Dealing with Variability Factors and Its Application to Biometrics at a Distance

This Thesis is focused on dealing with the variability factors in biometric recognition and applications of biometrics at a distance. In particular, this PhD Thesis explores the problem of variability factors assessment and how to deal with them by the incorporation of soft biometrics information in order to improve person recognition systems working at a distance. The proposed methods supported by experimental results show the benefits of adapting the system considering the variability of the sample at hand. Although being relatively young compared to other mature and long-used security technologies, biometrics have emerged in the last decade as a pushing alternative for applications where automatic recognition of people is needed. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for video surveillance systems at a distance, widely distributed in our lifes, and for the final user: forget about PINs and passwords, you ...

Tome, Pedro — Universidad Autónoma de Madrid


Spoofing and Disguise Variations in Face Recognition

Human recognition has become an important topic as the need and investments for security applications grow continuously. Biometrics enable reliable and efficient identity management systems by using physical and behavioral characteristics of the subjects that are permanent, universal and easy to access. This is why, the topic of biometrics attracts higher attention today. Numerous biometric systems exist which utilize various human characteristics. Among all biometrics traits, face recognition is advantageous in terms of accessibility and reliability. It allows identification at relatively high distances for unaware subjects that do not have to cooperate. In this dissertation, two challenges in face recognition are analyzed. The first one is face spoofing. Initially, spoofing in face recognition is explained together with the countermeasure techniques that are proposed for the protection of face recognition systems against spoofing attacks. The second challenge explored in this thesis ...

Kose, Neslihan — EURECOM


Contactless and less-constrained palmprint recognition

Biometric systems consist in the combination of devices, algorithms, and procedures used to recognize the individuals based on the characteristics, physical or behavioral, of their persons. These characteristics are called biometric traits. Nowadays, biometric technologies are becoming more and more widespread, and many people use biometric systems daily. However, in some cases the procedures used for the collection of the biometric traits need the cooperation of the user, controlled environments, illuminations perceived as unpleasant, too strong, or harmful, or the contact of the body with a sensor. For these reasons, techniques for the contactless and less-constrained biometric recognition are being researched, in order to increase the usability and social acceptance of biometric systems, and increase the fields of application of biometric technologies. In this context, the palmprint is a biometric trait whose acquisition is generally well accepted by the users. ...

Genovese, Angelo — Università degli Studi di Milano


Non-rigid Registration-based Data-driven 3D Facial Action Unit Detection

Automated analysis of facial expressions has been an active area of study due to its potential applications not only for intelligent human-computer interfaces but also for human facial behavior research. To advance automatic expression analysis, this thesis proposes and empirically proves two hypotheses: (i) 3D face data is a better data modality than conventional 2D camera images, not only for being much less disturbed by illumination and head pose effects but also for capturing true facial surface information. (ii) It is possible to perform detailed face registration without resorting to any face modeling. This means that data-driven methods in automatic expression analysis can compensate for the confounding effects like pose and physiognomy differences, and can process facial features more effectively, without suffering the drawbacks of model-driven analysis. Our study is based upon Facial Action Coding System (FACS) as this paradigm ...

Savran, Arman — Bogazici University


Application-driven Advances in Multi-biometric Fusion

Biometric recognition is the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral or biological characteristics. Beside forensic applications, this technology aims at replacing the outdated and attack prone, physical and knowledge-based, proofs of identity. Choosing one biometric characteristic is a tradeoff between universality, acceptability, and permanence, among other factors. Moreover, the accuracy cap of the chosen characteristic may limit the scalability and usability for some applications. The use of multiple biometric sources within a unified frame, i.e. multi-biometrics, aspires to tackle the limitations of single source biometrics and thus enables a wider implementation of the technology. This work aims at presenting application-driven advances in multi-biometrics by addressing different elements of the multi-biometric system work-flow. At first, practical oriented pre-fusion issues regarding missing data imputation and score normalization are discussed. This includes presenting a novel performance anchored score normalization technique that ...

Damer, Naser — Technische Universität Darmstadt


Biometric Sample Quality and Its Application to Multimodal Authentication Systems

This Thesis is focused on the quality assessment of biometric signals and its application to multimodal biometric systems. Since the establishment of biometrics as an specific research area in late 90s, the biometric community has focused its efforts in the development of accurate recognition algorithms and nowadays, biometric recognition is a mature technology that is used in many applications. However, we can notice recent studies that demonstrate how performance of biometric systems is heavily affected by the quality of biometric signals. Quality measurement has emerged in the biometric community as an important concern after the poor performance observed in biometric systems on certain pathological samples. We first summarize the state-of-the-art in the biometric quality problem. We present the factors influencing biometric quality, which mainly have to do with four issues: the individual itself, the sensor used in the acquisition, the ...

Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid


Deep learning for semantic description of visual human traits

The recent progress in artificial neural networks (rebranded as “deep learning”) has significantly boosted the state-of-the-art in numerous domains of computer vision offering an opportunity to approach the problems which were hardly solvable with conventional machine learning. Thus, in the frame of this PhD study, we explore how deep learning techniques can help in the analysis of one the most basic and essential semantic traits revealed by a human face, namely, gender and age. In particular, two complementary problem settings are considered: (1) gender/age prediction from given face images, and (2) synthesis and editing of human faces with the required gender/age attributes. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has currently become a standard model for image-based object recognition in general, and therefore, is a natural choice for addressing the first of these two problems. However, our preliminary studies have shown that the ...

Antipov, Grigory — Télécom ParisTech (Eurecom)


Automatic Analysis of Head and Facial Gestures in Video Streams

Automatic analysis of head gestures and facial expressions is a challenging research area and it has significant applications for intelligent human-computer interfaces. An important task is the automatic classification of non-verbal messages composed of facial signals where both facial expressions and head rotations are observed. This is a challenging task, because there is no definite grammar or code-book for mapping the non-verbal facial signals into a corresponding mental state. Furthermore, non-verbal facial signals and the observed emotions have dependency on personality, society, state of the mood and also the context in which they are displayed or observed. This thesis mainly addresses the three desired tasks for an effective visual information based automatic face and head gesture (FHG) analyzer. First we develop a fully automatic, robust and accurate 17-point facial landmark localizer based on local appearance information and structural information of ...

Cinar Akakin, Hatice — Bogazici University


Visual Analysis of Faces with Application in Biometrics, Forensics and Health Informatics

Computer vision-based analysis of human facial video provides information regarding to expression, diseases symptoms, and physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate. It also provides a convenient source of heartbeat signal to be used in biometrics and forensics. This thesis is a collection of works done in five themes in the realm of computer vision-based facial image analysis: Monitoring elderly patients at private homes, Face quality assessment, Measurement of physiological parameters, Contact-free heartbeat biometrics, and Decision support system for healthcare. The work related to monitoring elderly patients at private homes includes a detailed survey and review of the monitoring technologies relevant to older patients living at home by discussing previous reviews and relevant taxonomies, different scenarios for home monitoring solutions for older patients, sensing and data acquisition techniques, data processing and analysis techniques, available datasets for ...

Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul — Aalborg Univeristy


Privacy Protecting Biometric Authentication Systems

As biometrics gains popularity and proliferates into the daily life, there is an increased concern over the loss of privacy and potential misuse of biometric data held in central repositories. The major concerns are about i) the use of biometrics to track people, ii) non-revocability of biometrics (eg. if a fingerprint is compromised it can not be canceled or reissued), and iii) disclosure of sensitive information such as race, gender and health problems which may be revealed by biometric traits. The straightforward suggestion of keeping the biometric data in a user owned token (eg. smart cards) does not completely solve the problem, since malicious users can claim that their token is broken to avoid biometric verification altogether. Put together, these concerns brought the need for privacy preserving biometric authentication methods in the recent years. In this dissertation, we survey existing ...

Kholmatov, Alisher — Sabanci University


Improvements in Pose Invariance and Local Description for Gabor-based 2D Face Recognition

Automatic face recognition has attracted a lot of attention not only because of the large number of practical applications where human identification is needed but also due to the technical challenges involved in this problem: large variability in facial appearance, non-linearity of face manifolds and high dimensionality are some the most critical handicaps. In order to deal with the above mentioned challenges, there are two possible strategies: the first is to construct a “good” feature space in which the manifolds become simpler (more linear and more convex). This scheme usually comprises two levels of processing: (1) normalize images geometrically and photometrically and (2) extract features that are stable with respect to these variations (such as those based on Gabor filters). The second strategy is to use classification structures that are able to deal with non-linearities and to generalize properly. To ...

Gonzalez-Jimenez, Daniel — University of Vigo


Face Recognition's Grand Challenge: uncontrolled conditions under control

The number of cameras increases rapidly in squares, shopping centers, railway stations and airport halls. There are hundreds of cameras in the city center of Amsterdam. This is still modest compared to the tens of thousands of cameras in London, where citizens are expected to be filmed by more than three hundred cameras of over thirty separate Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in a single day [84]. These CCTV systems include both publicly owned systems (railway stations, squares, airports) and privately owned systems (shops, banks, hotels). The main purpose of all these cameras is to detect, prevent and monitor crime and anti-social behaviour. Other goals of camera surveillance can be detection of unauthorized access, improvement of service, fire safety, etc. Since the terrorist attack on 9/11, detection and prevention of terrorist activities especially at high profiled locations such as airports, ...

Boom, Bas — University of Twente


Face Recognition Robust to Occlusions

Face recognition is an important technology in computer vision, which often acts as an essential component in biometrics systems, HCI systems, access control systems, multimedia indexing applications, etc. In recent years, identification of subjects in non-controlled scenarios has received large amount of attentions from the biometrics research community. The deployment of real-time and robust face recognition systems can significantly reinforce the safety and security in public places or/and private residences. However, variations due to expressions/illuminations/poses/occlusions can significantly deteriorate the performance of face recognition systems in non-controlled environments. Partial occlusion, which significantly changes the appearance of part of a face, cannot only cause large performance deterioration of face recognition, but also can cause severe security issues. In this thesis, we focus on the occlusion problem in automatic face recognition in noncontrolled environments. Toward this goal, we propose a framework that consists ...

Min, Rui — Telecom ParisTech


Biologically Inspired 3D Face Recognition

Face recognition has been an active area of study for both computer vision and image processing communities, not only for biometrics but also for human-computer interaction applications. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the existing 3D face recognition techniques and seek biologically motivated methods to improve them. We especially look at findings in psychophysics and cognitive science for insights. We propose a biologically motivated computational model, and focus on the earlier stages of the model, whose performance is critical for the later stages. Our emphasis is on automatic localization of facial features. We first propose a strong unsupervised learning algorithm for flexible and automatic training of Gaussian mixture models and use it in a novel feature-based algorithm for facial fiducial point localization. We also propose a novel structural correction algorithm to evaluate the quality of landmarking and ...

Salah, Albert Ali — Bogazici University


Adapted Fusion Schemes for Multimodal Biometric Authentication

This Thesis is focused on the combination of multiple biometric traits for automatic person authentication, in what is called a multimodal biometric system. More generally, any type of biometric information can be combined in what is called a multibiometric system. The information sources in multibiometrics include not only multiple biometric traits but also multiple sensors, multiple biometric instances (e.g., different fingers in fingerprint verification), repeated instances, and multiple algorithms. Most of the approaches found in the literature for combining these various information sources are based on the combination of the matching scores provided by individual systems built on the different biometric evidences. The combination schemes following this architecture are typically based on combination rules or trained pattern classifiers, and most of them assume that the score level fusion function is fixed at verification time. This Thesis considers the problem of ...

Fierrez, Julian — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid

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