## Synchronization and Multipath Delay Estimation Algorithms for Digital Receivers (2002)

Antenna Arrays for Multipath and Interference Mitigation in GNSS Receivers

This thesis deals with the synchronization of one or several replicas of a known signal received in a scenario with multipath propagation and directional interference. A connecting theme along this work is the systematic application of the maximum likelihood (ML) principle together with a signal model in which the spatial signatures are unstructured and the noise term is Gaussian- distributed with an unknown correlation matrix. This last assumption is key in obtaining estimators that are capable of mitigating the disturbing signals that exhibit a certain structure, and this is achieved without resorting to the estimation of the parameters of those signals. On the other hand, the assumption of unstructured spatial signatures is interesting from a practical standpoint and facilitates the estimation problem since the estimates of these signatures can be obtained in closed form. This constitutes a first step towards ...

Seco-Granados, Gonzalo — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

Advanced Signal Processing Techniques for Global Navigation Satellite Systems

This Dissertation addresses the synchronization problem using an array of antennas in the general framework of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers. Positioning systems are based on time delay and frequency-shift estimation of the incoming signals in the receiver side, in order to compute the user's location. Sources of accuracy degradation in satellite-based navigation systems are well-known, and their mitigation has deserved the attention of a number of researchers in latter times. While atmospheric-dependant sources (delays that depend on the ionosphere and troposphere conditions) can be greatly mitigated by differential systems external to the receiver's operation, the multipath effect is location-dependant and remains as the most important cause of accuracy degradation in time delay estimation, and consequently in position estimation, becoming a signal processing challenge. Traditional approaches to time delay estimation are often embodied in a communication systems framework. Indeed, ...

Fernandez-Prades, Carles — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

Bayesian Signal Processing Techniques for GNSS Receivers: from multipath mitigation to positioning

This dissertation deals with the design of satellite-based navigation receivers. The term Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) refers to those navigation systems based on a constellation of satellites, which emit ranging signals useful for positioning. Although the american GPS is probably the most popular, the european contribution (Galileo) will be operative soon. Other global and regional systems exist, all with the same objective: aid user's positioning. Initially, the thesis provides the state-of-the-art in GNSS: navigation signals structure and receiver architecture. The design of a GNSS receiver consists of a number of functional blocks. From the antenna to the fi nal position calculation, the design poses challenges in many research areas. Although the Radio Frequency chain of the receiver is commented in the thesis, the main objective of the dissertation is on the signal processing algorithms applied after signal digitation. These ...

Closas, Pau — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

CDMA is the multiple access technique selected for the 3G mobile communications systems and it has a significant role in the research beyond 3G systems. CDMA systems over wireless channels have to cope with fading multipath propagation, which makes the channel estimation an important issue in CDMA receivers. Despite a significant amount of scientific literature on CDMA receivers, there are still open problems regarding the multipath delay and coefficient estimation in hostile environments and the design of low-complexity DSP-based channel estimators for CDMA applications. Good multipath delay estimation techniques can also find their applicability in mobile phone positioning, which is an area with many challenging questions. Additionally, theoretical measures of performance in CDMA detection in the presence of fading multipath channels have mainly been derived for ideal channel estimators. However, developing such analytical models in the presence of channel estimation ...

Lohan, Elena Simona — Tampere University of Technology

Applications for the new generations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are developing rapidly and attract a great interest. Both US Global Positioning System (GPS) and European Galileo signals use Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) technology, where code and frequency synchronization are important stages at the receiver. The GNSS receivers estimate jointly the code phase and the Doppler spread through a two-dimensional searching process in time-frequency plane. Since both GPS and Galileo systems will send several signals on the same carriers, a new modulation type - the Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation, has been selected. The main target of this modulation is to provide a better spectral separation with the existing BPSK-modulated GPS signals, while allowing optimal usage of the available bandwidth for different GNSS signals. The BOC modulation family includes several BOC variants, such as sine BOC (SinBOC), ...

Burian, Adina — Universitat Trier

Efficient Multipath Mitigation in Navigation Systems

The main objective of the thesis is the development of efficient multipath mitigation techniques for navigation systems. By efficient mitigation we refer to the use of asymptotic efficient estimators, and also to the minimization of their computational burden. In this thesis, the efficient estimators are derived from the Maximum Likelihood Principle in several important scenarios. The computational burden is reduced in two ways. One is through data compression techniques that yield receiver implementations of small complexity and small data sizes. The other consists of the efficient implementation of Newton-type methods for the computation of the Maximum Likelihood estimators. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to present the fundamentals of synchronization in a navigation receiver, and to the state of the art in multipath mitigation. Afterward, several results concerning the interpolation of a band limited signal in a finite ...

Selva, Jesus — Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)

Polynomial Predictive Filters: Implementation and Applications

In this thesis, smoothness of sampled real-world signals is exploited through the application of polynomial predictive filters. The principal reason for employing the polynomial signal model is principally twofold: firstly, assuming that the sampling rate is adequate, all real-world signals exhibit piecewise polynomial-like behavior, and secondly, polynomial-based signal processing is computationally efficient. By definition, polynomial predictive filters provide estimates of future values of polynomial-like signals. Thus, the potential applications of this research include a vast number of different delay sensitive operations on measurements like temperature, position, velocity, or power, especially in control engineering field. The polynomial-based predictive signal processing is a well-known technique, but polynomial-predictive filters have had severe drawbacks, which have hindered their application; their white noise attenuation is generally low, or they exhibit considerable passband gain peaks, rendering them unattractive for most applications. It has been possible to ...

Tanskanen, Jarno M. A. — Helsinki University of Technology

OFDM Air-Interface Design for Multimedia Communications

The aim of this dissertation is the investigation of the key issues encountered in the development of wideband radio air-interfaces. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as the enabling technology for transmitting data at extremely high rates over time-dispersive radio channels. OFDM is a transmission scheme, which splits up the data stream, sending the data symbols simultaneously at a drastically reduced symbol rate over a set of parallel sub-carriers. The first part of this thesis deals with the modeling of the time-dispersive and frequency-selective radio channel, utilizing second order Gaussian stochastic processes. A novel channel measurement technique is developed, in which the RMS delay spread of the channel is estimated from the level-crossing rate of the frequency-selective channel transfer function. This method enables the empirical channel characterization utilizing simplified non-coherent measurements of the received power versus frequency. Air-interface and multiple ...

Witrisal, Klaus — Delft University of Technology

Robust Wireless Localization in Harsh Mixed Line-of-Sight/Non-Line-of-Sight Environments

This PhD thesis considers the problem of locating some target nodes in different wireless infrastructures such as wireless cellular radio networks and wireless sensor networks. To be as realistic as possible, mixed line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight (LOS/NLOS) localization environment is introduced. Both the conventional non-cooperative localization and the new emerging cooperative localization have been studied thoroughly. Owing to the random nature of the measurements, probabilistic methods are more advanced as compared to the old-fashioned geometric methods. The gist behind the probabilistic methods is to infer the unknown positions of the target nodes in an estimation process, given a set of noisy position related measurements, a probabilistic measurement model, and a few known reference positions. In contrast to the majority of the existing methods, harsh but practical constraints are taken into account: neither offline calibration nor non-line-of-sight state identification is equipped in ...

Yin, Feng — Technische Universität Darmstadt

Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology

Channel Modeling and Estimation For Wireless Communication Systems Using a Time-Frequency Approach

Broadband wireless communication is a very fast growing communication area. Multicarrier modulation techniques like Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Biorthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (BFDM), Pulse Shaping (PS) and Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MCSS) have recently been introduced as robust techniques against intersymbol interference (ISI) and noise, compared to single carrier communication systems over fast fading multipath communication channels. Therefore, multicarrier modulation techniques have been considered as a candidate for new generation, high data rate broadband wireless communication systems and have been adopted as the related standards. Several examples are the European digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and digital video broadcasting (DVB), the IEEE standands for wireless local area networks (WLAN), 802.11a, and wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN), 802.16a. However, Doppler frequency shifts, phase offset, local oscillator frequency shifts, and multi-path fading severely degrade the performance of multicarrier communication systems. For fast-varying channels, ...

Yalcin, Mahmut — Istanbul University

Modeling and Digital Mitigation of Transmitter Imperfections in Radio Communication Systems

To satisfy the continuously growing demands for higher data rates, modern radio communication systems employ larger bandwidths and more complex waveforms. Furthermore, radio devices are expected to support a rich mixture of standards such as cellular networks, wireless local-area networks, wireless personal area networks, positioning and navigation systems, etc. In general, a "smart'' device should be flexible to support all these requirements while being portable, cheap, and energy efficient. These seemingly conflicting expectations impose stringent radio frequency (RF) design challenges which, in turn, call for their proper understanding as well as developing cost-effective solutions to address them. The direct-conversion transceiver architecture is an appealing analog front-end for flexible and multi-standard radio systems. However, it is sensitive to various circuit impairments, and modern communication systems based on multi-carrier waveforms such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple ...

Kiayani, Adnan — Tampere University of Technology

Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-based Positioning Applications

Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in any Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or the developing European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can create significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used in the time delay estimate of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) of a navigation receiver, leading to an error in the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on a navigation receiver, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. Many of these techniques rely on modifying the tracking loop discriminator (i.e., the DLL and its enhanced variants) in order to make it resistant to multipath, but their performance in severe ...

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul Hasan — Tampere University of Technology

Bearing Estimation Techniques for Improved Performance Spread Spectrum Receivers

The main topic of this thesis is the use of bearing estimation techniques combined with multiple antenna elements for spread spectrum receivers. The motivation behind this work is twofold: firstly, this type of receiver structure may offer the ability to locate the position of a mobile radio in an urban environment. Secondly, these algorithms permit the application of space division multiple access (SDMA) to cellular mobile radio, which can offer large system capacity increases. The structure of these receivers may naturally be divided into two parts: signal detection and spatial filtering blocks. The signal detection problem involves locating the bearings of the multipath components which arise from the transmission of the desired userâ€™s signal. There are a number of approaches to this problem, but here the MUSIC algorithm will be adopted. This algorithm requires an initial estimate of the number ...

Thompson, John S. — University Of Edinburgh

Design and Exploration of Radio Frequency Identification Systems by Rapid Prototyping

In this thesis I describe the setup and design of a flexible rapid prototyping platform for RFID systems to provide an experimental verification environment for RFID systems, that allows their real-time exploration in distinct measurement setups. Furthermore, I use this system to test the feasibility of novel signal processing algorithms for RFID reader receivers, which promise a performance increase to state-of-the-art-receivers. Three different scenarios are considered: 1. In the first scenario, a single tag communicates with a single receive antenna reader. The performance of the optimal maximum likelihood sequence decoder is identified, and losses due to channel estimation and synchronisation are discussed. Due to the wide deviation from the nominal data rate in the uplink communication, especially synchronisation shows to be a critical issue. 2. In the second scenario, the single tag communicates with a multiple receive antenna RFID reader. ...

Angerer, Christoph — Vienna University of Technology

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