Equalization and echo cancellation for DMT-based DSL modems

Broadband communications over the local telephone loop has become feasible nowadays by means of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technologies. Asymmetric DSL and one proposal for Very high bit rate DSL adopt Discrete Multitone (DMT) as modulation scheme. In this thesis we develop new equalization and echo cancellation structures for DMT-based receivers. Our main motivation is the application to DMT-based DSL-modems. In literature, a DMT-based receiver containing a multitap time domain equalizer (TEQ) and a 1-taps frequency domain equalizer per tone, has been presented. The TEQ is usually initialized by means of the so-called channel shortening algorithm. This does however not correspond to bit rate optimization, which is a major disadvantage. In part I, we aim at improving upon the channel shortening algorithm. In a first attempt, we maintain the receiver structure and only change the TEQ-initialization algorithm. In a second ...

Van Acker, Katleen — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Design and Analysis of Duplexing Modes and Forwarding Protocols for OFDM(A) Relay Links

Relaying, i.e., multihop communication via so-called relay nodes, has emerged as an advanced technology for economically realizing long transmission ranges and high data rates in wireless systems. The focus of this thesis is on multihop multiuser systems where signals are modulated with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing or multiple access, i.e., OFDM(A), and relays are infrastructure-based network nodes. In general, the thesis contributes by investigating how to operate relay links optimally under spectrum, transmit power and processing capability limitations, as well as how to improve signal processing in relays by exploiting other advanced concepts such as multiantenna techniques, spectrum reuse, transmit power adaptation, and new options for multicarrier protocol design. The first theme is the design and analysis of duplexing modes which define how a relay link reuses allocated frequency bands in each hop. Especially, the full-duplex relaying mode is promoted as ...

Riihonen, Taneli — Aalto University


Short-length Low-density Parity-check Codes: Construction and Decoding Algorithms

Error control coding is an essential part of modern communications systems. LDPC codes have been demonstrated to offer performance near the fundamental limits of channels corrupted by random noise. Optimal maximum likelihood decoding of LDPC codes is too complex to be practically useful even at short block lengths and so a graph-based message passing decoder known as the belief propagation algorithm is used instead. In fact, on graphs without closed paths known as cycles the iterative message passing decoding is known to be optimal and may converge in a single iteration, although identifying the message update schedule which allows single-iteration convergence is not trivial. At finite block lengths graphs without cycles have poor minimum distance properties and perform poorly even under optimal decoding. LDPC codes with large block length have been demonstrated to offer performance close to that predicted for ...

Healy, Cornelius Thomas — University of York


Equalization and echo cancellation in DMT-based systems

Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a technology to provide broadband communications over the existing twisted pair telephone network. The signals received by a DSL modem are typically corrupted by channel induced noise, background noise, radio frequeny interference (RFI) and undesired echo. In this thesis we focus on the design of digital signal processing algorithms to improve the bit rate and/or the loop reach of current and future DSL systems. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithms we aim at keeping the hardware cost as low as possible. The transmission format of many DSL systems is based on discrete multitone modulation (DMT). To combat channel induced noise, DMT-based receivers perform an equalization step by means of a time domain equalizer (TEQ) and a one-tap frequency domain equalizer (FEQ) per used tone. Despite the variety of TEQ design methods presented in the literature, we ...

Ysebaert, Geert — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Factor Graph Based Detection Schemes for Mobile Terrestrial DVB Systems with Long OFDM Blocks

This PhD dissertation analyzes the performance of second generation digital video broadcasting (DVB) systems in mobile terrestrial environments and proposes an iterative detection algorithm based on factor graphs (FG) to reduce the distortion caused by the time variation of the channel, providing error-free communication in very severe mobile conditions. The research work focuses on mobile scenarios where the intercarrier interference (ICI) is very high: high vehicular speeds when long orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) blocks are used. As a starting point, we provide the theoretical background on the main topics behind the transmission and reception of terrestrial digital television signals in mobile environments, long with a general overview of the main signal processing techniques included in last generation terrestrial DVB systems. The proposed FG-based detector design is then assessed over a simpli ed bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-OFDM communication scheme for a ...

Ochandiano, Pello — University of Mondragon


Full-Duplex Wireless: Self-interference Modeling, Digital Cancellation, and System Studies

In the recent years, a significant portion of the research within the field of wireless communications has been motivated by two aspects: the constant increase in the number of wireless devices and the higher and higher data rate requirements of the individual applications. The undisputed outcome of these phenomena is the heavy congestion of the suitable spectral resources. This has inspired many innovative solutions for improving the spectral efficiency of the wireless communications systems by facilitating more simultaneous connections and higher data rates without requiring additional spectrum. These include technologies such as in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulation, multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems, and the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform, among others. Even though these existing solutions have greatly improved the spectral efficiency of wireless communications, even more advanced techniques are needed for fulfilling the future data transfer requirements in the ultra high ...

Korpi, Dani — Tampere University of Technology


Detection and Decoding Algorithms of Multi-Antenna Diversity Techniques for Terrestrial DVB Systems

This PhD dissertation analyzes the behavior of multi-antenna diversity techniques in broadcasting scenarios of TDT (terrestrial digital television) systems and proposes a low-complexity detection and decoding design for their practical implementation. For that purpose, the transmission-reception chains of the European DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) and DVB-T2 standards have been implemented over which diversity and MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) techniques have been assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. On one hand, the most important multi-antenna diversity techniques such as CDD (cyclic delay diversity), Alamouti code-based SFBC (space-frequency block coding) and MRC (maximum ratio combining), have been evaluated in a DVB-T system over both fixed and mobile Rayleigh and Ricean channels. With the DVB-T2 standard release, multi-antenna processing has actually been introduced in digital television systems. The distributed SFBC configuration proposed in DVB-T2 is analyzed from a performance point of view considering ...

Sobron, Iker — University of Mondragon


Efficient Multi-carrier Communication on the Digital Subscriber Loop

This thesis explores three distinct philosophies for improving the efficiency of multi-carrier communication on the digital subscriber loop. The first topic discussed is impulse response shortening for discrete multitone transceivers. The minimum mean-squared error impulse response shortener is reformulated to allow near-optimal rate performance. It is demonstrated that the best existing eigen-filter designed channel shortener is a particular case of the proposed reformulation. An adaptive time-domain LMS algorithm is provided as an alternative to eigen-decomposition. The next part of the thesis examines bit- and power- loading algorithms for multitone systems. The problem of rate-optimal loading has already been solved. It is shown, however, that the rate-optimal solution does not give best value for complexity, and that near optimal schemes can perform very well at a fraction of the computational cost. The final section of the thesis is a brief exposition ...

Daly, Donnacha — University College Dublin


Adaptive Noise Cancelation in Speech Signals

Today, adaptive algorithms represent one of the most frequently used computational tools for the processing of digital speech signals. This work investigates and analyzes the properties of adaptive algorithms in speech communication applications where rigorous conditions apply, such as noise and echo cancelation. Like other theses in this field do, it tries to tackle the ever-lasting problem of computational complexity vs. rate of convergence. It introduces some new adaptive methods that stem from the existing algorithms as well as a novel concept which has been entitled Optimal Step-Size (OSS). In the first part of the thesis we investigate some well-known, widely used adaptive techniques such as the Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS) and the Recursive Least Mean Squares (RLS). In spite of the fact that the NLMS and the RLS belong to the "simplest" principles, as far as complexity is ...

Malenovsky, Vladimir — Department of Telecommunications, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic


Efficient parametric modeling, identification and equalization of room acoustics

Room acoustic signal enhancement (RASE) applications, such as digital equalization, acoustic echo and feedback cancellation, which are commonly found in communication devices and audio equipment, aim at processing the acoustic signals with the final goal of improving the perceived sound quality in rooms. In order to do so, signal processing algorithms require the acoustic response of the room to be represented by means of parametric models and to be identified from the input and output signals of the room acoustic system. In particular, a good model should be both accurate, thus capturing those features of room acoustics that are physically and perceptually most relevant, and efficient, so that it can be implemented as a digital filter and used in practical signal processing tasks. This thesis addresses the fundamental question in room acoustic signal processing concerning the appropriateness of different parametric ...

Vairetti, Giacomo — KU Leuven


Resource Allocation in Modulation and Equalization Procedures in DSL Modems

Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology is a very popular broadband access technology. It uses the existing telephone infrastructure to provide broadband access. In order to cope with the increased bandwidth demand to support broadband services, such as, Video on Demand (VoD), real time multimedia streaming, it is important to further improve the DSL. The main performance degradation of the DSL system is caused by channel impairments, such as, crosstalk and inter-symbol interference (ISI). Furthermore, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based discrete multitone (DMT) system has very poor spectral properties, which prohibit the use of tones at the band edges in order to meet the power spectral density (PSD) constraints of the system, thus reducing the achievable bit rate. In order to mitigate the channel impairments as well as to combat the poor spectral properties of the DFT based DMT, sophisticated ...

Kumar Pandey, Prabin — KU Leuven


Advanced Signal Processing Techniques for Two-Way Relaying Networks and Full-Duplex Communication Systems

To enable ultra-high data rate and ubiquitous coverage in future wireless networks, new physical layer techniques are desired. Relaying is a promising technique for future wireless networks since it can boost the coverage and can provide low cost wireless backhauling solutions, as compared to traditional wired backhauling solutions via fiber and copper. Traditional one-way relaying (OWR) techniques suffer from the spectral loss due to the half-duplex (HD) operation at the relay. On one hand, two-way relaying (TWR) allows the communication partners to transmit to and/or receive from the relay simultaneously and thus uses the spectrum more efficiently than OWR. Therefore, we study two-way relays and more specifically multi-pair/multi-user TWR systems with amplify-and-forward (AF) relays. These scenarios suffer from inter-pair or inter-user interference. To deal with the interference, advanced signal processing algorithms, in other words, spatial division multiple access (SDMA) techniques, ...

Zhang, Jianshu — Ilmenau University of Technology


Adaptation and Optimization in Multi-Carrier Modulation Systems

In recent years, we have assisted to the dawn of many wireless and wireline communication technologies that have adopted multi-carrier modulation (MCM) at the physical layer. The basic idea ofMCMs is to transmit a high rate data stream by dividing it into low rate streams that are used to generate low rate signals each modulated at a given carrier frequency. The use ofMCMs allows for dividing the frequency selective channel into a set of narrow-band sub-channels. Consequently, the transmitted signal experiences, in each sub-channel, a quasi flat frequency response, so that, the equalization task simplifies to a sub-channel filtering. In addition to the simplification of the equalization task, there are several benefits deriving from the use of MCMs that, in general, depend upon the considered transmission medium. The most important ones are the low complexity digital implementation, and the possibility ...

D'Alessandro, Salvatore — University of Udine


Adaptive Communications for Next Generation Broadband Wireless Access Systems

In Broadband Wireless Access systems the efficient use of the resources is crucial from many points of views. From the operator point of view, the bandwidth is a scarce, valuable, and expensive resource which must be exploited in an efficient manner while the Quality of Service (QoS) provided to the users is guaranteed. On the other hand, a tight delay and link quality constraints are imposed on each data flow hence the user experiences the same quality as in fixed networks. During the last few years many techniques have been developed in order to increase the spectral efficiency and the throughput. Among them, the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver (exploiting spatial multiplexing) with the joint optimization of the medium access control layer and the physical layer parameters. In this Ph.D. thesis, different adaptive techniques for ...

Ismael Gutierrez González — Universitat Ramon Llull


Digital Pre-distortion of Microwave Power Amplifiers

With the advent of spectrally efficient wireless communication systems employing modulation schemes with varying amplitude of the communication signal, linearisation techniques for nonlinear microwave power amplifiers have gained significant interest. The availability of fast and cheap digital processing technology makes digital pre-distortion an attractive candidate as a means for power amplifier linearisation since it promises high power efficiency and fleexibility. Digital pre-distortion is further in line with the current efforts towards software defined radio systems, where a principal aim is to substitute costly and inflexible analogue circuitry with cheap and reprogrammable digital circuitry. Microwave power amplifiers are most efficient in terms of delivered microwave output power vs. supplied power if driven near the saturation point. In this operational mode, the amplifier behaves as a nonlinear device, which introduces undesired distortions in the information bear- ing microwave signal. These nonlinear distortions ...

Aschbacher, E. — Vienna University of Technology

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