Direction of Arrival Estimation and Localization Exploiting Sparse and One-Bit Sampling

Data acquisition is a necessary first step in digital signal processing applications such as radar, wireless communications and array processing. Traditionally, this process is performed by uniformly sampling signals at a frequency above the Nyquist rate and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values through high-resolution amplitude quantization. While the traditional approach to data acquisition is straightforward and extremely well-proven, it may be either impractical or impossible in many modern applications due to the existing fundamental trade-off between sampling rate, amplitude quantization precision, implementation costs, and usage of physical resources, e.g. bandwidth and power consumption. Motivated by this fact, system designers have recently proposed exploiting sparse and few-bit quantized sampling instead of the traditional way of data acquisition in order to reduce implementation costs and usage of physical resources in such applications. However, before transition from the tradition data ...

Saeid Sedighi — University of Luxembourg


Enabling Technologies and Cyber-Physical Systems for Mission-Critical Scenarios

Reliable transport systems, defense, public safety and quality assurance in the Industry 4.0 are essential in a modern society. In a mission-critical scenario, a mission failure would jeopardize human lives and put at risk some other assets whose impairment or loss would significantly harm society or business results. Even small degradations of the communications supporting the mission could have large and possibly dire consequences. On the one hand, mission-critical organizations wish to utilize the most modern, disruptive and innovative communication systems and technologies, and yet, on the other hand, need to comply with strict requirements, which are very different to those of non critical scenarios. The aim of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of applying emerging technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and 4G broadband communications in mission-critical scenarios along three key critical infrastructure sectors: ...

Fraga-Lamas, Paula — University of A Coruña


Advanced Signal Processing Concepts for Multi-Dimensional Communication Systems

The widespread use of mobile internet and smart applications has led to an explosive growth in mobile data traffic. With the rise of smart homes, smart buildings, and smart cities, this demand is ever growing since future communication systems will require the integration of multiple networks serving diverse sectors, domains and applications, such as multimedia, virtual or augmented reality, machine-to-machine (M2M) communication / the Internet of things (IoT), automotive applications, and many more. Therefore, in the future, the communication systems will not only be required to provide Gbps wireless connectivity but also fulfill other requirements such as low latency and massive machine type connectivity while ensuring the quality of service. Without significant technological advances to increase the system capacity, the existing telecommunications infrastructure will be unable to support these multi-dimensional requirements. This poses an important demand for suitable waveforms with ...

Cheema, Sher Ali — Technische Universität Ilmenau


Decentralized Estimation Under Communication Constraints

In this thesis, we consider the problem of decentralized estimation under communication constraints in the context of Collaborative Signal and Information Processing. Motivated by sensor network applications, a high volume of data collected at distinct locations and possibly in diverse modalities together with the spatially distributed nature and the resource limitations of the underlying system are of concern. Designing processing schemes which match the constraints imposed by the system while providing a reasonable accuracy has been a major challenge in which we are particularly interested in the tradeoff between the estimation performance and the utilization of communications subject to energy and bandwidth constraints. One remarkable approach for decentralized inference in sensor networks is to exploit graphical models together with message passing algorithms. In this framework, after the so-called information graph of the problem is constructed, it is mapped onto the ...

Uney, Murat — Middle East Technical University


Stochastic Schemes for Dynamic Network Resource Allocation

Wireless networks and power distribution grids are experiencing increasing demands on their efficiency and reliability. Judicious methods for allocating scarce resources such as power and bandwidth are of paramount importance. As a result, nonlinear optimization and signal processing tools have been incorporated into the design of contemporary networks. This thesis develops schemes for efficient resource allocation (RA) in such dynamic networks, with an emphasis in stochasticity, which is accounted for in the problem formulation as well as in the algorithms and schemes to solve those problems. Stochastic optimization and decomposition techniques are investigated to develop low-complexity algorithms with specific applications in cross-layer design of wireless communications, cognitive radio (CR) networks and smart power distribution systems. The costs and constraints on the availability of network resources, together with diverse quality of service (QoS) requirements, render network design, management, and operation challenging ...

Lopez Ramos, Luis Miguel — King Juan Carlos University


Robust and multiresolution video delivery : From H.26x to Matching pursuit based technologies

With the joint development of networking and digital coding technologies multimedia and more particularly video services are clearly becoming one of the major consumers of the new information networks. The rapid growth of the Internet and computer industry however results in a very heterogeneous infrastructure commonly overloaded. Video service providers have nevertheless to oer to their clients the best possible quality according to their respective capabilities and communication channel status. The Quality of Service is not only inuenced by the compression artifacts, but also by unavoidable packet losses. Hence, the packet video stream has clearly to fulll possibly contradictory requirements, that are coding eciency and robustness to data loss. The rst contribution of this thesis is the complete modeling of the video Quality of Service (QoS) in standard and more particularly MPEG-2 applications. The performance of Forward Error Control (FEC) ...

Frossard, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Toward sparse and geometry adapted video approximations

Video signals are sequences of natural images, where images are often modeled as piecewise-smooth signals. Hence, video can be seen as a 3D piecewise-smooth signal made of piecewise-smooth regions that move through time. Based on the piecewise-smooth model and on related theoretical work on rate-distortion performance of wavelet and oracle based coding schemes, one can better analyze the appropriate coding strategies that adaptive video codecs need to implement in order to be efficient. Efficient video representations for coding purposes require the use of adaptive signal decompositions able to capture appropriately the structure and redundancy appearing in video signals. Adaptivity needs to be such that it allows for proper modeling of signals in order to represent these with the lowest possible coding cost. Video is a very structured signal with high geometric content. This includes temporal geometry (normally represented by motion ...

Divorra Escoda, Oscar — EPFL / Signal Processing Institute


Privacy Protecting Biometric Authentication Systems

As biometrics gains popularity and proliferates into the daily life, there is an increased concern over the loss of privacy and potential misuse of biometric data held in central repositories. The major concerns are about i) the use of biometrics to track people, ii) non-revocability of biometrics (eg. if a fingerprint is compromised it can not be canceled or reissued), and iii) disclosure of sensitive information such as race, gender and health problems which may be revealed by biometric traits. The straightforward suggestion of keeping the biometric data in a user owned token (eg. smart cards) does not completely solve the problem, since malicious users can claim that their token is broken to avoid biometric verification altogether. Put together, these concerns brought the need for privacy preserving biometric authentication methods in the recent years. In this dissertation, we survey existing ...

Kholmatov, Alisher — Sabanci University


Deep Learning Techniques for Visual Counting

The explosion of Deep Learning (DL) added a boost to the already rapidly developing field of Computer Vision to such a point that vision-based tasks are now parts of our everyday lives. Applications such as image classification, photo stylization, or face recognition are nowadays pervasive, as evidenced by the advent of modern systems trivially integrated into mobile applications. In this thesis, we investigated and enhanced the visual counting task, which automatically estimates the number of objects in still images or video frames. Recently, due to the growing interest in it, several Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based solutions have been suggested by the scientific community. These artificial neural networks, inspired by the organization of the animal visual cortex, provide a way to automatically learn effective representations from raw visual data and can be successfully employed to address typical challenges characterizing this task, ...

Ciampi Luca — University of Pisa


Adaptive Signal Processing for Power Line Communications

This thesis represents a significant part of the research activity conducted during the PhD program in Information Technologies, supported by Selta S.p.A, Cadeo, Italy, focused on the analysis and design of a Power Line Communications (PLC) system. In recent times the PLC technologies have been considered for integration in Smart Grids architectures, as they are used to exploit the existing power line infrastructure for information transmission purposes on low, medium and high voltage lines. The characterization of a reliable PLC system is a current object of research as well as it is the design of modems for communications over the power lines. In this thesis, the focus is on the analysis of a full-duplex PLC modem for communication over high-voltage lines, and, in particular, on the design of the echo canceller device and innovative channel coding schemes. The first part ...

Tripodi, Carlo — Università degli Studi di Parma


Linear Dynamical Systems with Sparsity Constraints: Theory and Algorithms

This thesis develops new mathematical theory and presents novel recovery algorithms for discrete linear dynamical systems (LDS) with sparsity constraints on either control inputs or initial state. The recovery problems in this framework manifest as the problem of reconstructing one or more sparse signals from a set of noisy underdetermined linear measurements. The goal of our work is to design algorithms for sparse signal recovery which can exploit the underlying structure in the measurement matrix and the unknown sparse vectors, and to analyze the impact of these structures on the efficacy of the recovery. We answer three fundamental and interconnected questions on sparse signal recovery problems that arise in the context of LDS. First, what are necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a sparse solution? Second, given that a sparse solution exists, what are good low-complexity algorithms that ...

Joseph, Geethu — Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore


Optimization of Positioning Capabilities in Wireless Sensor Networks: from power efficiency to medium access

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the ability of sensor nodes to know its position is an enabler for a wide variety of applications for monitoring, control, and automation. Often, sensor data is meaningful only if its position can be determined. Many WSN are deployed indoors or in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal coverage is not available, and thus GNSS positioning cannot be guaranteed. In these scenarios, WSN may be relied upon to achieve a satisfactory degree of positioning accuracy. Typically, batteries power sensor nodes in WSN. These batteries are costly to replace. Therefore, power consumption is an important aspect, being performance and lifetime ofWSN strongly relying on the ability to reduce it. It is crucial to design effective strategies to maximize battery lifetime. Optimization of power consumption can be made at different layers. For example, at the ...

Moragrega, Ana — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Self-organized Femtocells: a Time Difference Learning Approach

The use model of mobile networks has drastically changed in recent years. Next generation devices and new applications have made the availability of high quality wireless data everywhere a necessity for mobile users. Thus, cellular networks must be highly improved in terms of coverage and capacity. Networks that include smart entities and functionalities, and that allow to fulfil all the mobile networks’ new requirements are called heterogeneous networks. One key component in heterogeneous networks is femtocells. Femtocells are low range, low power mobile base stations deployed by the end consumers, which underlay the macrocell system and provide a solution to the problem of indoor coverage for mobile communications. Femtocells can reuse the radio spectrum and, thereby, they allow increasing the spectral efficiency. Moreover, under appropriate algorithms for interference control, they give a viable alternative to the problem of spectrum static ...

A. Galindo-Serrano — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomuniacions de Catalunya (CTTC)


Distributed Signal Processing for Binaural Hearing Aids

Over the last centuries, hearing aids have evolved from crude and bulky horn-shaped instruments to lightweight and almost invisible digital signal processing devices. While most of the research has focused on the design of monaural apparatus, the use of a wireless link has been recently advocated to enable data transfer between hearing aids such as to obtain a binaural system. The availability of a wireless link offers brand new perspectives but also poses great technical challenges. It requires the design of novel signal processing schemes that address the restricted communication bitrates, processing delays and power consumption limitations imposed by wireless hearing aids. The goal of this dissertation is to address these issues at both a theoretical and a practical level. We start by taking a distributed source coding view on the problem of binaural noise reduction. The proposed analysis allows ...

Roy, Olivier — EPFL


Distributed Stochastic Optimization in Non-Differentiable and Non-Convex Environments

The first part of this dissertation considers distributed learning problems over networked agents. The general objective of distributed adaptation and learning is the solution of global, stochastic optimization problems through localized interactions and without information about the statistical properties of the data. Regularization is a useful technique to encourage or enforce structural properties on the resulting solution, such as sparsity or constraints. A substantial number of regularizers are inherently non-smooth, while many cost functions are differentiable. We propose distributed and adaptive strategies that are able to minimize aggregate sums of objectives. In doing so, we exploit the structure of the individual objectives as sums of differentiable costs and non-differentiable regularizers. The resulting algorithms are adaptive in nature and able to continuously track drifts in the problem; their recursions, however, are subject to persistent perturbations arising from the stochastic nature of ...

Vlaski, Stefan — University of California, Los Angeles

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