Three dimensional shape modeling: segmentation, reconstruction and registration

Accounting for uncertainty in three-dimensional (3D) shapes is important in a large number of scientific and engineering areas, such as biometrics, biomedical imaging, and data mining. It is well known that 3D polar shaped objects can be represented by Fourier descriptors such as spherical harmonics and double Fourier series. However, the statistics of these spectral shape models have not been widely explored. This thesis studies several areas involved in 3D shape modeling, including random field models for statistical shape modeling, optimal shape filtering, parametric active contours for object segmentation and surface reconstruction. It also investigates multi-modal image registration with respect to tumor activity quantification. Spherical harmonic expansions over the unit sphere not only provide a low dimensional polarimetric parameterization of stochastic shape, but also correspond to the Karhunen-Lo´eve (K-L) expansion of any isotropic random field on the unit sphere. Spherical ...

Li, Jia — University of Michigan


Discrete-time speech processing with application to emotion recognition

The subject of this PhD thesis is the efficient and robust processing and analysis of the audio recordings that are derived from a call center. The thesis is comprised of two parts. The first part is dedicated to dialogue/non-dialogue detection and to speaker segmentation. The systems that are developed are prerequisite for detecting (i) the audio segments that actually contain a dialogue between the system and the call center customer and (ii) the change points between the system and the customer. This way the volume of the audio recordings that need to be processed is significantly reduced, while the system is automated. To detect the presence of a dialogue several systems are developed. This is the first effort found in the international literature that the audio channel is exclusively exploited. Also, it is the first time that the speaker utterance ...

Kotti, Margarita — Aristotle University of Thessaloniki


Privacy Protecting Biometric Authentication Systems

As biometrics gains popularity and proliferates into the daily life, there is an increased concern over the loss of privacy and potential misuse of biometric data held in central repositories. The major concerns are about i) the use of biometrics to track people, ii) non-revocability of biometrics (eg. if a fingerprint is compromised it can not be canceled or reissued), and iii) disclosure of sensitive information such as race, gender and health problems which may be revealed by biometric traits. The straightforward suggestion of keeping the biometric data in a user owned token (eg. smart cards) does not completely solve the problem, since malicious users can claim that their token is broken to avoid biometric verification altogether. Put together, these concerns brought the need for privacy preserving biometric authentication methods in the recent years. In this dissertation, we survey existing ...

Kholmatov, Alisher — Sabanci University


Extended Bag-of-Words Formalism for Image Classification

Visual information, in the form of digital images and videos, has become so omnipresent in computer databases and repositories, that it can no longer be considered a “second class citizen”, eclipsed by textual information. In that scenario, image classification has become a critical task. In particular, the pursuit of automatic identification of complex semantical concepts represented in images, such as scenes or objects, has motivated researchers in areas as diverse as Information Retrieval, Computer Vision, Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence. Nevertheless, in contrast to text documents, whose words carry semantic, images consist of pixels that have no semanticinformation by themselves, making the task very challenging. In this dissertation, we have addressed the problem of representing images based on their visual information. Our aim is content-based concept detection in images and videos, with a novel representation that enriches the Bag-of-Words model. ...

Avila, Sandra Eliza Fontes — Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Université Pierre et Marie Curie


Design and Evaluation of Feedback Control Algorithms for Implantable Hearing Devices

Using a hearing device is one of the most successful approaches to partially restore the degraded functionality of an impaired auditory system. However, due to the complex structure of the human auditory system, hearing impairment can manifest itself in different ways and, therefore, its compensation can be achieved through different classes of hearing devices. Although the majority of hearing devices consists of conventional hearing aids (HAs), several other classes of hearing devices have been developed. For instance, bone-conduction devices (BCDs) and cochlear implants (CIs) have successfully been used for more than thirty years. More recently, other classes of implantable devices have been developed such as middle ear implants (MEIs), implantable BCDs, and direct acoustic cochlear implants (DACIs). Most of these different classes of hearing devices rely on a sound processor running different algorithms able to compensate for the hearing impairment. ...

Bernardi, Giuliano — KU Leuven


Novel Methods in H.264/AVC (Inter Prediction, Data Hiding, Bit Rate Transcoding)

H.264 Advanced Video Coding has become the dominant video coding standard in the market, within a few years after the first version of the standard was completed by the ISO/IEC MPEG and the ITU-T VCEG groups in May 2003. That happened mainly due to the great coding efficiency of H.264. Compared to MPEG-2, the previous dominant standard, the H.264 compression ratio is about twice as higher for the same video quality. That makes H.264 ideal for a numerous of applications, such as video broadcasting, video streaming and video conferencing. However, the H.264 efficiency is achieved at the expense of the codec¢s complexity. H.264 complexity is about four times that of MPEG-2. As a consequence, many video coding issues, which have been addressed in previous standards, need to be re-considered. For example the H.264 encoding of a video in real time ...

Kapotas, Spyridon — Hellenic Open University


Device-to-Device Wireless Communications

Device-to-Device (D2D) is one of the important proposed solutions to increase the capacity, offload the traffic, and improve the energy effciency in next generation cellular networks. D2D communication is known as a direct communication between two users without using cellular infrastructure networks. Despite of large expected bene fits in terms of capacity in D2D, the coexistence of D2D and cellular networks in the same spectrum creates new challenges in interference management and network design. To limit the interference power control schemes on cellular networks and D2D networks are typically adopted. Even though power control is introduced to limit the interference level, it does not prevent cellular and D2D users from experiencing coverage limitation when sharing the same radio resources. Therefore, the design of such networks requires the availability of suitable methods able to properly model the eff ect of interference ...

Alhalabi, Ashraf S.A. — Universita Degli Sudi di Bologna


Interpretable Machine Learning for Machine Listening

Recent years have witnessed a significant interest in interpretable machine learning (IML) research that develops techniques to analyse machine learning (ML) models. Understanding ML models is essential to gain trust in their predictions and to improve datasets, model architectures and training techniques. The majority of effort in IML research has been in analysing models that classify images or structured data and comparatively less work exists that analyses models for other domains. This research focuses on developing novel IML methods and on extending existing methods to understand machine listening models that analyse audio. In particular, this thesis reports the results of three studies that apply three different IML methods to analyse five singing voice detection (SVD) models that predict singing voice activity in musical audio excerpts. The first study introduces SoundLIME (SLIME), a method to generate temporal, spectral or time-frequency explanations ...

Mishra, Saumitra — Queen Mary University of London


Counting sequences, Gray codes and lexicodes

A counting sequence of length n is a list of all 2^n binary n-tuples (binary codewords of length n). The number of bit positions where two codewords differ is called the Hamming distance of these two codewords. The average Hamming distance of a counting sequence of length n is defined as the average Hamming distance between the 2^n pairs of successive codewords, including the pair of the last and the first codeword. A counting sequence of length n which has average Hamming distance equal to n-1/2 is called a maximum counting sequence. The number of bit changes in bit position i, in a counting sequence of length n is called the transition count of bit position i. If a counting sequence of length n has the property that the difference between any two bit positions is at most 2, the ...

Suparta, I Nengah — Delft University of Technology


Dynamics of Brain Function in Preterm-Born Young Adolescents

Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopment impairments often only appearing later in life. The brain is still at a high rate of development during adolescence, making this a promising window for intervention. It is thus crucial to understand the mechanisms of altered brain function in this population. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the brain dynamically reconfigures its own organisation over time in preterm-born young adolescents. Research to date has mainly focused on structural disturbances or in static features of brain function in this population. However, recent studies have shown that brain activity is highly dynamic, both spontaneously and during performance of a task, and that small disruptions in its complex architecture may interfere with normal behaviour and cognitive abilities. This thesis explores the dynamic nature of brain function in preterm-born adolescents in three ...

Freitas, Lorena G. A. — École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne


Acoustic Event Detection: Feature, Evaluation and Dataset Design

It takes more time to think of a silent scene, action or event than finding one that emanates sound. Not only speaking or playing music but almost everything that happens is accompanied with or results in one or more sounds mixed together. This makes acoustic event detection (AED) one of the most researched topics in audio signal processing nowadays and it will probably not see a decline anywhere in the near future. This is due to the thirst for understanding and digitally abstracting more and more events in life via the enormous amount of recorded audio through thousands of applications in our daily routine. But it is also a result of two intrinsic properties of audio: it doesn’t need a direct sight to be perceived and is less intrusive to record when compared to image or video. Many applications such ...

Mina Mounir — KU Leuven, ESAT STADIUS


Direction Finding In The Presence of Array Imperfections, Model Mismatches and Multipath

In direction finding (DF) applications, there are several factors affecting the estimation accuracy of the direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of unknown source locations. The major distortions in the estimation process are due to the array imperfections, model mismatches and multipath. The array imperfections usually exist in practical applications due to the nonidealities in the antenna array such as mutual coupling (MC) and gain/phase uncertainties. The model mismatches usually occur when the model of the received signal differs from the signal model used in the processing stage of the DF system. Another distortion is due to multipath signals. In the multipath scenario, the antenna array receives the transmitted signal from more than one path with different directions and the array covariance matrix is rank-deficient. In this thesis, three new methods are proposed for the problems in DF applications in the presence of array ...

Elbir, Ahmet M. — Middle East Technical Univresity


Adapted Fusion Schemes for Multimodal Biometric Authentication

This Thesis is focused on the combination of multiple biometric traits for automatic person authentication, in what is called a multimodal biometric system. More generally, any type of biometric information can be combined in what is called a multibiometric system. The information sources in multibiometrics include not only multiple biometric traits but also multiple sensors, multiple biometric instances (e.g., different fingers in fingerprint verification), repeated instances, and multiple algorithms. Most of the approaches found in the literature for combining these various information sources are based on the combination of the matching scores provided by individual systems built on the different biometric evidences. The combination schemes following this architecture are typically based on combination rules or trained pattern classifiers, and most of them assume that the score level fusion function is fixed at verification time. This Thesis considers the problem of ...

Fierrez, Julian — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid


Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-based Positioning Applications

Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in any Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or the developing European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can create significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used in the time delay estimate of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) of a navigation receiver, leading to an error in the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on a navigation receiver, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. Many of these techniques rely on modifying the tracking loop discriminator (i.e., the DLL and its enhanced variants) in order to make it resistant to multipath, but their performance in severe ...

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul Hasan — Tampere University of Technology


A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO TARGET DIFFERENTIATION WITH SONAR

This study compares the performances of different classification schemes and fusion techniques for target differentiation and localization of commonly encountered features in indoor robot environments using sonar sensing. Differentiation of such features is of interest for intelligent systems in a variety of applications such as system control based on acoustic signal detection and identification, map-building, navigation, obstacle avoidance, and target tracking. The classification schemes employed include the target differentiation algorithm developed by Ayrulu and Barshan, statistical pattern recognition techniques, fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, and artificial neural networks. The fusion techniques used are Dempster-Shafer evidential reasoning and different voting schemes. To solve the consistency problem arising in simple majority voting, different voting schemes including preference ordering and reliability measures are proposed and verified experimentally. To improve the performance of neural network classifiers, different input signal representations, two different training algorithms, and ...

Ayrulu-Erdem, Birsel — Bilkent University

The current layout is optimized for mobile phones. Page previews, thumbnails, and full abstracts will remain hidden until the browser window grows in width.

The current layout is optimized for tablet devices. Page previews and some thumbnails will remain hidden until the browser window grows in width.