Dynamic Scheme Selection in Image Coding

This thesis deals with the coding of images with multiple coding schemes and their dynamic selection. In our society of information highways, electronic communication is taking everyday a bigger place in our lives. The number of transmitted images is also increasing everyday. Therefore, research on image compression is still an active area. However, the current trend is to add several functionalities to the compression scheme such as progressiveness for more comfortable browsing of web-sites or databases. Classical image coding schemes have a rigid structure. They usually process an image as a whole and treat the pixels as a simple signal with no particular characteristics. Second generation schemes use the concept of objects in an image, and introduce a model of the human visual system in the design of the coding scheme. Dynamic coding schemes, as their name tells us, make ...

Fleury, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Synthetic test patterns and compression artefact distortion metrics for image codecs

This thesis presents a framework of test methodology to assess spatial domain compression artefacts produced by image and intra-frame coded video codecs. Few researchers have studied this broad range of artefacts. A taxonomy of image and video compression artefacts is proposed. This is based on the point of origin of the artefact in the image communication model. This thesis presents objective evaluation of distortions known as artefacts due to image and intra-frame coded video compression made using synthetic test patterns. The American National Standard Institute document ANSI T1 801 qualitatively defines blockiness, blur and ringing artefacts. These definitions have been augmented with quantitative definitions in conjunction with test patterns proposed. A test and measurement environment is proposed in which the codec under test is exercised using a portfolio of test patterns. The test patterns are designed to highlight the artefact ...

Punchihewa, Amal — Massey University, New Zealand


Advanced Signal Processing Concepts for Multi-Dimensional Communication Systems

The widespread use of mobile internet and smart applications has led to an explosive growth in mobile data traffic. With the rise of smart homes, smart buildings, and smart cities, this demand is ever growing since future communication systems will require the integration of multiple networks serving diverse sectors, domains and applications, such as multimedia, virtual or augmented reality, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication / the Internet of things (IoT), automotive applications, and many more. Therefore, in the future, the communication systems will not only be required to provide Gbps wireless connectivity but also fulfill other requirements such as low latency and massive machine type connectivity while ensuring the quality of service. Without significant technological advances to increase the system capacity, the existing telecommunications infrastructure will be unable to support these multi-dimensional requirements. This poses an important demand for suitable waveforms with ...

Cheema, Sher Ali — Technische Universität Ilmenau


A Unified Framework for Communications through MIMO Channels

MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE-OUTPUT (MIMO) CHANNELS constitute a unified way of modeling a wide range of different physical communication channels, which can then be handled with a compact and elegant vector-matrix notation. The two paradigmatic examples are wireless multi-antenna channels and wireline Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) channels. Research in antenna arrays (also known as smart antennas) dates back to the 1960s. However, the use of multiples antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver, which can be naturally modeled as a MIMO channel, has been recently shown to offer a significant potential increase in capacity. DSL has gained popularity as a broadband access technology capable of reliably delivering high data rates over telephone subscriber lines. A DSL system can be modeled as a communication through a MIMO channel by considering all the copper twisted pairs within a binder as a whole rather ...

Palomar, Daniel Perez — Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)


MIMO Radars with Sparse Sensing

Multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radars achieve high resolution of arrival direction by transmitting orthogonal waveforms, performing matched filtering at the receiver end and then jointly processing the measurements of all receive antennas. This dissertation studies the use of compressive sensing (CS) and matrix completion (MC) techniques as means of reducing the amount of data that need to be collected by a MIMO radar system, without sacrificing the system’s good resolution properties. MIMO radars with sparse sensing are useful in networked radar scenarios, in which the joint processing of the measurements is done at a fusion center, which might be connected to the receive antennas via a wireless link. In such scenarios, reduced amount of data translates into bandwidth and power saving in the receiver-fusion center link. First, we consider previously defined CS-based MIMO radar schemes, and propose optimal transmit antenna ...

Sun, Shunqiao — Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey


Interference Alignment in MIMO Networks: Feasibility and Transceiver Design

Wireless communications have gone through an exponential growth in the last several years and it is forecast that this growth will be sustained for the coming decades. This ever-increasing demand for radio resources is now facing one of its main limitations: inter-user interference, arising from the fact of multiple users accessing the propagation medium simultaneously which limits the total amount of data that can be reliably communicated through the wireless links. Traditionally, interference has been dealt with by allocating disjoint channel resources to distinct users. However, the advent of a novel interference coordination technique known as interference alignment (IA) brought to the forefront the promise of a much larger spectral efficiency. This dissertation revolves around the idea of linear interference alignment for a network consisting of several mutually interfering transmitter-receiver pairs, which is com-monly known as interference channel. In particular, ...

Fernandez, Oscar Gonzalez — University of Cantabria


Best Signal Selection with Automatic Delay Compensation in VoIP Environment

In the last decades, air traffic spread more and more in the world, connecting more and more places. At the same time, the need to manage all the flights correctly and securely increased. Air traffic authorities imposed and updated several standards for the air traffic management (ATM) system, keeping in pace with the growing traffic flow. To achieve this, special voice communication systems (VCS) were developed. They ensure the communication between the pilots and the operators from the ground control centers. When a communication is initiated between the aircraft’s pilot and the ground air traffic control operator, various systems are used. The pilot speaks through the aircraft’s radio station and the signal is received by several ground radio stations. Then, the signal from each ground radio station arrives on different paths to the control center. Here one of the received ...

Marinescu, Radu-Sebastian — University Politehnica of Bucharest


Cooperative and Cognitive Communication Techniques for Wireless Networks

During the past years wireless communications have been exhibiting an increased growth rendering them the most common way for communication. The continuously increasing demand for wireless services resulted in limited availability of the wireless spectrum. To this end, Cognitive Radio (CR) techniques have been proposed in literature during the past years. The concept of CR approach is to utilize advanced radio and signal-processing technology along with novel spectrum allocation policies to enable new unlicensed wireless users to operate in the existing occupied spectrum areas without degrading the performance of the existing licensed ones. Moreover, the broadcast and fading nature of the wireless channel results in severe degradation on the performance of wireless transmissions. A solution to the problem is the use of multiple-antenna systems so as to achieve spatial diversity. However, in many cases, the communication devices' nature permit the ...

Tsinos, Christos — University of Patras


Information-Theoretic Measures of Predictability for Music Content Analysis

This thesis is concerned with determining similarity in musical audio, for the purpose of applications in music content analysis. With the aim of determining similarity, we consider the problem of representing temporal structure in music. To represent temporal structure, we propose to compute information-theoretic measures of predictability in sequences. We apply our measures to track-wise representations obtained from musical audio; thereafter we consider the obtained measures predictors of musical similarity. We demonstrate that our approach benefits music content analysis tasks based on musical similarity. For the intermediate-specificity task of cover song identification, we compare contrasting discrete-valued and continuous-valued measures of pairwise predictability between sequences. In the discrete case, we devise a method for computing the normalised compression distance (NCD) which accounts for correlation between sequences. We observe that our measure improves average performance over NCD, for sequential compression algorithms. In ...

Foster, Peter — Queen Mary University of London


Modulation Spectrum Analysis for Noisy Electrocardiogram Signal Processing and Applications

Advances in wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring devices have allowed for new cardiovascular applications to emerge beyond diagnostics, such as stress and fatigue detection, athletic performance assessment, sleep disorder characterization, mood recognition, activity surveillance, biometrics, and fitness tracking, to name a few. Such devices, however, are prone to artifacts, particularly due to movement, thus hampering heart rate and heart rate variability measurement and posing a serious threat to cardiac monitoring applications. To address these issues, this thesis proposes the use of a spectro-temporal signal representation called “modulation spectrum”, which is shown to accurately separate cardiac and noise components from the ECG signals, thus opening doors for noise-robust ECG signal processing tools and applications. First, an innovative ECG quality index based on the modulation spectral signal representation is proposed. The representation quantifies the rate-of-change of ECG spectral components, which are shown to ...

Tobon Vallejo, Diana Patricia — INRS-EMT


Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology


Pilot Pattern Optimization for Doubly-Selective MIMO OFDM Transmissions

Current wireless transmission systems are far from their theoretically achievable performance bounds. The main reason behind this is a conservative approach of the standardization organizations. Most current standards for wireless communication employ Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation as it offers a high spectral effciency. These systems require the insertion of at the receiver known symbols in order to estimate the transmission channel. These so-called pilot-symbols consume available resources such as power and bandwidth, and therefore eff ectively decrease spectral effciency. This thesis deals with pilot pattern optimization for MIMO OFDM transmission systems. First, an optimal power distribution among pilot- and data-symbols is considered. The post-equalization Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) is maximized in order to deliver optimal performance. The optimal power o set between the pilot- and data-symbols depends on the ratio between the number ...

Šimko, Michal — Vienna University of Technology


Feedback-Channel and Adaptive MIMO Coded-Modulations

When the transmitter of a communication system disposes of some Channel State Information (CSI), it is possible to design linear precoders that optimally allocate the power inducing high gains either in terms of capacity or in terms of reliable communications. In practical scenarios, this channel knowledge is not perfect and thus the transmitted signal suffers from the mismatch between the CSI at the transmitter and the real channel. In that context, this thesis deals with two different, but related, topics: the design of a feasible transmitter channel tracker for time varying channels, and the design of optimal linear precoders robust to imperfect channel estimates. The first part of the thesis proposes the design of a channel tracker that provides an accurate CSI at the transmitter by means of a low capacity feedback link. Historically, those schemes have been criticized because ...

Rey, Francesc — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Quality of Service Optimization in the Broadcast Channel with Imperfect Transmit Channel State Information

This work considers a Broadcast Channel (BC) system, where the transmitter is equipped with multiple antennas and each user at the receiver side could have one or more antennas. Depending on the number of antennas at the receiver side, such a system is known as Multiple-User Multiple-Input Single-Output (MU-MISO), for single antenna users, or Multiple-UserMultiple-InputMultiple-Output (MU-MIMO), for several antenna users. This model is suitable for current wireless communication systems. Regarding the direction of the data flow, we differentiate between downlink channel or BC, and uplink channel or Multiple Access Channel (MAC). In the BC the signals are sent from the Base Station (BS) to the users, whereas the information from the users is sent to the BS in the MAC. In this work we focus on the BC where the BS applies linear precoding taking advantage of multiple antennas. The ...

González-Coma, José Pablo — University of a Coruña


The Bionic Electro-Larynx Speech System - Challenges, Investigations, and Solutions

Humans without larynx need to use a substitution voice to re-obtain speech. The electro-larynx (EL) is a widely used device but is known for its unnatural and monotonic speech quality. Previous research tackled these problems, but until now no significant improvements could be reported. The EL speech system is a complex system including hardware (artificial excitation source or sound transducer) and software (control and generation of the artificial excitation signal). It is not enough to consider one separated problem, but all aspects of the EL speech system need to be taken into account. In this thesis we would like to push forward the boundaries of the conventional EL device towards a new bionic electro-larynx speech system. We formulate two overall scenarios: a closed-loop scenario, where EL speech is excited and simultaneously recorded using an EL speech system, and the artificial ...

Fuchs, Anna Katharina — Graz University of Technology, Signal Processing and Speech Communication Laboratory

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