Broadband angle of arrival estimation using polynomial matrix decompositions

This thesis is concerned with the problem of broadband angle of arrival (AoA) estimation for sensor arrays. There is a rich theory of narrowband solutions to the AoA problem, which typically involves the covariance matrix of the received data and matrix factorisations such as the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) to reach optimality in various senses. For broadband arrays, such as found in sonar, acoustics or other applications where signals do not fulfil the narrowband assumption, working with phase shifts between different signals — as sufficient in the narrowband case — does not suffice and explicit lags need to be taken into account. The required space-time covariance matrix of the data now has a lag dimension, and classical solutions such as those based on the EVD are no longer directly applicable. There are a number of existing broadband AoA techniques, which are ...

Alrmah, Mohamed Abubaker — University of Strathclyde


Algorithmic Enhancements to Polynomial Matrix Factorisations

In broadband array processing applications, an extension of the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) to parahermitian Laurent polynomial matrices - named the polynomial matrix EVD (PEVD) - has proven to be a useful tool for the decomposition of space-time covariance matrices and their associated cross-spectral density matrices. Existing PEVD methods typically operate in the time domain and utilise iterative frameworks established by the second-order sequential best rotation (SBR2) or sequential matrix diagonalisation (SMD) algorithms. However, motivated by recent discoveries that establish the existence of an analytic PEVD - which is rarely recovered by SBR2 or SMD - alternative algorithms that better meet analyticity by operating in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-domain have received increasing attention. While offering promising results in applications including broadband MIMO and beamforming, the PEVD has seen limited deployment in hardware due to its high computational complexity. If the ...

Coutts, Fraser Kenneth — University of Strathclyde


Broadband adaptive beamforming with low complexity and frequency invariant response

This thesis proposes different methods to reduce the computational complexity as well as increasing the adaptation rate of adaptive broadband beamformers. This is performed exemplarily for the generalised sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure. The GSC is an alternative implementation of the linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, which can utilise well-known adaptive filtering algorithms, such as the least mean square (LMS) or the recursive least squares (RLS) to perform unconstrained adaptive optimisation. A direct DFT implementation, by which broadband signals are decomposed into frequency bins and processed by independent narrowband beamforming algorithms, is thought to be computationally optimum. However, this setup fail to converge to the time domain minimum mean square error (MMSE) if signal components are not aligned to frequency bins, resulting in a large worst case error. To mitigate this problem of the so-called independent frequency bin (IFB) processor, overlap-save ...

Koh, Choo Leng — University of Southampton


Advanced Algorithms for Polynomial Matrix Eigenvalue Decomposition

Matrix factorisations such as the eigen- (EVD) or singular value decomposition (SVD) offer optimality in often various senses to many narrowband signal processing algorithms. For broadband problems, where quantities such as MIMO transfer functions or cross spectral density matrices are conveniently described by polynomial matrices, such narrowband factorisations are suboptimal at best. To extend the utility of EVD and SVD to the broadband case, polynomial matrix factorisations have gained momen- tum over the past decade, and a number of iterative algorithms for particularly the polynomial matrix EVD (PEVD) have emerged. Existing iterative PEVD algorithms produce factorisations that are computationally costly (i) to calculate and (ii) to apply. For the former, iterative algorithms at every step eliminate off-diagonal energy, but this can be a slow process. For the latter, the polynomial order of the resulting factors, directly impacting on the implementa- ...

Corr, Jamie — University of Strathclyde


Polynomial Matrix Eigenvalue Decomposition Techniques for Multichannel Signal Processing

Polynomial eigenvalue decomposition (PEVD) is an extension of the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) for para-Hermitian polynomial matrices, and it has been shown to be a powerful tool for broadband extensions of narrowband signal processing problems. In the context of broadband sensor arrays, the PEVD allows the para-Hermitian matrix that results from the calculation of a space-time covariance matrix of the convolutively mixed signals to be diagonalised. Once the matrix is diagonalised, not only can the correlation between different sensor signals be removed but the signal and noise subspaces can also be identified. This process is referred to as broadband subspace decomposition, and it plays a very important role in many areas that require signal separation techniques for multichannel convolutive mixtures, such as speech recognition, radar clutter suppression, underwater acoustics, etc. The multiple shift second order sequential best rotation (MS-SBR2) algorithm, built ...

Wang, Zeliang — Cardiff University


Antenna Arrays for Multipath and Interference Mitigation in GNSS Receivers

This thesis deals with the synchronization of one or several replicas of a known signal received in a scenario with multipath propagation and directional interference. A connecting theme along this work is the systematic application of the maximum likelihood (ML) principle together with a signal model in which the spatial signatures are unstructured and the noise term is Gaussian- distributed with an unknown correlation matrix. This last assumption is key in obtaining estimators that are capable of mitigating the disturbing signals that exhibit a certain structure, and this is achieved without resorting to the estimation of the parameters of those signals. On the other hand, the assumption of unstructured spatial signatures is interesting from a practical standpoint and facilitates the estimation problem since the estimates of these signatures can be obtained in closed form. This constitutes a first step towards ...

Seco-Granados, Gonzalo — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Wideband Data-Independent Beamforming for Subarrays

The desire to operate large antenna arrays for e.g. RADAR applications over a wider frequency range is currently limited by the hardware, which due to weight, cost and size only permits complex multipliers behind each element. In contrast, wideband processing would have to rely on tap delay lines enabling digital filters for every element. As an intermediate step, in this thesis we consider a design where elements are grouped into subarrays, within which elements are still individually controlled by narrowband complex weights, but where each subarray output is given a tap delay line or finite impulse response digital filter for further wideband processing. Firstly, this thesis explores how a tap delay line attached to every subarray can be designed as a delay-and-sum beamformer. This filter is set to realised a fractional delay design based on a windowed sinc function. At ...

Alshammary, Abdullah — University of Strathclyde


Spatio-Temporal Speech Enhancement in Adverse Acoustic Conditions

Never before has speech been captured as often by electronic devices equipped with one or multiple microphones, serving a variety of applications. It is the key aspect in digital telephony, hearing devices, and voice-driven human-to-machine interaction. When speech is recorded, the microphones also capture a variety of further, undesired sound components due to adverse acoustic conditions. Interfering speech, background noise and reverberation, i.e. the persistence of sound in a room after excitation caused by a multitude of reflections on the room enclosure, are detrimental to the quality and intelligibility of target speech as well as the performance of automatic speech recognition. Hence, speech enhancement aiming at estimating the early target-speech component, which contains the direct component and early reflections, is crucial to nearly all speech-related applications presently available. In this thesis, we compare, propose and evaluate existing and novel approaches ...

Dietzen, Thomas — KU Leuven


Algorithms and Techniques for Polynomial Matrix Decompositions

The concept of polynomial matrices is introduced and the potential application of polynomial matrix decompositions is discussed within the general context of multi-channel digital signal processing. A recently developed technique, known as the second order sequential rotation algorithm (SBR2), for performing the eigenvalue decomposition of a para-Hermitian polynomial matrix (PEVD) is presented. The potential benefit of using the SBR2 algorithm to impose strong decorrelation on the signals received by a broadband sensor array is demonstrated by means of a suitable numerical simulation. This demonstrates how the polynomial matrices produced as a result of the PEVD can be of unnecessarily high order. This is undesirable for many practical applications and slows down the iterative computational procedure. An effective truncation technique for controlling the growth in order of these polynomial matrices is proposed. Depending on the choice of truncation parameters, it provides ...

Foster, Joanne — Cardiff University


Polynomial Matrix Decompositions and Paraunitary Filter Banks

There are an increasing number of problems that can be solved using paraunitary filter banks. The design of optimal orthonormal filter banks for the efficient coding of signals has received considerable interest over the years. In contrast, very little attention has been given to the problem of constructing paraunitary matrices for the purpose of broadband signal subspace estimation. This thesis begins by relating these two areas of research. A frequency-domain method of diagonalising parahermitian polynomial matrices is proposed and shown to have fundamental limitations. Then the thesis focuses on the development of a novel time-domain technique that extends the eigenvalue decomposition to polynomial matrices, referred to as the second order sequential best rotation (SBR2) algorithm. This technique imposes strong decorrelation on its input signals by applying a sequence of elementary paraunitary matrices which constitutes a generalisation of the classical Jacobi ...

Redif, Soydan — University of Southampton


Direction Finding In The Presence of Array Imperfections, Model Mismatches and Multipath

In direction finding (DF) applications, there are several factors affecting the estimation accuracy of the direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of unknown source locations. The major distortions in the estimation process are due to the array imperfections, model mismatches and multipath. The array imperfections usually exist in practical applications due to the nonidealities in the antenna array such as mutual coupling (MC) and gain/phase uncertainties. The model mismatches usually occur when the model of the received signal differs from the signal model used in the processing stage of the DF system. Another distortion is due to multipath signals. In the multipath scenario, the antenna array receives the transmitted signal from more than one path with different directions and the array covariance matrix is rank-deficient. In this thesis, three new methods are proposed for the problems in DF applications in the presence of array ...

Elbir, Ahmet M. — Middle East Technical Univresity


Array Signal Processing Algorithms for Beamforming and Direction Finding

Array processing is an area of study devoted to processing the signals received from an antenna array and extracting information of interest. It has played an important role in widespread applications like radar, sonar, and wireless communications. Numerous adaptive array processing algorithms have been reported in the literature in the last several decades. These algorithms, in a general view, exhibit a trade-off between performance and required computational complexity. In this thesis, we focus on the development of array processing algorithms in the application of beamforming and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. In the beamformer design, we employ the constrained minimum variance (CMV) and the constrained constant modulus (CCM) criteria to propose full-rank and reduced-rank adaptive algorithms. Specifically, for the full-rank algorithms, we present two low-complexity adaptive step size mechanisms with the CCM criterion for the step size adaptation of the ...

Lei Wang — University of York


A multimicrophone approach to speech processing in a smart-room environment

Recent advances in computer technology and speech and language processing have made possible that some new ways of person-machine communication and computer assistance to human activities start to appear feasible. Concretely, the interest on the development of new challenging applications in indoor environments equipped with multiple multimodal sensors, also known as smart-rooms, has considerably grown. In general, it is well-known that the quality of speech signals captured by microphones that can be located several meters away from the speakers is severely distorted by acoustic noise and room reverberation. In the context of the development of hands-free speech applications in smart-room environments, the use of obtrusive sensors like close-talking microphones is usually not allowed, and consequently, speech technologies must operate on the basis of distant-talking recordings. In such conditions, speech technologies that usually perform reasonably well in free of noise and ...

Abad, Alberto — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Diversity Gain Enhancement for Extended Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coding in Wireless Communications

Transmit diversity is a powerful technique for enhancing the channel capacity and reliability of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. This thesis considers extended orthogonal space-time block coding (EO-STBC) with beamsteering angles, which have previously been shown to potentially achieve full diversity and array gain with four transmit and one receive antenna. The optimum setting of beamsteering angles applied in the transmitter, which has to be calculated based on channel state information (CSI) at the receiver side, must be quantised and feed back to the transmitter via a reverse feedback link. When operating in a fading scenario, channel coefficients vary smoothly with time. This smooth evolution of channel coefficients motivates the investigation of differential feedback, which can reduce the number of feedback bits, while potentially maintaining near optimum performance. The hypothesis that the smooth evolution of channel coefficients translates into ...

Hussin, Mohamed Nuri Ahmed — University of Strathclyde


Energy-Efficient Distributed Multicast Beamforming Using Iterative Second-Order Cone Programming

In multi-user (MU) downlink beamforming, a high spectral efficiency along with a low transmit power is achieved by separating multiple users in space rather than in time or frequency using spatially selective transmit beams. For streaming media applications, multi-group multicast (MGM) downlink beamforming is a promising approach to exploit the broadcasting property of the wireless medium to transmit the same information to a group of users. To limit inter-group interference, the individual streams intended for different multicast groups are spatially separated using MGM downlink beamforming. Spatially selective downlink beamforming requires the employment of an array of multiple antennas at the base station (BS). The hardware costs associated with the use of multiple antennas may be prohibitive in practice. A way to avoid the expensive employment of multiple antennas at the BS is to exploit user cooperation in wireless networks where ...

Bornhorst, Nils — Technische Universität Darmstadt

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