Modeling and Digital Mitigation of Transmitter Imperfections in Radio Communication Systems

To satisfy the continuously growing demands for higher data rates, modern radio communication systems employ larger bandwidths and more complex waveforms. Furthermore, radio devices are expected to support a rich mixture of standards such as cellular networks, wireless local-area networks, wireless personal area networks, positioning and navigation systems, etc. In general, a "smart'' device should be flexible to support all these requirements while being portable, cheap, and energy efficient. These seemingly conflicting expectations impose stringent radio frequency (RF) design challenges which, in turn, call for their proper understanding as well as developing cost-effective solutions to address them. The direct-conversion transceiver architecture is an appealing analog front-end for flexible and multi-standard radio systems. However, it is sensitive to various circuit impairments, and modern communication systems based on multi-carrier waveforms such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple ...

Kiayani, Adnan — Tampere University of Technology


Modeling, Identification, and Compensation of Channel Mismatch Errors in Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters

Modern signal processing applications emerging in telecommunication and instrumentation industries need high-speed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), which can be achieved by employing a time-interleaved parallel array of ADCs (time-interleaved ADCs). The time interleaving of the channels allows to increase the sampling rate by the number of channels compared to a single channel. Unfortunately, time-interleaved ADCs suffer from channel mismatches that limit their performance, wherefore this thesis deals with the identification and compensation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved ADCs. By using nonlinear hybrid filter banks, we have modeled and analyzed channel mismatches in detail. The model covers linear and nonlinear channel mismatches, unifies, and extends the channel models found in the literature. A novel foreground channel mismatch identification method has been developed, which can be used to fully characterize dynamic linear mismatches. A background identification method provides accurate timing mismatch estimates. Finally, ...

Vogel, Christian — Graz University of Technology


Digital compensation of front-end non-idealities in broadband communication systems

The wireless communication industry has seen a tremendous growth in the last few decades. The ever increasing demand to stay connected at home, work, and on the move, with voice and data applications, has continued the need for more sophisticated end-user devices. A typical smart communication device these days consists of a radio system that can access a mixture of mobile cellular services (GSM, UMTS, etc), indoor wireless broadband services (WLAN-802.11b/g/n), short range and low energy personal communications (Bluetooth), positioning and navigation systems (GPS), etc. A smart device capable of meeting all these requirements has to be highly flexible and should be able to reconfigure radio transmitters and receivers as and when required. Further, the radio modules used in these devices should be extremely small so that the device itself is portable. In addition, the device should also be economical ...

Tandur, Deepaknath — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Complex Baseband Modeling and Digital Predistortion for Wideband RF Power Amplifiers

Modern modulation methods as used in 3rd generation mobile communications (UMTS) generate strongly fluctuating transmission signal envelopes with high peak-to-average power ratios. These properties result in significant distortion due to the nonlinear behavior of the radio-frequency power amplifier (RF PA). We propose different nonlinear model structures for such amplifiers, based on memory polynomials and frequency-domain Volterra kernel expansion, where we can reduce the number of free parameters by 80% compared to traditional Volterra series approaches. Because these nonlinear models incorporate memory, we are able to model the nonlinear distortion of RF PAs with sufficient accuracy (e.g., −30 dB relative modeling error ), including the wideband case (bandwidth B = 20 MHz as needed for four-carrier WCDMA). Furthermore, we propose a method to construct RF PA models from frequency-dependent AM/AM and AM/PM conversions. For the compensation of the nonlinearities, we analyze ...

Singerl, Peter — Graz University of Technology


Transmission over Time- and Frequency-Selective Mobile Wireless Channels

The wireless communication industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, and digital cellular systems are currently designed to provide high data rates at high terminal speeds. High data rates give rise to intersymbol interference (ISI) due to so-called multipath fading. Such an ISI channel is called frequency selective. On the other hand, due to terminal mobility and/or receiver frequency offset the received signal is subject to frequency shifts (Doppler shifts). Doppler shift induces time-selectivity characteristics. The Doppler effect in conjunction with ISI gives rise to a so-called doubly selective channel (frequency- and time-selective). In addition to the channel effects, the analog front-end may suffer from an imbalance between the I and Q branch amplitudes and phases as well as from carrier frequency offset. These analog front-end imperfections then result in an additional and significant degradation in system performance, especially ...

Barhumi, Imad — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


High-End Performance with Low-End Hardware: Analysis of Massive MIMO Base Station Transceivers

Massive MIMO (multiple-input–multiple-output) is a multi-antenna technology for cellular wireless communication, where the base station uses a large number of individually controllable antennas to multiplex users spatially. This technology can provide a high spectral efficiency. One of its main challenges is the immense hardware complexity and cost of all the radio chains in the base station. To make massive MIMO commercially viable, inexpensive, low-complexity hardware with low linearity has to be used, which inherently leads to more signal distortion. This thesis investigates how the degenerated linearity of some of the main components—power amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and low-noise amplifiers—affects the performance of the system, with respect to data rate, power consumption and out-of-band radiation. The main results are: Spatial processing can reduce PAR (peak-to-average ratio) of the transmit signals in the downlink to as low as 0B; this, however, does ...

Mollén, Christopher — Linköpings universitet


Advances in DFT-Based Single-Microphone Speech Enhancement

The interest in the field of speech enhancement emerges from the increased usage of digital speech processing applications like mobile telephony, digital hearing aids and human-machine communication systems in our daily life. The trend to make these applications mobile increases the variety of potential sources for quality degradation. Speech enhancement methods can be used to increase the quality of these speech processing devices and make them more robust under noisy conditions. The name "speech enhancement" refers to a large group of methods that are all meant to improve certain quality aspects of these devices. Examples of speech enhancement algorithms are echo control, bandwidth extension, packet loss concealment and noise reduction. In this thesis we focus on single-microphone additive noise reduction and aim at methods that work in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) domain. The main objective of the presented research ...

Hendriks, Richard Christian — Delft University of Technology


Contributions to Analysis and DSP-based Mitigation of Nonlinear Distortion in Radio Transceivers

This thesis focuses on different nonlinear distortion aspects in radio transmitter and receivers. Such nonlinear distortion aspects are generally becoming more and more important as the communication waveforms themselves get more complex and thus more sensitive to any distortion. Also balancing between the implementation costs, size, power consumption and radio performance, especially in multiradio devices, creates tendency towards using lower cost, and thus lower quality, radio electronics. Furthermore, increasing requirements on radio flexibility, especially on receiver side, reduces receiver radio frequency (RF) selectivity and thus increases the dynamic range and linearity requirements. Thus overall, proper understanding of nonlinear distortion in radio devices is essential, and also opens the door for clever use of digital signal processing (DSP) in mitigating and suppressing such distortion effects. On the receiver side, the emphasis in this thesis is mainly on the analysis and DSP ...

Shahed hagh ghadam, Ali — Tampere University of Technology


Full-Duplex Wireless: Self-interference Modeling, Digital Cancellation, and System Studies

In the recent years, a significant portion of the research within the field of wireless communications has been motivated by two aspects: the constant increase in the number of wireless devices and the higher and higher data rate requirements of the individual applications. The undisputed outcome of these phenomena is the heavy congestion of the suitable spectral resources. This has inspired many innovative solutions for improving the spectral efficiency of the wireless communications systems by facilitating more simultaneous connections and higher data rates without requiring additional spectrum. These include technologies such as in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulation, multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems, and the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) waveform, among others. Even though these existing solutions have greatly improved the spectral efficiency of wireless communications, even more advanced techniques are needed for fulfilling the future data transfer requirements in the ultra high ...

Korpi, Dani — Tampere University of Technology


Behavioral Modeling and Digital Predistortion of Radio Frequency Power Amplifiers

The radio frequency power amplifier (RF-PA) within a digital wireless transmitter is a critical component regarding both the energy consumption and the signal quality. Especially due to today's broadband multicarrier modulation methods that generate signals with high peak-to-average power ratio, it is very hard to construct RF-PAs that achieve good energy efficiency and fulfill the strict linearity requirements imposed by the standard. Because of this, the digital predistortion (DPD) of RF-PAs has become a key technique for implementing energy efficient, high data rate wireless transmitters. This thesis investigates theoretical foundations and practical methods for the behavioral modeling and DPD of RF-PAs. The main contributions are a semi-physical model of the joint linearity-efficiency characteristics of RF-PAs, a detailed analysis of polynomial baseband models of RF-PAs focusing on the often neglected even-order terms in baseband, and a collection of practical methods for ...

Enzinger, Harald — Graz University of Technology


Impairments in coordinated cellular networks: analysis, impact on performance and mitigation

Base station cooperation is recognized as a key technology for future wireless cellular communication networks. Considering antennas of distributed base stations and those of multiple terminals within those cells as a distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, this technique has the potential to eliminate inter-cell interference by joint signal processing and to enhance spectral efficiency in this way. Although the theoretical gains are meanwhile well-understood, it still remains challenging to realize the full potential of such cooperative schemes in real-world systems. Among other factors, such as the limited overhead for pilot symbols and for the feedback and backhaul, these performance limitations are related to channel and synchronization impairments, such as channel estimation, feedback quantization and channel aging, as well as imperfect carrier and sampling synchronization among the base stations. Because of these impairments, joint data precoding results to be mismatched with ...

Manolakis, Konstantinos — Technische Universität Berlin


Adaptive Calibration of Frequency Response Mismatches in Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters

The performance of today's communication systems is highly dependent on the employed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and in order to provide more flexibility and precision for the emerging communication technologies, high-performance ADCs are required. In this regard, the time-interleaved operation of an array of ADCs (TI-ADC) can be a reasonable solution. A TI-ADC can increase its throughput by using M channel ADCs or subconverters in parallel and sampling the input signal in a time-interleaved manner. However, the performance of a TI-ADC badly suffers from the mismatches among the channel ADCs. The mismatches among channel ADCs distort the TI-ADC output spectrum by introducing spurious tones besides the actual signal components. This thesis deals with the adaptive background calibration of frequency-response mismatches in a TI-ADC. By modeling each channel ADC as a linear time-invariant system, we develop the continuous-time, discrete-time, and time-varying system ...

Saleem, Shahzad — Graz University of Technology


Signal Processing for Ultra Wideband Transceivers

In this thesis novel implementation approaches for standardized and non-standardized ultra wide-band (UWB) systems are presented. These implementation approaches include signal processing algorithms to achieve processing of UWB signals in transceiver front-ends and in digital back-ends. A parallelization of the transceiver in the frequency-domain has been achieved with hybrid filterbank transceivers. The standardized MB-OFDM signaling scheme allows par- allelization in the frequency domain by distributing the orthogonal multicarrier modulation onto multiple units. Furthermore, the channel’s response to wideband signals has been parallelized in the frequency domain and the effects of the parallelization have been investi- gated. Slight performance decreases are observed, where the limiting effects are truncated sidelobes and filter mismatches in analog front-ends. Measures for the performance loss have been defined. For UWB signal generation, a novel broadband signal generation approach is presented. For that purpose, multiple digital-to-analog converters ...

Krall, Christoph — Graz University of Technology


OFDM Air-Interface Design for Multimedia Communications

The aim of this dissertation is the investigation of the key issues encountered in the development of wideband radio air-interfaces. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as the enabling technology for transmitting data at extremely high rates over time-dispersive radio channels. OFDM is a transmission scheme, which splits up the data stream, sending the data symbols simultaneously at a drastically reduced symbol rate over a set of parallel sub-carriers. The first part of this thesis deals with the modeling of the time-dispersive and frequency-selective radio channel, utilizing second order Gaussian stochastic processes. A novel channel measurement technique is developed, in which the RMS delay spread of the channel is estimated from the level-crossing rate of the frequency-selective channel transfer function. This method enables the empirical channel characterization utilizing simplified non-coherent measurements of the received power versus frequency. Air-interface and multiple ...

Witrisal, Klaus — Delft University of Technology


Signal Processing for Energy-Efficient Burst-Mode RF Transmitters

Modern wireless communication systems utilize complex modulated signals such as OFDM signals to achieve increased data rates and spectral efficiency. These signals are characterized by a high peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR). Thus, highly linear transmitters are required to provide sufficient transmission signal linearity. Conventional linear PAs, such as Class A or Class AB, produce high efficiency only near or at the peak output power region. As a result, the average efficiency is quite low for high PAPR signals. For non-portable devices such as base stations or mobile devices like mobile phones, low PA efficiency means higher heat dissipation which is often a design criterion. In addition, in mobile devices, a direct consequence of the low PA efficiency is the reduced battery lifetime, especially when the mobile device is required to operate at quite different output power levels. This thesis addresses the ...

Chi, Shuli — Signal Processing and Speech Communication Laboratory

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