Signal processing algorithms for wireless acoustic sensor networks

Recent academic developments have initiated a paradigm shift in the way spatial sensor data can be acquired. Traditional localized and regularly arranged sensor arrays are replaced by sensor nodes that are randomly distributed over the entire spatial field, and which communicate with each other or with a master node through wireless communication links. Together, these nodes form a so-called ‘wireless sensor network’ (WSN). Each node of a WSN has a local sensor array and a signal processing unit to perform computations on the acquired data. The advantage of WSNs compared to traditional (wired) sensor arrays, is that many more sensors can be used that physically cover the full spatial field, which typically yields more variety (and thus more information) in the signals. It is likely that future data acquisition, control and physical monitoring, will heavily rely on this type of ...

Bertrand, Alexander — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Distributed Localization and Tracking of Acoustic Sources

Localization, separation and tracking of acoustic sources are ancient challenges that lots of animals and human beings are doing intuitively and sometimes with an impressive accuracy. Artificial methods have been developed for various applications and conditions. The majority of those methods are centralized, meaning that all signals are processed together to produce the estimation results. The concept of distributed sensor networks is becoming more realistic as technology advances in the fields of nano-technology, micro electro-mechanic systems (MEMS) and communication. A distributed sensor network comprises scattered nodes which are autonomous, self-powered modules consisting of sensors, actuators and communication capabilities. A variety of layout and connectivity graphs are usually used. Distributed sensor networks have a broad range of applications, which can be categorized in ecology, military, environment monitoring, medical, security and surveillance. In this dissertation we develop algorithms for distributed sensor networks ...

Dorfan, Yuval — Bar Ilan University


Speech derereverberation in noisy environments using time-frequency domain signal models

Reverberation is the sum of reflected sound waves and is present in any conventional room. Speech communication devices such as mobile phones in hands-free mode, tablets, smart TVs, teleconferencing systems, hearing aids, voice-controlled systems, etc. use one or more microphones to pick up the desired speech signals. When the microphones are not in the proximity of the desired source, strong reverberation and noise can degrade the signal quality at the microphones and can impair the intelligibility and the performance of automatic speech recognizers. Therefore, it is a highly demanded task to process the microphone signals such that reverberation and noise are reduced. The process of reducing or removing reverberation from recorded signals is called dereverberation. As dereverberation is usually a completely blind problem, where the only available information are the microphone signals, and as the acoustic scenario can be non-stationary, ...

Braun, Sebastian — Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg


Adaptive Calibration of Frequency Response Mismatches in Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters

The performance of today's communication systems is highly dependent on the employed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and in order to provide more flexibility and precision for the emerging communication technologies, high-performance ADCs are required. In this regard, the time-interleaved operation of an array of ADCs (TI-ADC) can be a reasonable solution. A TI-ADC can increase its throughput by using M channel ADCs or subconverters in parallel and sampling the input signal in a time-interleaved manner. However, the performance of a TI-ADC badly suffers from the mismatches among the channel ADCs. The mismatches among channel ADCs distort the TI-ADC output spectrum by introducing spurious tones besides the actual signal components. This thesis deals with the adaptive background calibration of frequency-response mismatches in a TI-ADC. By modeling each channel ADC as a linear time-invariant system, we develop the continuous-time, discrete-time, and time-varying system ...

Saleem, Shahzad — Graz University of Technology


ACHIEVABLE RATES FOR GAUSSIAN CHANNELS WITH MULTIPLE RELAYS

Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channels are extensively proposed as a means to overcome the random channel impairments of wireless communications. Based upon placing multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver sides of the communication, their virtues are twofold. On the one hand, they allow the transmitter to code across antennas to overcome unknown channel fading. On the other hand, they permit the receiver to sample the signal on the space domain. This operation, followed by the coherent combination of samples, increases the signal-to-noise ratio at the input of the detector and provides large capacity, and reliability, gains. Nevertheless, equipping wireless handsets with multiple antennas is not always possible or worthwhile. Mainly, due to size and cost constraints, respectively. For these cases, the appropriate manner to exploit multi-antenna processing is by means of relaying. This consists of a set of wireless relay ...

Del Coso, Aitor — CTTC-Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya


Informed spatial filters for speech enhancement

In modern devices which provide hands-free speech capturing functionality, such as hands-free communication kits and voice-controlled devices, the received speech signal at the microphones is corrupted by background noise, interfering speech signals, and room reverberation. In many practical situations, the microphones are not necessarily located near the desired source, and hence, the ratio of the desired speech power to the power of the background noise, the interfering speech, and the reverberation at the microphones can be very low, often around or even below 0 dB. In such situations, the comfort of human-to-human communication, as well as the accuracy of automatic speech recognisers for voice-controlled applications can be signi cantly degraded. Therefore, e ffective speech enhancement algorithms are required to process the microphone signals before transmitting them to the far-end side for communication, or before feeding them into a speech recognition ...

Taseska, Maja — Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg


Maximum a posteriori Deconvolution of Ultrasonic Data with Applications in Nondestructive Testing: Multiple transducer and robustness issues

In the thesis, various aspects of deconvolution of ultrasonic pulse-echo signals in nondestructive testing are treated. The deconvolution problem is formulated as estimation of a reflection sequence which is the impulse characteristic of the inspected object and the estimation is performed using either maximum a posteriori (MAP) or linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimators. A multivariable model is proposed for a certain multiple transducer setup allowing for frequency diversity, thereby improving the estimation accuracy. Using the MAP estimator three different material types were treated, with varying amount of sparsity in the reflection sequences. The Gaussian distribution is used for modelling materials containing a large number of small scatters. The Bernoulli--Gaussian distribution is used for sparse data obtained from layered structures and a genetic algorithm approach is proposed for optimizing the corresponding MAP criterion. Sequences with intermediate sparsity suitable of ...

Olofsson, Tomas — Uppsala University


Feedback Delay Networks in Artificial Reverberation and Reverberation Enhancement

In today's audio production and reproduction as well as in music performance practices it has become common practice to alter reverberation artificially through electronics or electro-acoustics. For music productions, radio plays, and movie soundtracks, the sound is often captured in small studio spaces with little to no reverberation to save real estate and to ensure a controlled environment such that the artistically intended spatial impression can be added during post-production. Spatial sound reproduction systems require flexible adjustment of artificial reverberation to the diffuse sound portion to help the reconstruction of the spatial impression. Many modern performance spaces are multi-purpose, and the reverberation needs to be adjustable to the desired performance style. Employing electro-acoustic feedback, also known as Reverberation Enhancement Systems (RESs), it is possible to extend the physical to the desired reverberation. These examples demonstrate a wide range of applications ...

Schlecht, Sebastian Jiro — Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg


Subband and Frequency-Domain Adaptive Filtering Techniques for Speech Enhancement in Hands-free Communication

The telecommunications sector is characterized by an increasing demand for user-friendliness and interactivity. This explains the growing interest in hands-free communication systems. Signal quality in current hands-free systems is unsatisfactory. To overcome this, advanced signal processing techniques such as the subband and frequency-domain adaptive filter are employed to enhance the signal. These techniques are known to have computationally efficient solutions. Furthermore, thanks to the frequency-dependent processing and adaptivity, highly time-varying systems and signals with a continuously changing spectral content such as speech can be handled. This thesis deals with subband and frequency-domain adaptive filtering techniques for speech enhancement in hands-free communication. The text consists of four parts. In the first part design methods for perfect and nearly perfect reconstruction DFT modulated filter banks are discussed. Part II deals with subband and frequency-domain adaptive filtering. The subband adaptive filter and the ...

Eneman, Koen — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Dynamic organization of human brain function and its relevance for psychosis vulnerability

The brain is the substrate of a complex dynamic system providing a remarkably varied range of functionalities, going from simple perception to higher-level cognition. Disturbances in its complex dynamics can cause an equally vast variety of mental disorders. One such brain disorder is schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by abnormal perception of reality that manifests in symptoms like hallucinations or delusions. Even though the brain is known to be affected in schizophrenia, the exact pathophysiology underlying its developmental course is still mostly unknown. In this thesis, we develop and apply methods to look into ongoing brain function measured through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluate the potential of these approaches for improving our understanding of psychosis vulnerability and schizophrenia. We focus on patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a genetic disorder that comes with a 30fold increased risk for ...

Zöller, Daniela — EPFL (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)


Performance Analysis and Algorithm Design for Distributed Transmit Beamforming

Wireless sensor networks has been one of the major research topics in recent years because of its great potential for a wide range of applications. In some application scenarios, sensor nodes intend to report the sensing data to a far-field destination, which cannot be realized by traditional transmission techniques. Due to the energy limitations and the hardware constraints of sensor nodes, distributed transmit beamforming is considered as an attractive candidate for long-range communications in such scenarios as it can reduce energy requirement of each sen-sor node and extend the communication range. However, unlike conventional beamforming, which is performed by a centralized antenna array, distributed beamforming is performed by a virtual antenna array composed of randomly located sensor nodes, each of which has an independent oscillator. Sensor nodes have to coordinate with each other and adjust their transmitting signals to collaboratively ...

Song, Shuo — University of Edinburgh


Domain-informed signal processing with application to analysis of human brain functional MRI data

Standard signal processing techniques are implicitly based on the assumption that the signal lies on a regular, homogeneous domain. In practice, however, many signals lie on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain. An application area where data are naturally defined on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain is human brain neuroimaging. The goal in neuroimaging is to map the structure and function of the brain using imaging techniques. In particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that is conventionally used in non-invasive probing of human brain function. This doctoral dissertation deals with the development of signal processing schemes that adapt to the domain of the signal. It consists of four papers that in different ways deal with exploiting knowledge of the signal domain to enhance the processing of signals. In each paper, special focus is given to the analysis of ...

Behjat, Hamid — Lund University


Optimization of Positioning Capabilities in Wireless Sensor Networks: from power efficiency to medium access

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the ability of sensor nodes to know its position is an enabler for a wide variety of applications for monitoring, control, and automation. Often, sensor data is meaningful only if its position can be determined. Many WSN are deployed indoors or in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal coverage is not available, and thus GNSS positioning cannot be guaranteed. In these scenarios, WSN may be relied upon to achieve a satisfactory degree of positioning accuracy. Typically, batteries power sensor nodes in WSN. These batteries are costly to replace. Therefore, power consumption is an important aspect, being performance and lifetime ofWSN strongly relying on the ability to reduce it. It is crucial to design effective strategies to maximize battery lifetime. Optimization of power consumption can be made at different layers. For example, at the ...

Moragrega, Ana — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Discrete Quadratic Time-Frequency Distributions: Definition, Computation, and a Newborn Electroencephalogram Application

Most signal processing methods were developed for continuous signals. Digital devices, such as the computer, process only discrete signals. This dissertation proposes new techniques to accurately define and efficiently implement an important signal processing method---the time--frequency distribution (TFD)---using discrete signals. The TFD represents a signal in the joint time--frequency domain. Because these distributions are a function of both time and frequency they, unlike traditional signal processing methods, can display frequency content that changes over time. TFDs have been used successfully in many signal processing applications as almost all real-world signals have time-varying frequency content. Although TFDs are well defined for continuous signals, defining and computing a TFD for discrete signals is problematic. This work overcomes these problems by making contributions to the definition, computation, and application of discrete TFDs. The first contribution is a new discrete definition of TFDs. A ...

O' Toole, John M. — University of Queensland


Sparse Sensing for Statistical Inference: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

In today's society, we are flooded with massive volumes of data in the order of a billion gigabytes on a daily basis from pervasive sensors. It is becoming increasingly challenging to locally store and transport the acquired data to a central location for signal/data processing (i.e., for inference). To alleviate these problems, it is evident that there is an urgent need to significantly reduce the sensing cost (i.e., the number of expensive sensors) as well as the related memory and bandwidth requirements by developing unconventional sensing mechanisms to extract as much information as possible yet collecting fewer data. The first aim of this thesis is to develop theory and algorithms for data reduction. We develop a data reduction tool called sparse sensing, which consists of a deterministic and structured sensing function (guided by a sparse vector) that is optimally designed ...

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar — Delft University of Technology

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