha Stable process modeling. It is well known that the probability density functions of these processes cannot be expressed in closed form, except for ...

Gencaga, Deniz — Bogazici University

Speech derereverberation in noisy environments using time-frequency domain signal models

Reverberation is the sum of reflected sound waves and is present in any conventional room. Speech communication devices such as mobile phones in hands-free mode, tablets, smart TVs, teleconferencing systems, hearing aids, voice-controlled systems, etc. use one or more microphones to pick up the desired speech signals. When the microphones are not in the proximity of the desired source, strong reverberation and noise can degrade the signal quality at the microphones and can impair the intelligibility and the performance of automatic speech recognizers. Therefore, it is a highly demanded task to process the microphone signals such that reverberation and noise are reduced. The process of reducing or removing reverberation from recorded signals is called dereverberation. As dereverberation is usually a completely blind problem, where the only available information are the microphone signals, and as the acoustic scenario can be non-stationary, ...

Braun, Sebastian — Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Fundamental Frequency and Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Multichannel Speech Enhancement

Audio systems receive the speech signals of interest usually in the presence of noise. The noise has profound impacts on the quality and intelligibility of the speech signals, and it is therefore clear that the noisy signals must be cleaned up before being played back, stored, or analyzed. We can estimate the speech signal of interest from the noisy signals using a priori knowledge about it. A human speech signal is broadband and consists of both voiced and unvoiced parts. The voiced part is quasi-periodic with a time-varying fundamental frequency (or pitch as it is commonly referred to). We consider the periodic signals basically as the sum of harmonics. Therefore, we can pass the noisy signals through bandpass filters centered at the frequencies of the harmonics to enhance the signal. In addition, although the frequencies of the harmonics are the ...

Karimian-Azari, Sam — Aalborg Univeristy

Enhancement of Speech Signals - with a Focus on Voiced Speech Models

The topic of this thesis is speech enhancement with a focus on models of voiced speech. Speech is divided into two subcategories dependent on the characteristics of the signal. One part is the voiced speech, the other is the unvoiced. In this thesis, we primarily focus on the voiced speech parts and utilise the structure of the signal in relation to speech enhancement. The basis for the models is the harmonic model which is a very often used model for voiced speech because it describes periodic signals perfectly. First, we consider the problem of non-stationarity in the speech signal. The speech signal changes its characteristics continuously over time whereas most speech analysis and enhancement methods assume stationarity within 20-30 ms. We propose to change the model to allow the fundamental frequency to vary linearly over time by introducing a chirp ...

Nørholm, Sidsel Marie — Aalborg University

This dissertation is concerned with the development of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for the Bayesian restoration of degraded audio signals. First, the Bayesian approach to time series modelling is reviewed, then established MCMC methods are introduced. The first problem to be addressed is that of model order uncertainty. A reversible-jump sampler is proposed which can move between models of different order. It is shown that faster convergence can be achieved by exploiting the analytic structure of the time series model. This approach to model order uncertainty is applied to the problem of noise reduction using the simulation smoother. The effects of incorrect autoregressive (AR) model orders are demonstrated, and a mixed model order MCMC noise reduction scheme is developed. Nonlinear time series models are surveyed, and the advantages of linear-in- the-parameters models explained. A nonlinear AR (NAR) model, ...

Troughton, Paul Thomas — University of Cambridge

Statistical Analysis of Cognitivve Signals measured by fNIRS

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) needs a standardization in signal processing tools before it is recognized as a reliable neuroimaging modality. This thesis study tries to present a comprehensive analysis of the feasibility of applying statistical inference methods to fNIRS signals. Using hierarchical linear models, both classical and Bayesian techniques are pursued and performance of different methods are presented on a comparative basis. The results obtained from a set of cognitive signals show that fNIRS can identify cognitive activity both at the subject and group levels. The analysis suggests that mixed or Bayesian hierarchical models are especially convenient for fNIRS signals. A related problem that is discussed in this thesis study is to guarantee that the outcome of the statistical analysis is congruent with underlying physiology. This problem is studied by putting constraints over the parameters to be estimated. Carrying ...

Ciftci, Koray — Bogazici University

GRAPH-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSING: FILTERING AND SAMPLING STRATEGIES

The necessity to process signals living in non-Euclidean domains, such as signals de- fined on the top of a graph, has led to the extension of signal processing techniques to the graph setting. Among different approaches, graph signal processing distinguishes it- self by providing a Fourier analysis of these signals. Analogously to the Fourier transform for time and image signals, the graph Fourier transform decomposes the graph signals in terms of the harmonics provided by the underlying topology. For instance, a graph signal characterized by a slow variation between adjacent nodes has a low frequency content. Along with the graph Fourier transform, graph filters are the key tool to alter the graph frequency content of a graph signal. This thesis focuses on graph filters that are performed distributively in the node domain–that is, each node needs to exchange in- formation ...

Elvin Isufi — Delft University of Technology

Online Machine Learning for Graph Topology Identification from Multiple Time Series

High dimensional time series data are observed in many complex systems. In networked data, some of the time series are influenced by other time series. Identifying these relations encoded in a graph structure or topology among the time series is of paramount interest in certain applications since the identifi ed structure can provide insights about the underlying system and can assist in inference tasks. In practice, the underlying topology is usually sparse, that is, not all the participating time series influence each other. The goal of this dissertation pertains to study the problem of sparse topology identi fication under various settings. Topology identi fication from time series is a challenging task. The first major challenge in topology identi fication is that the assumption of static topology does not hold always in practice since most of the practical systems are evolving ...

Zaman, Bakht — University of Agder, Norway

Sparse Modeling Heuristics for Parameter Estimation - Applications in Statistical Signal Processing

This thesis examines sparse statistical modeling on a range of applications in audio modeling, audio localizations, DNA sequencing, and spectroscopy. In the examined cases, the resulting estimation problems are computationally cumbersome, both as one often suffers from a lack of model order knowledge for this form of problems, but also due to the high dimensionality of the parameter spaces, which typically also yield optimization problems with numerous local minima. In this thesis, these problems are treated using sparse modeling heuristics, with the resulting criteria being solved using convex relaxations, inspired from disciplined convex programming ideas, to maintain tractability. The contributions to audio modeling and estimation focus on the estimation of the fundamental frequency of harmonically related sinusoidal signals, which is commonly used model for, e.g., voiced speech or tonal audio. We examine both the problems of estimating multiple audio sources ...

Adalbjörnsson, Stefan Ingi — Lund University

Deep Learning for Audio Effects Modeling

Audio effects modeling is the process of emulating an audio effect unit and seeks to recreate the sound, behaviour and main perceptual features of an analog reference device. Audio effect units are analog or digital signal processing systems that transform certain characteristics of the sound source. These transformations can be linear or nonlinear, time-invariant or time-varying and with short-term and long-term memory. Most typical audio effect transformations are based on dynamics, such as compression; tone such as distortion; frequency such as equalization; and time such as artificial reverberation or modulation based audio effects. The digital simulation of these audio processors is normally done by designing mathematical models of these systems. This is often difficult because it seeks to accurately model all components within the effect unit, which usually contains mechanical elements together with nonlinear and time-varying analog electronics. Most existing ...

Martínez Ramírez, Marco A — Queen Mary University of London

Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova

The Removal of Environmental Noise in Cellular Communications by Perceptual Techniques

This thesis describes the application of a perceptually based spectral subtraction algorithm for the enhancement of non-stationary noise corrupted speech. Through examination of speech enhancement techniques, explanations are given for the choice of magnitude spectral subtraction and how the human auditory system can be modelled for frequency domain speech enhancement. It is discovered, that the cochlea provides the mechanical speech enhancement in the auditory system, through the use of masking. Frequency masking is used in spectral subtraction, to improve the algorithm execution time, and to shape the enhancement process making it sound natural to the ear. A new technique for estimation of background noise is presented, which operates during speech sections as well as pauses. This uses two microphones placed on opposite ends of the cellular handset. Using these, the algorithm determines whether the signal is speech, or noise, by ...

Tuffy, Mark — University Of Edinburgh

Feedback Delay Networks in Artificial Reverberation and Reverberation Enhancement

In today's audio production and reproduction as well as in music performance practices it has become common practice to alter reverberation artificially through electronics or electro-acoustics. For music productions, radio plays, and movie soundtracks, the sound is often captured in small studio spaces with little to no reverberation to save real estate and to ensure a controlled environment such that the artistically intended spatial impression can be added during post-production. Spatial sound reproduction systems require flexible adjustment of artificial reverberation to the diffuse sound portion to help the reconstruction of the spatial impression. Many modern performance spaces are multi-purpose, and the reverberation needs to be adjustable to the desired performance style. Employing electro-acoustic feedback, also known as Reverberation Enhancement Systems (RESs), it is possible to extend the physical to the desired reverberation. These examples demonstrate a wide range of applications ...

Schlecht, Sebastian Jiro — Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

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