Sensor Fusion for Automotive Applications

Mapping stationary objects and tracking moving targets are essential for many autonomous functions in vehicles. In order to compute the map and track estimates, sensor measurements from radar, laser and camera are used together with the standard proprioceptive sensors present in a car. By fusing information from different types of sensors, the accuracy and robustness of the estimates can be increased. Different types of maps are discussed and compared in the thesis. In particular, road maps make use of the fact that roads are highly structured, which allows relatively simple and powerful models to be employed. It is shown how the information of the lane markings, obtained by a front looking camera, can be fused with inertial measurement of the vehicle motion and radar measurements of vehicles ahead to compute a more accurate and robust road geometry estimate. Further, it ...

Lundquist, Christian — Linköping University


Extended target tracking using PHD filters

The world in which we live is becoming more and more automated, exemplified by the numerous robots, or autonomous vehicles, that operate in air, on land, or in water. These robots perform a wide array of different tasks, ranging from the dangerous, such as underground mining, to the boring, such as vacuum cleaning. In common for all different robots is that they must possess a certain degree of awareness, both of themselves and of the world in which they operate. This thesis considers aspects of two research problems associated with this, more specifically the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) problem and the Multiple Target Tracking (MTT) problem. The SLAM problem consists of having the robot create a map of an environment and simultaneously localize itself in the same map. One way to reduce the effect of small errors that inevitably ...

Granström, Karl — Linköping University


Tracking and Planning for Surveillance Applications

Vision and infrared sensors are very common in surveillance and security applications, and there are numerous examples where a critical infrastructure, e.g. a harbor, an airport, or a military camp, is monitored by video surveillance systems. There is a need for automatic processing of sensor data and intelligent control of the sensor in order to obtain efficient and high performance solutions that can support a human operator. This thesis considers two subparts of the complex sensor fusion system; namely target tracking and sensor control.The multiple target tracking problem using particle filtering is studied. In particular, applications where road constrained targets are tracked with an airborne video or infrared camera are considered. By utilizing the information about the road network map it is possible to enhance the target tracking and prediction performance. A dynamic model suitable for on-road target tracking with ...

Skoglar, Per — Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering


Adaptive Edge-Enhanced Correlation Based Robust and Real-Time Visual Tracking Framework and Its Deployment in Machine Vision Systems

An adaptive edge-enhanced correlation based robust and real-time visual tracking framework, and two machine vision systems based on the framework are proposed. The visual tracking algorithm can track any object of interest in a video acquired from a stationary or moving camera. It can handle the real-world problems, such as noise, clutter, occlusion, uneven illumination, varying appearance, orientation, scale, and velocity of the maneuvering object, and object fading and obscuration in low contrast video at various zoom levels. The proposed machine vision systems are an active camera tracking system and a vision based system for a UGV (unmanned ground vehicle) to handle a road intersection. The core of the proposed visual tracking framework is an Edge Enhanced Back-propagation neural-network Controlled Fast Normalized Correlation (EE-BCFNC), which makes the object localization stage efficient and robust to noise, object fading, obscuration, and uneven ...

Ahmed, Javed — Electrical (Telecom.) Engineering Department, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.


Probabilistic modeling for sensor fusion with inertial measurements

In recent years, inertial sensors have undergone major developments. The quality of their measurements has improved while their cost has decreased, leading to an increase in availability. They can be found in stand-alone sensor units, so-called inertial measurement units, but are nowadays also present in for instance any modern smartphone, in Wii controllers and in virtual reality headsets. The term inertial sensor refers to the combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes. These measure the external specific force and the angular velocity, respectively. Integration of their measurements provides information about the sensor’s position and orientation. However, the position and orientation estimates obtained by simple integration suffer from drift and are therefore only accurate on a short time scale. In order to improve these estimates, we combine the inertial sensors with additional sensors and models. To combine these different sources of information, also ...

Kok, Manon — Linköping University


Robust Signal Processing with Applications to Positioning and Imaging

This dissertation investigates robust signal processing and machine learning techniques, with the objective of improving the robustness of two applications against various threats, namely Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based positioning and satellite imaging. GNSS technology is widely used in different fields, such as autonomous navigation, asset tracking, or smartphone positioning, while the satellite imaging plays a central role in monitoring, detecting and estimating the intensity of key natural phenomena, such as flooding prediction and earthquake detection. Considering the use of both GNSS positioning and satellite imaging in critical and safety-of-life applications, it is necessary to protect those two technologies from either intentional or unintentional threats. In the real world, the common threats to GNSS technology include multipath propagation and intentional/unintentional interferences. This thesis investigates methods to mitigate the influence of such sources of error, with the final objective of ...

Li, Haoqing — Northeastern University


Acoustic sensor network geometry calibration and applications

In the modern world, we are increasingly surrounded by computation devices with communication links and one or more microphones. Such devices are, for example, smartphones, tablets, laptops or hearing aids. These devices can work together as nodes in an acoustic sensor network (ASN). Such networks are a growing platform that opens the possibility for many practical applications. ASN based speech enhancement, source localization, and event detection can be applied for teleconferencing, camera control, automation, or assisted living. For this kind of applications, the awareness of auditory objects and their spatial positioning are key properties. In order to provide these two kinds of information, novel methods have been developed in this thesis. Information on the type of auditory objects is provided by a novel real-time sound classification method. Information on the position of human speakers is provided by a novel localization ...

Plinge, Axel — TU Dortmund University


A Geometric Deep Learning Approach to Sound Source Localization and Tracking

The localization and tracking of sound sources using microphone arrays is a problem that, even if it has attracted attention from the signal processing research community for decades, remains open. In recent years, deep learning models have surpassed the state-of-the-art that had been established by classic signal processing techniques, but these models still struggle with handling rooms with strong reverberations or tracking multiple sources that dynamically appear and disappear, especially when we cannot apply any criteria to classify or order them. In this thesis, we follow the ideas of the Geometric Deep Learning framework to propose new models and techniques that mean an advance of the state-of-the-art in the aforementioned scenarios. As the input of our models, we use acoustic power maps computed using the SRP-PHAT algorithm, a classic signal processing technique that allows us to estimate the acoustic energy ...

Diaz-Guerra, David — University of Zaragoza


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


Distributed Stochastic Optimization in Non-Differentiable and Non-Convex Environments

The first part of this dissertation considers distributed learning problems over networked agents. The general objective of distributed adaptation and learning is the solution of global, stochastic optimization problems through localized interactions and without information about the statistical properties of the data. Regularization is a useful technique to encourage or enforce structural properties on the resulting solution, such as sparsity or constraints. A substantial number of regularizers are inherently non-smooth, while many cost functions are differentiable. We propose distributed and adaptive strategies that are able to minimize aggregate sums of objectives. In doing so, we exploit the structure of the individual objectives as sums of differentiable costs and non-differentiable regularizers. The resulting algorithms are adaptive in nature and able to continuously track drifts in the problem; their recursions, however, are subject to persistent perturbations arising from the stochastic nature of ...

Vlaski, Stefan — University of California, Los Angeles


Three Dimensional Human Face Acquisition for Recognition

Machine identification and recognition of human faces is a rapidly growing research area in both the academic and commercial world. Most of the research to date has concentrated on the use of two dimensional information, acquired from video cameras or photographs. The use of a three dimensional system is hoped to remove many of the problems affecting the two dimensional systems such as disruption caused by changes in the face’s orientation or changes in the ambient lighting. A three dimensional system will obviously not be influenced by orientation changes and the lighting is irrelevant, as it is the shape not the shading of the face that is important. For this system to be of practical use it is important that the process of acquiring the necessary information to generate the three dimensional surface model should not require any complex or ...

Tibbalds, Adam D. — University of Cambridge


Three dimensional shape modeling: segmentation, reconstruction and registration

Accounting for uncertainty in three-dimensional (3D) shapes is important in a large number of scientific and engineering areas, such as biometrics, biomedical imaging, and data mining. It is well known that 3D polar shaped objects can be represented by Fourier descriptors such as spherical harmonics and double Fourier series. However, the statistics of these spectral shape models have not been widely explored. This thesis studies several areas involved in 3D shape modeling, including random field models for statistical shape modeling, optimal shape filtering, parametric active contours for object segmentation and surface reconstruction. It also investigates multi-modal image registration with respect to tumor activity quantification. Spherical harmonic expansions over the unit sphere not only provide a low dimensional polarimetric parameterization of stochastic shape, but also correspond to the Karhunen-Lo´eve (K-L) expansion of any isotropic random field on the unit sphere. Spherical ...

Li, Jia — University of Michigan


Antenna Array Processing: Autocalibration and Fast High-Resolution Methods for Automotive Radar

In this thesis, advanced techniques for antenna array processing are addressed. The problem of autocalibration is considered and a novel method for a two-dimensional array is developed. Moreover, practicable methods for high-resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and detection in automotive radar are proposed. A precise model of the array response is required to maintain the performance of DOA estimation. When the sensor environment is time-varying, this can only be achieved with autocalibration. The fundamental problem of autocalibration of an unknown phase response for uniform rectangular arrays is considered. For the case with a single source, a simple and robust least squares algorithm for joint two-dimensional DOA estimation and phase calibration is developed. An identification problem is determined and a suitable constraint is proposed. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed estimator is close to the approximate CRB for both ...

Heidenreich, Philipp — Technische Universität Darmstadt


Estimation of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems: Theory and Applications

This thesis deals with estimation of states and parameters in nonlinear and non-Gaussian dynamic systems. Sequential Monte Carlo methods are mainly used to this end. These methods rely on models of the underlying system, motivating some developments of the model concept. One of the main reasons for the interest in nonlinear estimation is that problems of this kind arise naturally in many important applications. Several applications of nonlinear estimation are studied. The models most commonly used for estimation are based on stochastic difference equations, referred to as state-space models. This thesis is mainly concerned with models of this kind. However, there will be a brief digression from this, in the treatment of the mathematically more intricate differential-algebraic equations. Here, the purpose is to write these equations in a form suitable for statistical signal processing. The nonlinear state estimation problem is ...

Schon, Thomas — Linkopings Universitet


Adaptive Nonlocal Signal Restoration and Enhancement Techniques for High-Dimensional Data

The large number of practical applications involving digital images has motivated a significant interest towards restoration solutions that improve the visual quality of the data under the presence of various acquisition and compression artifacts. Digital images are the results of an acquisition process based on the measurement of a physical quantity of interest incident upon an imaging sensor over a specified period of time. The quantity of interest depends on the targeted imaging application. Common imaging sensors measure the number of photons impinging over a dense grid of photodetectors in order to produce an image similar to what is perceived by the human visual system. Different applications focus on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum not visible by the human visual system, and thus require different sensing technologies to form the image. In all cases, even with the advance of ...

Maggioni, Matteo — Tampere University of Technology

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