On MIMO Systems and Adaptive Arrays for Wireless Communication. Analysis and Practical Aspects

This thesis is concerned with the use of multiple antenna elements in wireless communication over frequency non-selective radio channels. Both measurement results and theoretical analysis are presented. New transmit strategies are derived and compared to existing transmit strategies, such as beamforming and space time block coding (STBC). It is found that the best transmission algorithm is largely dependent on the channel characteristics, such as the number of transmit and receive antennas and the existence of a line of sight component. Rayleigh fading multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channels are studied using an eigenvalue analysis and exact expressions for the bit error rates and outage capacities for beamforming and STBC is found. In general are MIMO fading channels correlated and there exists a mutual coupling between antenna elements. These findings are supported by indoor MIMO measurements. It is found that the ...

Wennstram, Mattias — Uppsala University


Study on Subband Adaptive Array for Space-Time Codes in Wideband Channel

Recently, many works have been accomplished on transmit diversity for a high-speed data transmission through the wireless channel. A Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system which employs multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver has been shown to be able to improve transmission data rate and capacity of the system. When the channel state information (CSI) is unknown at the transmitter, an multiple input single output (MISO) system combined with the transmit diversity of space time coding modulation known as space-time block coding (STBC) has taken a great attention. However, the performance of STBC is deteriorated under frequency selective fading due to inter symbol interference (ISI). An STBC employing tapped delay line adaptive array (STBC-TDLAA) is known as a solution for this problem since it utilizes the delayed signals to enhance the desired signal instead of excluding them as interferences. However, ...

Ramli, Nordin Bin — University of Electro-Communications, Japan


Energy-Efficient Distributed Multicast Beamforming Using Iterative Second-Order Cone Programming

In multi-user (MU) downlink beamforming, a high spectral efficiency along with a low transmit power is achieved by separating multiple users in space rather than in time or frequency using spatially selective transmit beams. For streaming media applications, multi-group multicast (MGM) downlink beamforming is a promising approach to exploit the broadcasting property of the wireless medium to transmit the same information to a group of users. To limit inter-group interference, the individual streams intended for different multicast groups are spatially separated using MGM downlink beamforming. Spatially selective downlink beamforming requires the employment of an array of multiple antennas at the base station (BS). The hardware costs associated with the use of multiple antennas may be prohibitive in practice. A way to avoid the expensive employment of multiple antennas at the BS is to exploit user cooperation in wireless networks where ...

Bornhorst, Nils — Technische Universität Darmstadt


Orthonormal Bases for Adaptive filtering

In the field of adaptive filtering the most commonly applied filter structure is the transversal filter, also referred to as the tapped-delay line (TDL). The TDL is composed of a cascade of unit delay elements that are tapped, weighted and then summed. Thus, the output of a TDL is formed by a linear combination of its input signal at various delays. The weights in this linear combination are called the tap weights. The number of delay elements, or equivalently the number of tap weights, determines the duration of the impulse response of the TDL. For this reason, one often speaks of a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. In a general adaptive filtering scheme the adaptive filter aims to minimize a certain measure of error between its output and a desired signal. Usually, a quadratic cost criterion is taken: the so-called ...

Belt, harm — Eindhoven University of Technology


Adaptation and Optimization in Multi-Carrier Modulation Systems

In recent years, we have assisted to the dawn of many wireless and wireline communication technologies that have adopted multi-carrier modulation (MCM) at the physical layer. The basic idea ofMCMs is to transmit a high rate data stream by dividing it into low rate streams that are used to generate low rate signals each modulated at a given carrier frequency. The use ofMCMs allows for dividing the frequency selective channel into a set of narrow-band sub-channels. Consequently, the transmitted signal experiences, in each sub-channel, a quasi flat frequency response, so that, the equalization task simplifies to a sub-channel filtering. In addition to the simplification of the equalization task, there are several benefits deriving from the use of MCMs that, in general, depend upon the considered transmission medium. The most important ones are the low complexity digital implementation, and the possibility ...

D'Alessandro, Salvatore — University of Udine


Broadband adaptive beamforming with low complexity and frequency invariant response

This thesis proposes different methods to reduce the computational complexity as well as increasing the adaptation rate of adaptive broadband beamformers. This is performed exemplarily for the generalised sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure. The GSC is an alternative implementation of the linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, which can utilise well-known adaptive filtering algorithms, such as the least mean square (LMS) or the recursive least squares (RLS) to perform unconstrained adaptive optimisation. A direct DFT implementation, by which broadband signals are decomposed into frequency bins and processed by independent narrowband beamforming algorithms, is thought to be computationally optimum. However, this setup fail to converge to the time domain minimum mean square error (MMSE) if signal components are not aligned to frequency bins, resulting in a large worst case error. To mitigate this problem of the so-called independent frequency bin (IFB) processor, overlap-save ...

Koh, Choo Leng — University of Southampton


Non-Linear Precoding and Equalisation for Broadband MIMO Channels

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology promises significant capacity improvements in order to more efficiently utilise the radio frequency spectrum. To achieve its anticipated multiplexing gain as well as meet the requirements for high data rate services, proposed broadband systems are based on OFDM or similar block based techniques, which are afflicted by poor design freedom at low redundancy, and are known to suffer badly from co-channel interference (CCI) in the presence of synchronisation errors. Non-block based approaches are scarce and use mostly decision feedback equalisation (DFE) or V-BLAST approaches adopted for the broadband case, as well as Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP). These methods do not require a guard interval and can therefore potentially achieve a higher spectral efficiency. The drawback of these schemes is the large effort in determining the optimum detection order in both space and time, often motivating the adoption ...

Waleed Eid Al-Hanafy — University of Strathclyde


Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology


Mobile Cellular Communications with Base Station Antenna Arrays: Spectrum Efficiency, Algorithms and Propagation Models

This thesis deals with the problem of increasing the spectrum efficiency of cellular systems, by the use of antenna array base stations. The focus of the thesis is on downlink transmission in frequency division duplex systems, i.e., systems with different up and downlink carrier frequency. In a short summary the thesis: * Proposes five reasonable propagation models. * Uses these models to design and analyze three different beamformers: The maximum desired power (MDP), the summed interference to carrier ratio minimizing (SCIR) and the generalized-SCIR beamformer. * Introduces three capacity enhancement approaches: same sector frequency reuse (SSFR), reduced cluster size without nulling (RCS-WON) and reduced cluster size with nulling (RCS-WIN). * Proposes channel allocation, power control, and beamforming algorithms for these approaches. * Estimates the ``outage probability'' (probability of insufficient quality), for SICR-SSFR, SICR-RCS-WON and SICR-RCS-WIN, using simulations as well as ...

Zetterberg, Per — Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden


Algorithms and Techniques for Polynomial Matrix Decompositions

The concept of polynomial matrices is introduced and the potential application of polynomial matrix decompositions is discussed within the general context of multi-channel digital signal processing. A recently developed technique, known as the second order sequential rotation algorithm (SBR2), for performing the eigenvalue decomposition of a para-Hermitian polynomial matrix (PEVD) is presented. The potential benefit of using the SBR2 algorithm to impose strong decorrelation on the signals received by a broadband sensor array is demonstrated by means of a suitable numerical simulation. This demonstrates how the polynomial matrices produced as a result of the PEVD can be of unnecessarily high order. This is undesirable for many practical applications and slows down the iterative computational procedure. An effective truncation technique for controlling the growth in order of these polynomial matrices is proposed. Depending on the choice of truncation parameters, it provides ...

Foster, Joanne — Cardiff University


A floating polygon soup representation for 3D video

This thesis presents a new representation called floating polygon soup for applications like 3DTV and FTV (Free Viewpoint Television). The polygon soup is designed for compactness, compression efficiency, and view synthesis quality. The polygons are stored in 2D, with depth values at each corner. They are not necessarily connected to each other and can be deformed (or floated) w.r.t viewpoints and time. Starting from multi-view video plus depth (MVD), the construction holds in two steps: quadtree decomposition and multi-view redundancy reduction. It results in a compact set of polygons replacing the depth maps while preserving depth discontinuities and geometric details. Next, compression efficiency and view-synthesis quality are evaluated. Classical meth- ods such as inpainting and post-processing are implemented and adapted to the poly- gon soup. A new compression method is proposed. It exploits the quadtree structure and uses spatial prediction. ...

Colleu, Thomas — INRIA Rennes Bretagne Atlantique / Orange Labs / IETR


Time-frequency analysis of optical and electrical cardiac signals with applications in ultra-high-field MRI

Electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard method for assessing the state of the cardiovascular system non-invasively. In the context of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the ECG signal is used for cardiac monitoring and triggering, i.e., the acquisition of images synchronized to the cardiac cycle. However, ECG acquisition is impeded by the static and dynamic magnetic fields which alter the measured voltages and may reduce signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), leading to false alarms during cardiac monitoring or to image artifacts during cardiac triggering. A major source of noise is the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect as it is proportional to field strength and represents a key challenge in application of ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI >=7 T. In this work, two approaches for overcoming these limitations are proposed: i) Development of a hardware and software system based on the principal of photoplethysmography imaging (PPGi) as an optical ...

Spicher, Nicolai — University of Duisburg-Essen


Reduced-Complexity Code Synchronization in Multipath Channels for BOC Modulated CDMA Signals with Applications in Galileo and Modernized GPS Systems

Applications for the new generations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are developing rapidly and attract a great interest. Both US Global Positioning System (GPS) and European Galileo signals use Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) technology, where code and frequency synchronization are important stages at the receiver. The GNSS receivers estimate jointly the code phase and the Doppler spread through a two-dimensional searching process in time-frequency plane. Since both GPS and Galileo systems will send several signals on the same carriers, a new modulation type - the Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation, has been selected. The main target of this modulation is to provide a better spectral separation with the existing BPSK-modulated GPS signals, while allowing optimal usage of the available bandwidth for different GNSS signals. The BOC modulation family includes several BOC variants, such as sine BOC (SinBOC), ...

Burian, Adina — Universitat Trier


Generalized Noncoherent Ultra-Wideband Receivers

This thesis investigates noncoherent multi-channel ultra-wideband receivers. Noncoherent ultra-wideband receivers promise low power consumption and low processing complexity as they, in contrast to coherent receiver architectures, relinquish the need of complex carrier frequency and phase recovering. Unfortunately, their peak data rate is limited by the delay spread of the multipath radio channel. Noncoherent multi-channel receivers can break this rate limit due to their capability to demodulate multi-carrier signals. Such receivers use an analog front-end to separate the received signals into their sub-channels. In this work, the modeling and optimization of realistic front-end components is addressed and their impact on the system performance of noncoherent multi-channel ultra-wideband receivers is analyzed. With a proposed generalized mathematical framework, it is shown that there exists a variety of noncoherent multi-channel receiver types with similar system performance which differ only in their front-end filters. It ...

Pedroß-Engel, Andreas — Graz University of Technology


Signal Design for Active Sensing and Communications

Man-made active sensing systems such as active radar and sonar have been a vital part of our civilization's advancement in navigation, defense, meteorology, and space exploration. Modern active sensing systems rely heavily on the significant progress in the science and technology of communications made within the last century. Not surprising, the fast growing communications technology has changed each and every aspect of our everyday lives. This thesis is concerned with signal design for improving the performance of active sensing and communication systems: The target detection and estimation performance of the active sensing systems can be considerably improved by a judicious design of the probing signals. Similarly, signal design has a crucial role in the implementation and efficiency of communication systems. Signal optimization for active sensing and communications usually deals with various measures of quality. This thesis focuses on several quality ...

Soltanalian, Mojtaba — Uppsala University

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