Spatial Consistency of 3D Channel Models

Developing realistic channel models is one of the greatest challenges for describing wireless communications. Their quality is crucial for accurately predicting the performance of a wireless system. While on the one hand, channel models have to be accurate in describing the physical properties of wave propagation, on the other hand, they have to be as least complex as possible. With the recent emergence of antennas with a massive amount of elements as a promising technology for a further enhancement of spectral efficiency, new channel models that characterize the propagation environment in both azimuth and elevation become necessary. While standardization bodies such as 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and International Telecommunications Unit (ITU) have introduced a 3-dimensional (3D) geometry-based stochastic channel model, a system-level modeling has been missing to serve the purpose of further analysis and evaluations. Furthermore, with such a ...

Fjolla Ademaj — TU Wien


Probabilistic modeling for sensor fusion with inertial measurements

In recent years, inertial sensors have undergone major developments. The quality of their measurements has improved while their cost has decreased, leading to an increase in availability. They can be found in stand-alone sensor units, so-called inertial measurement units, but are nowadays also present in for instance any modern smartphone, in Wii controllers and in virtual reality headsets. The term inertial sensor refers to the combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes. These measure the external specific force and the angular velocity, respectively. Integration of their measurements provides information about the sensor’s position and orientation. However, the position and orientation estimates obtained by simple integration suffer from drift and are therefore only accurate on a short time scale. In order to improve these estimates, we combine the inertial sensors with additional sensors and models. To combine these different sources of information, also ...

Kok, Manon — Linköping University


Low-Complexity Localization using Standard-Compliant UWB Signals

This thesis puts a focus on the analysis of key aspects of low-complexity Ultra Wideband (UWB) localizations systems. It is well known that UWB allows for highly robust and accurate ranging even in multipath intensive environments. On the other hand, the huge bandwidth leads to very challenging receiver designs and so low complexity and low power consumption are not achieveable for common receiver structures. The energy detector is a promising alternative. But in contrast to high-complexity coherent receivers, their performance is strongly dependent on the system parameters of the air interface protocol. IEEE 802.15.4a is a UWB standard with high-precision localization capability (better than 1m). The standard defines many system parameters, whose impact on the ranging and localization performance is studied in the thesis. These parameters have also a significant impact on the maximum allowed transmit energy, which limits the ...

Gigl, Thomas — Graz University of Technology


Location and map awareness technologies in next wireless networks

In a future perspective, the need of mapping an unknown indoor environment, of localizing and retrieving information from objects with zero costs and efforts could be satisfied by the adoption of next 5G technologies. Thanks to the mix of mmW and massive arrays technologies, it will be possible to achieve a higher indoor localization accuracy without relying on a dedicated infrastructure for localization but exploiting that designed for communication purposes. Besides users’ localization and navigation objectives, mapping and thus, the capability of reconstructing indoor scenarios, will be an important field of research with the possibility of sharing environmental information via crowd-sourcing mechanisms between users. Finally, in the Internet of Things vision, it is expected that people, objects and devices will be interconnected to each other with the possibility of exchanging the acquired and estimated data including those regarding objects identification, ...

Guerra, Anna — University of Bologna


Sensor Fusion and Calibration using Inertial Sensors, Vision, Ultra-Wideband and GPS

The usage of inertial sensors has traditionally been confined primarily to the aviation and marine industry due to their associated cost and bulkiness. During the last decade, however, inertial sensors have undergone a rather dramatic reduction in both size and cost with the introduction of MEMS technology. As a result of this trend, inertial sensors have become commonplace for many applications and can even be found in many consumer products, for instance smart phones, cameras and game consoles. Due to the drift inherent in inertial technology, inertial sensors are typically used in combination with aiding sensors to stabilize andimprove the estimates. The need for aiding sensors becomes even more apparent due to the reduced accuracy of MEMS inertial sensors. This thesis discusses two problems related to using inertial sensors in combination with aiding sensors. The first is the problem of ...

Hol, Jeroen — Linköping University


Enabling Technologies and Cyber-Physical Systems for Mission-Critical Scenarios

Reliable transport systems, defense, public safety and quality assurance in the Industry 4.0 are essential in a modern society. In a mission-critical scenario, a mission failure would jeopardize human lives and put at risk some other assets whose impairment or loss would significantly harm society or business results. Even small degradations of the communications supporting the mission could have large and possibly dire consequences. On the one hand, mission-critical organizations wish to utilize the most modern, disruptive and innovative communication systems and technologies, and yet, on the other hand, need to comply with strict requirements, which are very different to those of non critical scenarios. The aim of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of applying emerging technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and 4G broadband communications in mission-critical scenarios along three key critical infrastructure sectors: ...

Fraga-Lamas, Paula — University of A Coruña


Design and Exploration of Radio Frequency Identification Systems by Rapid Prototyping

In this thesis I describe the setup and design of a flexible rapid prototyping platform for RFID systems to provide an experimental verification environment for RFID systems, that allows their real-time exploration in distinct measurement setups. Furthermore, I use this system to test the feasibility of novel signal processing algorithms for RFID reader receivers, which promise a performance increase to state-of-the-art-receivers. Three different scenarios are considered: 1. In the first scenario, a single tag communicates with a single receive antenna reader. The performance of the optimal maximum likelihood sequence decoder is identified, and losses due to channel estimation and synchronisation are discussed. Due to the wide deviation from the nominal data rate in the uplink communication, especially synchronisation shows to be a critical issue. 2. In the second scenario, the single tag communicates with a multiple receive antenna RFID reader. ...

Angerer, Christoph — Vienna University of Technology


Testbed-based Evaluation of Mobile Communication Systems

The ever increasing demand for mobility calls for new mobile communication systems that deal more efficiently with the very limited bandwidth available. While such systems do exist and work well in computer simulations, little is known about their performance under real world conditions. Little is also known about how to best determine and compare the throughput performance of such wireless communication schemes in specific, realistic outdoor scenarios. The range of effective answers spans from performing numerical simulations to building prototypes. In recent years we have determined that a cost, time, and manpower efficient ---as well as effective--- method is that of carrying out quasi-realtime testbed measurements. In this approach, all possible transmit data is generated off-line in Matlab, but only the required data is then transmitted over a wireless channel which is altered by moving the receive antennas. The for ...

Caban, Sebastian — Vienna University of Technology


Digital design and experimental validation of high-performance real-time OFDM systems

The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation is to address a number of challenges encountered in the digital baseband design of modern and future wireless communication systems. The fast and continuous evolution of wireless communications has been driven by the ambitious goal of providing ubiquitous services that could guarantee high throughput, reliability of the communication link and satisfy the increasing demand for efficient re-utilization of the heavily populated wireless spectrum. To cope with these ever-growing performance requirements, researchers around the world have introduced sophisticated broadband physical (PHY)-layer communication schemes able to accommodate higher bandwidth, which indicatively include multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver and are capable of delivering improved spectral efficiency by applying interference management policies. The merging of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) schemes with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) offers a flexible signal processing substrate to implement ...

Font-Bach, Oriol — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC)


Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology


Functional Neuroimaging Data Characterisation Via Tensor Representations

The growing interest in neuroimaging technologies generates a massive amount of biomedical data that exhibit high dimensionality. Tensor-based analysis of brain imaging data has by now been recognized as an effective approach exploiting its inherent multi-way nature. In particular, the advantages of tensorial over matrix-based methods have previously been demonstrated in the context of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) source localization; the identification of the regions of the brain which are activated at specific time instances. However, such methods can also become ineffective in realistic challenging scenarios, involving, e.g., strong noise and/or significant overlap among the activated regions. Moreover, they commonly rely on the assumption of an underlying multilinear model generating the data. In the first part of this thesis, we aimed at investigating the possible gains from exploiting the 3-dimensional nature of the brain images, through a higher-order tensorization ...

Christos Chatzichristos — National and Kapodistrian University of Athens


Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Acoustic Sensor Networks

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of wireless devices for individual use to the point of being ubiquitous. Recent trends have been incorporating many of these devices (or nodes) together, which acquire signals and work in unison over wireless channels, in order to accomplish a predefined task. This type of cooperative sensing and communication between devices form the basis of a so-called wireless sensor network (WSN). Due to the ever increasing processing power of these nodes, WSNs are being assigned more complicated and computationally demanding tasks. Recent research has started to exploit this increased processing power in order for the WSNs to perform tasks pertaining to audio signal acquisition and processing forming so-called wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs). Audio signal processing poses new and unique problems when compared to traditional sensing applications as the signals observed often have ...

Szurley, Joseph — KU Leuven


Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Acoustic Sensor Networks

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of wireless devices for individual use to the point of being ubiquitous. Recent trends have been incorporating many of these devices (or nodes) together, which acquire signals and work in unison over wireless channels, in order to accomplish a predefined task. This type of cooperative sensing and communication between devices form the basis of a so-called wireless sensor network (WSN). Due to the ever increasing processing power of these nodes, WSNs are being assigned more complicated and computationally demanding tasks. Recent research has started to exploit this increased processing power in order for the WSNs to perform tasks pertaining to audio signal acquisition and processing forming so-called wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs). Audio signal processing poses new and unique problems when compared to traditional sensing applications as the signals observed often have ...

Szurley, Joseph C. — KU Leuven


Robust Wireless Localization in Harsh Mixed Line-of-Sight/Non-Line-of-Sight Environments

This PhD thesis considers the problem of locating some target nodes in different wireless infrastructures such as wireless cellular radio networks and wireless sensor networks. To be as realistic as possible, mixed line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight (LOS/NLOS) localization environment is introduced. Both the conventional non-cooperative localization and the new emerging cooperative localization have been studied thoroughly. Owing to the random nature of the measurements, probabilistic methods are more advanced as compared to the old-fashioned geometric methods. The gist behind the probabilistic methods is to infer the unknown positions of the target nodes in an estimation process, given a set of noisy position related measurements, a probabilistic measurement model, and a few known reference positions. In contrast to the majority of the existing methods, harsh but practical constraints are taken into account: neither offline calibration nor non-line-of-sight state identification is equipped in ...

Yin, Feng — Technische Universität Darmstadt


System Level Investigations for Mobile and Indoor Users in Future Cellular Networks

Operators of cellular networks are hard pressed to provide a seamless wireless connection to their users. Due to the expanded demand not only for coverage but also for increased network capacity, the network architecture needs to be adapted and evolve beyond the classical hexagonal grid. The globally ongoing trend of urbanization leads to more and more users utilizing their wireless devices indoors or in mobile scenarios, when commuting or traveling. These scenarios pose particular challenges to implementing a suitable network in terms of propagation conditions as well as optimal base station (BS) deployment. Therefore, in this thesis, I investigate the potential network-wide average performance of wireless cellular networks particularly in high speed train (HST) environments , as well as of network deployments indoors. An investigation on network scale requires to limit the complexity of the applied system models. This is ...

Martin Klaus Müller — TU Wien

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