Advanced Signal Processing Techniques for Global Navigation Satellite Systems

This Dissertation addresses the synchronization problem using an array of antennas in the general framework of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. Positioning systems are based on time delay and frequency-shift estimation of the incoming signals in the receiver side, in order to compute the user's location. Sources of accuracy degradation in satellite-based navigation systems are well-known, and their mitigation has deserved the attention of a number of researchers in latter times. While atmospheric-dependant sources (delays that depend on the ionosphere and troposphere conditions) can be greatly mitigated by differential systems external to the receiver's operation, the multipath effect is location-dependant and remains as the most important cause of accuracy degradation in time delay estimation, and consequently in position estimation, becoming a signal processing challenge. Traditional approaches to time delay estimation are often embodied in a communication systems framework. Indeed, ...

Fernandez-Prades, Carles — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Reduced-Complexity Code Synchronization in Multipath Channels for BOC Modulated CDMA Signals with Applications in Galileo and Modernized GPS Systems

Applications for the new generations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are developing rapidly and attract a great interest. Both US Global Positioning System (GPS) and European Galileo signals use Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) technology, where code and frequency synchronization are important stages at the receiver. The GNSS receivers estimate jointly the code phase and the Doppler spread through a two-dimensional searching process in time-frequency plane. Since both GPS and Galileo systems will send several signals on the same carriers, a new modulation type - the Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation, has been selected. The main target of this modulation is to provide a better spectral separation with the existing BPSK-modulated GPS signals, while allowing optimal usage of the available bandwidth for different GNSS signals. The BOC modulation family includes several BOC variants, such as sine BOC (SinBOC), ...

Burian, Adina — Universitat Trier


GNSS Array-based Acquisition: Theory and Implementation

This Dissertation addresses the signal acquisition problem using antenna arrays in the general framework of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. GNSSs provide the necessary infrastructures for a myriad of applications and services that demand a robust and accurate positioning service. GNSS ranging signals are received with very low signal-to-noise ratio. Despite that the GNSS CDMA modulation offers limited protection against Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI), an interference that exceeds the processing gain can easily degrade receivers' performance or even deny completely the GNSS service. A growing concern of this problem has appeared in recent times. A single-antenna receiver can make use of time and frequency diversity to mitigate interferences, even though the performance of these techniques is compromised in the presence of wideband interferences. Antenna arrays receivers can benefit from spatial-domain processing, and thus mitigate the effects of interfering signals. ...

Arribas, Javier — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Bayesian Signal Processing Techniques for GNSS Receivers: from multipath mitigation to positioning

This dissertation deals with the design of satellite-based navigation receivers. The term Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) refers to those navigation systems based on a constellation of satellites, which emit ranging signals useful for positioning. Although the american GPS is probably the most popular, the european contribution (Galileo) will be operative soon. Other global and regional systems exist, all with the same objective: aid user's positioning. Initially, the thesis provides the state-of-the-art in GNSS: navigation signals structure and receiver architecture. The design of a GNSS receiver consists of a number of functional blocks. From the antenna to the fi nal position calculation, the design poses challenges in many research areas. Although the Radio Frequency chain of the receiver is commented in the thesis, the main objective of the dissertation is on the signal processing algorithms applied after signal digitation. These ...

Closas, Pau — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Advanced Tracking Loop Architectures for Multi-frequency GNSS Receiver

The multi-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are designed to overcome the inherent performance limitations of single-frequency receivers. However, the processing of multiple frequency signals in a time-varying GNSS signal environment which are potentially affected by multipath, ionosphere scintillation, blockage, and interference is quite challenging, as each signal is influenced differently by channel effects according to its Radio Frequency (RF). In order to get the benefit of synchronously/coherently generated multiple frequency signals, advanced receiver signal processing techniques need to be developed. The aim of this research thesis is to extract the best performance benefits out of multifrequency GNSS signals in a time-varying GNSS signal environment. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to analyze the multi-frequency signal characteristics and to investigate suitable signal processing algorithms in order to enable the best performance of each signal. The GNSS receiver position ...

Bolla, Padma — Tampere University of Technology, Finland and Samara University, Russia


Optimization of Positioning Capabilities in Wireless Sensor Networks: from power efficiency to medium access

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the ability of sensor nodes to know its position is an enabler for a wide variety of applications for monitoring, control, and automation. Often, sensor data is meaningful only if its position can be determined. Many WSN are deployed indoors or in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal coverage is not available, and thus GNSS positioning cannot be guaranteed. In these scenarios, WSN may be relied upon to achieve a satisfactory degree of positioning accuracy. Typically, batteries power sensor nodes in WSN. These batteries are costly to replace. Therefore, power consumption is an important aspect, being performance and lifetime ofWSN strongly relying on the ability to reduce it. It is crucial to design effective strategies to maximize battery lifetime. Optimization of power consumption can be made at different layers. For example, at the ...

Moragrega, Ana — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-based Positioning Applications

Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in any Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or the developing European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can create significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used in the time delay estimate of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) of a navigation receiver, leading to an error in the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on a navigation receiver, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. Many of these techniques rely on modifying the tracking loop discriminator (i.e., the DLL and its enhanced variants) in order to make it resistant to multipath, but their performance in severe ...

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul Hasan — Tampere University of Technology


Antenna Arrays for Multipath and Interference Mitigation in GNSS Receivers

This thesis deals with the synchronization of one or several replicas of a known signal received in a scenario with multipath propagation and directional interference. A connecting theme along this work is the systematic application of the maximum likelihood (ML) principle together with a signal model in which the spatial signatures are unstructured and the noise term is Gaussian- distributed with an unknown correlation matrix. This last assumption is key in obtaining estimators that are capable of mitigating the disturbing signals that exhibit a certain structure, and this is achieved without resorting to the estimation of the parameters of those signals. On the other hand, the assumption of unstructured spatial signatures is interesting from a practical standpoint and facilitates the estimation problem since the estimates of these signatures can be obtained in closed form. This constitutes a first step towards ...

Seco-Granados, Gonzalo — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Space-Time Block Coding for Multiple Antenna Systems

The demand for mobile communication systems with high data rates has dramatically increased in recent years. New methods are necessary in order to satisfy this huge communications demand, exploiting the limited resources such as bandwidth and power as efficient as possible. MIMO systems with multiple an- tenna elements at both link ends are an efficient solution for future wireless communications systems as they provide high data rates by exploiting the spatial domain under the constraints of limited bandwidth and transmit power. Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) is a MIMO transmit strategy which exploits transmit diversity and high reliability. STBCs can be divided into two main classes, namely, Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (OSTBCs) and Non-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (NOSTBCs). The Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (QSTBCs) belong to class of NOSTBCs and have been an intensive area of research. The OSTBCs achieve full ...

Badic, B. — Vienna University of Technology


Change Detection Techniques for GNSS Signal-Level Integrity

The provision of accurate positioning is becoming essential to our modern society. One of the main reasons is the great success and ease of use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), which has led to an unprecedented amount of GNSS-based applications. In particular, the current trend shows that a new era of GNSS-based applications and services is emerging. These applications are the so-called critical applications, in which the physical safety of users may be in danger due to a miss-performance of the positioning system. These applications have very stringent requirements in terms of integrity. Integrity is a measure of reliability and trust that can be placed on the information provided by the system. Integrity algorithms were originally designed for civil aviation in the 1980s. Unfortunately, GNSS-based critical applications are often associated with terrestrial environments and original integrity algorithms usually fail. ...

Egea-Roca, Daniel — Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona


Direction Finding In The Presence of Array Imperfections, Model Mismatches and Multipath

In direction finding (DF) applications, there are several factors affecting the estimation accuracy of the direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of unknown source locations. The major distortions in the estimation process are due to the array imperfections, model mismatches and multipath. The array imperfections usually exist in practical applications due to the nonidealities in the antenna array such as mutual coupling (MC) and gain/phase uncertainties. The model mismatches usually occur when the model of the received signal differs from the signal model used in the processing stage of the DF system. Another distortion is due to multipath signals. In the multipath scenario, the antenna array receives the transmitted signal from more than one path with different directions and the array covariance matrix is rank-deficient. In this thesis, three new methods are proposed for the problems in DF applications in the presence of array ...

Elbir, Ahmet M. — Middle East Technical Univresity


Digital design and experimental validation of high-performance real-time OFDM systems

The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation is to address a number of challenges encountered in the digital baseband design of modern and future wireless communication systems. The fast and continuous evolution of wireless communications has been driven by the ambitious goal of providing ubiquitous services that could guarantee high throughput, reliability of the communication link and satisfy the increasing demand for efficient re-utilization of the heavily populated wireless spectrum. To cope with these ever-growing performance requirements, researchers around the world have introduced sophisticated broadband physical (PHY)-layer communication schemes able to accommodate higher bandwidth, which indicatively include multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver and are capable of delivering improved spectral efficiency by applying interference management policies. The merging of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) schemes with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) offers a flexible signal processing substrate to implement ...

Font-Bach, Oriol — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC)


Study on Subband Adaptive Array for Space-Time Codes in Wideband Channel

Recently, many works have been accomplished on transmit diversity for a high-speed data transmission through the wireless channel. A Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system which employs multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver has been shown to be able to improve transmission data rate and capacity of the system. When the channel state information (CSI) is unknown at the transmitter, an multiple input single output (MISO) system combined with the transmit diversity of space time coding modulation known as space-time block coding (STBC) has taken a great attention. However, the performance of STBC is deteriorated under frequency selective fading due to inter symbol interference (ISI). An STBC employing tapped delay line adaptive array (STBC-TDLAA) is known as a solution for this problem since it utilizes the delayed signals to enhance the desired signal instead of excluding them as interferences. However, ...

Ramli, Nordin Bin — University of Electro-Communications, Japan


Multiantenna Cellular Communications: Channel Estimation, Feedback, and Resource Allocation

The use of multiple antennas at base stations and user devices is a key component in the design of cellular communication systems that can meet the capacity demands of tomorrow. The downlink transmission from base stations to users is particularly limiting, both from a theoretical and a practical perspective, since user devices should be simple and power-efficient, and because many applications primarily create downlink traffic (e.g., video streaming). The potential gain of employing multiple antennas for downlink transmission is well recognized: the total data throughput increases linearly with the number of transmit antennas if the spatial dimension is exploited for simultaneous transmission to multiple users. In the design of practical cellular systems, the actual benefit of multiuser multiantenna transmission is limited by a variety of factors, including acquisition and accuracy of channel information, transmit power, channel conditions, cell density, user ...

Emil Björnson — KTH Royal Institute of Technology


Large Multiuser MIMO Detection: Algorithms and Architectures

After decades of research on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, including paradigm shifts from point-to-point to multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO), an ample literature exists on techniques to exploit the spatial dimension to increase link throughput and network capacity of wireless communication systems. Massive MIMO, which supports hundreds of antennas at the base station (BS), is celebrated as the key enabling technology of the upcoming fifth generation (5G) wireless communication standard. However, the use of large MIMO systems in the future is also indispensable, especially for high-speed wireless backhaul connectivity. Large MIMO systems use tens of antennas in communication terminals, and can afford a large number of antennas on both the transmitter and the receiver sides. While favorable propagation in massive MIMO ensures that reliable performance can be achieved by simple linear processing, the inherent symmetry in large MIMO renders the computational complexity ...

Sarieddeen, Hadi — American University of Beirut (AUB)

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