Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction Using Non-Linear Filtering Techniques

Super-resolution (SR) is a filtering technique that combines a sequence of under-sampled and degraded low-resolution images to produce an image at a higher resolution. The reconstruction takes advantage of the additional spatio-temporal data available in the sequence of images portraying the same scene. The fundamental problem addressed in super-resolution is a typical example of an inverse problem, wherein multiple low-resolution (LR)images are used to solve for the original high-resolution (HR) image. Super-resolution has already proved useful in many practical cases where multiple frames of the same scene can be obtained, including medical applications, satellite imaging and astronomical observatories. The application of super resolution filtering in consumer cameras and mobile devices shall be possible in the future, especially that the computational and memory resources in these devices are increasing all the time. For that goal, several research problems need to be ...

Trimeche, Mejdi — Tampere University of Technology


Bayesian Fusion of Multi-band Images: A Powerful Tool for Super-resolution

Hyperspectral (HS) imaging, which consists of acquiring a same scene in several hundreds of contiguous spectral bands (a three dimensional data cube), has opened a new range of relevant applications, such as target detection [MS02], classification [C.-03] and spectral unmixing [BDPD+12]. However, while HS sensors provide abundant spectral information, their spatial resolution is generally more limited. Thus, fusing the HS image with other highly resolved images of the same scene, such as multispectral (MS) or panchromatic (PAN) images is an interesting problem. The problem of fusing a high spectral and low spatial resolution image with an auxiliary image of higher spatial but lower spectral resolution, also known as multi-resolution image fusion, has been explored for many years [AMV+11]. From an application point of view, this problem is also important as motivated by recent national programs, e.g., the Japanese next-generation space-borne ...

Wei, Qi — University of Toulouse


Automatic Detection, Classification and Restoration of Defects in Historical Images

Historical photos are significant attestations of the inheritance of the past. Since Photography is an art that is more than 150 years old, more and more diffuse are the photographic archives all over the world. Nevertheless, time and bad preservation corrupts physical supports, and many important historical documents risk to be ruined and their content lost. Therefore solutions must be implemented to preserve their state and to recover damaged information. This PhD thesis proposes a general methodology, and several applicative solutions, to handle these problems, by means of digitization and digital restoration. The purpose is to create a useful tool to support non-expert users in the restoration process of damaged historical images. The content of this thesis is outlined as follows: Chapter 1 gives an overview on the problems related to management and preservation of cultural repositories, and discusses about ...

Mazzola, Giuseppe — Università degli studi di Palermo - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica


Face Verification for Mobile Personal Devices

In this thesis, we presented a detailed study of the face verification problem on the mobile device, covering every component of the system. The study includes face detection, registration, normalization, and verification. Furthermore, the information fusion problem is studied to verify face sequences, and to fuse different modalities. Although the work is application-specific, the thesis is not limited to the application, but more extensive. In every step, we have justified the methods we choose both from the theoretical and the practical point of view. In the review part of each chapter, we discussed principles and methodologies on a higher level, for a better understanding of the problems in general. In our solutions, on the other hand, we have taken care of the application requirements, and put much emphasis on the efficiency and simplicity of the methods. The system has dealt ...

Tao, Qian — University of Twente


Parametric and non-parametric approaches for multisensor data fusion

Multisensor data fusion technology combines data and information from multiple sensors to achieve improved accuracies and better inference about the environment than could be achieved by the use of a single sensor alone. In this dissertation, we propose parametric and nonparametric multisensor data fusion algorithms with a broad range of applications. Image registration is a vital first step in fusing sensor data. Among the wide range of registration techniques that have been developed for various applications, mutual information based registration algorithms have been accepted as one of the most accurate and robust methods. Inspired by the mutual information based approaches, we propose to use the joint R´enyi entropy as the dissimilarity metric between images. Since the R´enyi entropy of an image can be estimated with the length of the minimum spanning tree over the corresponding graph, the proposed information-theoretic registration ...

Ma, Bing — University of Michigan


Adaptive Nonlocal Signal Restoration and Enhancement Techniques for High-Dimensional Data

The large number of practical applications involving digital images has motivated a significant interest towards restoration solutions that improve the visual quality of the data under the presence of various acquisition and compression artifacts. Digital images are the results of an acquisition process based on the measurement of a physical quantity of interest incident upon an imaging sensor over a specified period of time. The quantity of interest depends on the targeted imaging application. Common imaging sensors measure the number of photons impinging over a dense grid of photodetectors in order to produce an image similar to what is perceived by the human visual system. Different applications focus on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum not visible by the human visual system, and thus require different sensing technologies to form the image. In all cases, even with the advance of ...

Maggioni, Matteo — Tampere University of Technology


Combining anatomical and spectral information to enhance MRSI resolution and quantification: Application to Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease that a˙ects young adults. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an integral part in monitoring multiple sclerosis disease. Conventional MR imaging sequences such as fluid attenuated inversion recovery imaging have high spatial resolution, and can visualise the presence of focal white matter brain lesions in multiple sclerosis disease. Manual delineation of these lesions on conventional MR images is time consuming and su˙ers from intra and inter-rater variability. Among the advanced MR imaging techniques, MR spectroscopic imaging can o˙er complementary information on lesion characterisation compared to conventional MR images. However, MR spectroscopic images have low spatial resolution. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to automatically segment multiple sclerosis lesions on conventional MR images and use the information from high-resolution conventional MR images to enhance the resolution of MR spectroscopic images. Automatic single time ...

Jain, Saurabh — KU Leuven


Contributions to signal analysis and processing using compressed sensing techniques

Chapter 2 contains a short introduction to the fundamentals of compressed sensing theory, which is the larger context of this thesis. We start with introducing the key concepts of sparsity and sparse representations of signals. We discuss the central problem of compressed sensing, i.e. how to adequately recover sparse signals from a small number of measurements, as well as the multiple formulations of the reconstruction problem. A large part of the chapter is devoted to some of the most important conditions necessary and/or sufficient to guarantee accurate recovery. The aim is to introduce the reader to the basic results, without the burden of detailed proofs. In addition, we also present a few of the popular reconstruction and optimization algorithms that we use throughout the thesis. Chapter 3 presents an alternative sparsity model known as analysis sparsity, that offers similar recovery ...

Cleju, Nicolae — "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


Radial Basis Function Network Robust Learning Algorithms in Computer Vision Applications

This thesis introduces new learning algorithms for Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks. RBF networks is a feed-forward two-layer neural network used for functional approximation or pattern classification applications. The proposed training algorithms are based on robust statistics. Their theoretical performance has been assessed and compared with that of classical algorithms for training RBF networks. The applications of RBF networks described in this thesis consist of simultaneously modeling moving object segmentation and optical flow estimation in image sequences and 3-D image modeling and segmentation. A Bayesian classifier model is used for the representation of the image sequence and 3-D images. This employs an energy based description of the probability functions involved. The energy functions are represented by RBF networks whose inputs are various features drawn from the images and whose outputs are objects. The hidden units embed kernel functions. Each kernel ...

Bors, Adrian G. — Aristotle University of Thessaloniki


Adaptive Signal Processing for Power Line Communications

This thesis represents a significant part of the research activity conducted during the PhD program in Information Technologies, supported by Selta S.p.A, Cadeo, Italy, focused on the analysis and design of a Power Line Communications (PLC) system. In recent times the PLC technologies have been considered for integration in Smart Grids architectures, as they are used to exploit the existing power line infrastructure for information transmission purposes on low, medium and high voltage lines. The characterization of a reliable PLC system is a current object of research as well as it is the design of modems for communications over the power lines. In this thesis, the focus is on the analysis of a full-duplex PLC modem for communication over high-voltage lines, and, in particular, on the design of the echo canceller device and innovative channel coding schemes. The first part ...

Tripodi, Carlo — Università degli Studi di Parma


Best Signal Selection with Automatic Delay Compensation in VoIP Environment

In the last decades, air traffic spread more and more in the world, connecting more and more places. At the same time, the need to manage all the flights correctly and securely increased. Air traffic authorities imposed and updated several standards for the air traffic management (ATM) system, keeping in pace with the growing traffic flow. To achieve this, special voice communication systems (VCS) were developed. They ensure the communication between the pilots and the operators from the ground control centers. When a communication is initiated between the aircraft’s pilot and the ground air traffic control operator, various systems are used. The pilot speaks through the aircraft’s radio station and the signal is received by several ground radio stations. Then, the signal from each ground radio station arrives on different paths to the control center. Here one of the received ...

Marinescu, Radu-Sebastian — University Politehnica of Bucharest


Stability of Coupled Adaptive Filters

Nowadays, many disciplines in science and engineering deal with problems for which a solution relies on knowledge about the characteristics of one or more given systems that can only be ascertained based on restricted observations. This requires the fitting of an adequately chosen model, such that it “best” conforms to a set of measured data. Depending on the context, this fitting procedure may resort to a huge amount of recorded data and abundant numerical power, or contrarily, to only a few streams of samples, which have to be processed on the fly at low computational cost. This thesis, exclusively focuses on the latter scenario. It specifically studies unexpected behaviour and reliability of the widely spread and computationally highly efficient class of gradient type algorithms. Additionally, special attention is paid to systems that combine several of them. Chapter 3 is dedicated ...

Dallinger, Robert — TU Wien


Large-Scale Light Field Capture and Reconstruction

This thesis discusses approaches and techniques to convert Sparsely-Sampled Light Fields (SSLFs) into Densely-Sampled Light Fields (DSLFs), which can be used for visualization on 3DTV and Virtual Reality (VR) devices. Exemplarily, a movable 1D large-scale light field acquisition system for capturing SSLFs in real-world environments is evaluated. This system consists of 24 sparsely placed RGB cameras and two Kinect V2 sensors. The real-world SSLF data captured with this setup can be leveraged to reconstruct real-world DSLFs. To this end, three challenging problems require to be solved for this system: (i) how to estimate the rigid transformation from the coordinate system of a Kinect V2 to the coordinate system of an RGB camera; (ii) how to register the two Kinect V2 sensors with a large displacement; (iii) how to reconstruct a DSLF from a SSLF with moderate and large disparity ranges. ...

Gao, Yuan — Department of Computer Science, Kiel University


Three-Dimensional Face Recognition

In this thesis, we attack the problem of identifying humans from their three dimensional facial characteristics. For this purpose, a complete 3D face recognition system is developed. We divide the whole system into sub-processes. These sub-processes can be categorized as follows: 1) registration, 2) representation of faces, 3) extraction of discriminative features, and 4) fusion of matchers. For each module, we evaluate the state-of-the art methods, and also propose novel ones. For the registration task, we propose to use a generic face model which speeds up the correspondence establishment process. We compare the benefits of rigid and non-rigid registration schemes using a generic face model. In terms of face representation schemes, we implement a diverse range of approaches such as point clouds, curvature-based descriptors, and range images. In relation to these, various feature extraction methods are used to determine the ...

Gokberk, Berk — Bogazici University

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