## Distributed Compressed Representation of Correlated Image Sets (2012)

Adaptive Nonlocal Signal Restoration and Enhancement Techniques for High-Dimensional Data

The large number of practical applications involving digital images has motivated a significant interest towards restoration solutions that improve the visual quality of the data under the presence of various acquisition and compression artifacts. Digital images are the results of an acquisition process based on the measurement of a physical quantity of interest incident upon an imaging sensor over a specified period of time. The quantity of interest depends on the targeted imaging application. Common imaging sensors measure the number of photons impinging over a dense grid of photodetectors in order to produce an image similar to what is perceived by the human visual system. Different applications focus on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum not visible by the human visual system, and thus require different sensing technologies to form the image. In all cases, even with the advance of ...

Maggioni, Matteo — Tampere University of Technology

Exploiting Correlation Noise Modeling in Wyner-Ziv Video Coding

Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding is a particular case of distributed video coding, a new video coding paradigm based on the Slepian-Wolf and Wyner-Ziv theorems which mainly exploit the source correlation at the decoder and not only at the encoder as in predictive video coding. Therefore, this new coding paradigm may provide a flexible allocation of complexity between the encoder and the decoder and in-built channel error robustness, interesting features for emerging applications such as low-power video surveillance and visual sensor networks among others. Although some progress has been made in the last eight years, the rate-distortion performance of WZ video coding is still far from the maximum performance attained with predictive video coding. The WZ video coding compression efficiency depends critically on the capability to model the correlation noise between the original information at the encoder and its estimation generated ...

Brites, Catarina — Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST)

PRIORITIZED 3D SCENE RECONSTRUCTION AND RATE-DISTORTION

In this dissertation, a novel scheme performing 3D reconstruction of a scene from a 2D video sequence is presented. To this aim, first, the trajectories of the salient features in the scene are determined as a sequence of displacements via Kanade-Lukas-Tomasi tracker and Kalman filter. Then, a tentative camera trajectory with respect to a metric reference reconstruction is estimated. All frame pairs are ordered with respect to their amenability to 3D reconstruction by a metric that utilizes the baseline distances and the number of tracked correspondences between the frames. The ordered frame pairs are processed via a sequential structure-from- motion algorithm to estimate the sparse structure and camera matrices. The metric and the associated reconstruction algorithm are shown to outperform their counterparts in the literature via experiments. Finally, a mesh-based, rate- distortion efficient representation is constructed through a novel procedure ...

Imre, Evren — Middle East Technical University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Large-Scale Light Field Capture and Reconstruction

This thesis discusses approaches and techniques to convert Sparsely-Sampled Light Fields (SSLFs) into Densely-Sampled Light Fields (DSLFs), which can be used for visualization on 3DTV and Virtual Reality (VR) devices. Exemplarily, a movable 1D large-scale light field acquisition system for capturing SSLFs in real-world environments is evaluated. This system consists of 24 sparsely placed RGB cameras and two Kinect V2 sensors. The real-world SSLF data captured with this setup can be leveraged to reconstruct real-world DSLFs. To this end, three challenging problems require to be solved for this system: (i) how to estimate the rigid transformation from the coordinate system of a Kinect V2 to the coordinate system of an RGB camera; (ii) how to register the two Kinect V2 sensors with a large displacement; (iii) how to reconstruct a DSLF from a SSLF with moderate and large disparity ranges. ...

Gao, Yuan — Department of Computer Science, Kiel University

Distributed Source Coding. Tools and Applications to Video Compression

Distributed source coding is a technique that allows to compress several correlated sources, without any cooperation between the encoders, and without rate loss provided that the decoding is joint. Motivated by this principle, distributed video coding has emerged, exploiting the correlation between the consecutive video frames, tremendously simplifying the encoder, and leaving the task of exploiting the correlation to the decoder. The first part of our contributions in this thesis presents the asymmetric coding of binary sources that are not uniform. We analyze the coding of non-uniform Bernoulli sources, and that of hidden Markov sources. For both sources, we first show that exploiting the distribution at the decoder clearly increases the decoding capabilities of a given channel code. For the binary symmetric channel modeling the correlation between the sources, we propose a tool to estimate its parameter, thanks to an ...

Toto-Zarasoa, Velotiaray — INRIA Rennes-Bretagne Atlantique, Universite de Rennes 1

Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging reconstruction problems using wavelet representations

To reduce scanning time or improve spatio-temporal resolution in some MRI applications, parallel MRI acquisition techniques with multiple coils have emerged since the early 90’s as powerful methods. In these techniques, MRI images have to be reconstructed from ac- quired undersampled “k-space” data. To this end, several reconstruction techniques have been proposed such as the widely-used SENSitivity Encoding (SENSE) method. However, the reconstructed images generally present artifacts due to the noise corrupting the ob- served data and coil sensitivity profile estimation errors. In this work, we present novel SENSE-based reconstruction methods which proceed with regularization in the complex wavelet domain so as to promote the sparsity of the solution. These methods achieve ac- curate image reconstruction under degraded experimental conditions, in which neither the SENSE method nor standard regularized methods (e.g. Tikhonov) give convincing results. The proposed approaches relies on ...

Lotfi CHAARI — University Paris-Est

Bayesian Compressed Sensing using Alpha-Stable Distributions

During the last decades, information is being gathered and processed at an explosive rate. This fact gives rise to a very important issue, that is, how to effectively and precisely describe the information content of a given source signal or an ensemble of source signals, such that it can be stored, processed or transmitted by taking into consideration the limitations and capabilities of the several digital devices. One of the fundamental principles of signal processing for decades is the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, which states that the minimum number of samples needed to reconstruct a signal without error is dictated by its bandwidth. However, there are many cases in our everyday life in which sampling at the Nyquist rate results in too many data and thus, demanding an increased processing power, as well as storage requirements. A mathematical theory that emerged ...

Tzagkarakis, George — University of Crete

Techniques for improving the performance of distributed video coding

Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a recently proposed paradigm in video communication, which fits well emerging applications such as wireless video surveillance, multimedia sensor networks, wireless PC cameras, and mobile cameras phones. These applications require a low complexity encoding, while possibly affording a high complexity decoding. DVC presents several advantages: First, the complexity can be distributed between the encoder and the decoder. Second, the DVC is robust to errors, since it uses a channel code. In DVC, a Side Information (SI) is estimated at the decoder, using the available decoded frames, and used for the decoding and reconstruction of other frames. In this Ph.D thesis, we propose new techniques in order to improve the quality of the SI. First, successive refinement of the SI is performed after each decoded DCT band, using a Partially Decoded WZF (PDWZF), along with the ...

Abou-Elailah, Abdalbassir — Telecom Paristech

WATERMARKING FOR 3D REPRESENTATIONS

In this thesis, a number of novel watermarking techniques for different 3D representations are presented. A novel watermarking method is proposed for the mono-view video, which might be interpreted as the basic implicit representation of 3D scenes. The proposed method solves the common flickering problem in the existing video watermarking schemes by means of adjusting the watermark strength with respect to temporal contrast thresholds of human visual system (HVS), which define the maximum invisible distortions in the temporal direction. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method gives better results in both objective and subjective measures, compared to some recognized methods in the literature. The watermarking techniques for the geometry and image based representations of 3D scenes, denoted as 3D watermarking, are examined and classified into three groups, as 3D-3D, 3D-2D and 2D-2D watermarking, in which the pair of symbols ...

Koz, Alper — Middle East Technical University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Scalable Single and Multiple Description Scalar Quantization

Scalable representation of a source (e.g., image/video/3D mesh) enables decoding of the encoded bit-stream on a variety of end-user terminals with varying display, storage and processing capabilities. Furthermore, it allows for source communication via channels with different transmission bandwidths, as the source rate can be easily adapted to match the available channel bandwidth. From a different perspective, error-resilience against channel losses is also very important when transmitting scalable source streams over lossy transmission channels. Driven by the aforementioned requirements of scalable representation and error-resilience, this dissertation focuses on the analysis and design of scalable single and multiple description scalar quantizers. In the first part of this dissertation, we consider the design of scalable wavelet-based semi-regular 3D mesh compression systems. In this context, our design methodology thoroughly analyzes different modules of the mesh coding system in order to single-out appropriate design ...

Satti, Shahid Mahmood — Vrije Universiteit Brussel

In a communication system it results undoubtedly of great interest to compress the information generated by the data sources to its most elementary representation, so that the amount of power necessary for reliable communications can be reduced. It is often the case that the redundancy shown by a wide variety of information sources can be modelled by taking into account the probabilistic dependance among consecutive source symbols rather than the probabilistic distribution of a single symbol. These sources are commonly referred to as single or multiterminal sources "with memory" being the memory, in this latter case, the existing temporal correlation among the consecutive symbol vectors generated by the multiterminal source. It is well known that, when the source has memory, the average amount of information per source symbol is given by the entropy rate, which is lower than its entropy ...

Del Ser, Javier — University of Navarra (TECNUN)

Distributed Video Coding for Wireless Lightweight Multimedia Applications

In the modern wireless age, lightweight multimedia technology stimulates attractive commercial applications on a grand scale as well as highly specialized niche markets. In this regard, the design of efficient video compression systems meeting such key requirements as very low encoding complexity, transmission error robustness and scalability, is no straightforward task. The answer can be found in fundamental information theoretic results, according to which efficient compression can be achieved by leveraging knowledge of the source statistics at the decoder only, giving rise to distributed, or alias Wyner-Ziv, video coding. This dissertation engineers efficient lightweight Wyner-Ziv video coding schemes emphasizing on several design aspects and applications. The first contribution of this dissertation focuses on the design of effective side information generation techniques so as to boost the compression capabilities of Wyner-Ziv video coding systems. To this end, overlapped block motion estimation ...

Deligiannis, Nikos — Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Planar 3D Scene Representations for Depth Compression

The recent invasion of stereoscopic 3D television technologies is expected to be followed by autostereoscopic and holographic technologies. Glasses-free multiple stereoscopic pair displaying capabilities of these technologies will advance the 3D experience. The prospective 3D format to create the multiple views for such displays is Multiview Video plus Depth (MVD) format based on the Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) techniques. The depth modality of the MVD format is an active research area whose main objective is to develop DIBR friendly eﬃcient compression methods. As a part this research, the thesis proposes novel 3D planar-based depth representations. The planar approximation of the stereo depth images is formulated as an energy-based co-segmentation problem by a Markov Random Field model. The energy terms of this problem are designed to mimic the rate-distortion tradeoff for a depth compression application. A heuristic algorithm is developed ...

Özkalaycı, Burak Oğuz — Middle East Technical University

Efficient representation, generation and compression of digital holograms

Digital holography is a discipline of science that measures or reconstructs the wavefield of light by means of interference. The wavefield encodes three-dimensional information, which has many applications, such as interferometry, microscopy, non-destructive testing and data storage. Moreover, digital holography is emerging as a display technology. Holograms can recreate the wavefield of a 3D object, thereby reproducing all depth cues for all viewpoints, unlike current stereoscopic 3D displays. At high quality, the appearance of an object on a holographic display system becomes indistinguishable from a real one. High-quality holograms need large volumes of data to be represented, approaching resolutions of billions of pixels. For holographic videos, the data rates needed for transmitting and encoding of the raw holograms quickly become unfeasible with currently available hardware. Efficient generation and coding of holograms will be of utmost importance for future holographic displays. ...

Blinder, David — Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Multi-Sensor Integration for Indoor 3D Reconstruction

Outdoor maps and navigation information delivered by modern services and technologies like Google Maps and Garmin navigators have revolutionized the lifestyle of many people. Motivated by the desire for similar navigation systems for indoor usage from consumers, advertisers, emergency rescuers/responders, etc., many indoor environments such as shopping malls, museums, casinos, airports, transit stations, offices, and schools need to be mapped. Typically, the environment is first reconstructed by capturing many point clouds from various stations and defining their spatial relationships. Currently, there is a lack of an accurate, rigorous, and speedy method for relating point clouds in indoor, urban, satellite-denied environments. This thesis presents a novel and automatic way for fusing calibrated point clouds obtained using a terrestrial laser scanner and the Microsoft Kinect by integrating them with a low-cost inertial measurement unit. The developed system, titled the Scannect, is the ...

Chow, Jacky — University of Calgary

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