Design and development of multi-biometric systems

Biometric recognition for a long time has been used in confined spaces, usually indoor, where security-critical operations required high accuracy recognition systems, e.g. in police stations, banks, companies, airports. Field activities, on the contrary, required more portability and flexibility leading to the development of devices for less constrained biometric traits acquisition and consequently of robust algorithms for biometric recognition in less constrained conditions. However, the application of "portable" biometric recognition, was still limited in specific fields e.g. for immigration control, and still required dedicated devices. A further step would be to spread the use of biometric recognition on personal devices, as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. Some attempts in this direction were made embedding fingerprint scanners in laptops or smartphones. So far biometric recognition on personal devices has been employed just for a limited set of tasks, as to unlock ...

Galdi, Chiara — University of Salerno and EURECOM


Light Field Based Biometric Recognition and Presentation Attack Detection

In a world where security issues have been gaining explosive importance, face and ear recognition systems have attracted increasing attention in multiple application areas, ranging from forensics and surveillance to commerce and entertainment. While the recognition performance has been steadily improving, there are still challenging recognition scenarios and conditions, notably when facing large variations in the biometric data characteristics. Additionally, the widespread use of face and ear recognition solutions raises new security concerns, making the robustness against presentation attacks a very active field of research. Lenslet light field cameras have recently come into prominence as they are able to also capture the intensity of the light rays coming from multiple directions, thus offering a richer representation of the visual scene, notably spatio-angular information. To take benefit of this richer representation, light field cameras have recently been successfully applied, not only ...

Alireza Sepas-Moghaddam — Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon


Dealing with Variability Factors and Its Application to Biometrics at a Distance

This Thesis is focused on dealing with the variability factors in biometric recognition and applications of biometrics at a distance. In particular, this PhD Thesis explores the problem of variability factors assessment and how to deal with them by the incorporation of soft biometrics information in order to improve person recognition systems working at a distance. The proposed methods supported by experimental results show the benefits of adapting the system considering the variability of the sample at hand. Although being relatively young compared to other mature and long-used security technologies, biometrics have emerged in the last decade as a pushing alternative for applications where automatic recognition of people is needed. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for video surveillance systems at a distance, widely distributed in our lifes, and for the final user: forget about PINs and passwords, you ...

Tome, Pedro — Universidad Autónoma de Madrid


Contactless and less-constrained palmprint recognition

Biometric systems consist in the combination of devices, algorithms, and procedures used to recognize the individuals based on the characteristics, physical or behavioral, of their persons. These characteristics are called biometric traits. Nowadays, biometric technologies are becoming more and more widespread, and many people use biometric systems daily. However, in some cases the procedures used for the collection of the biometric traits need the cooperation of the user, controlled environments, illuminations perceived as unpleasant, too strong, or harmful, or the contact of the body with a sensor. For these reasons, techniques for the contactless and less-constrained biometric recognition are being researched, in order to increase the usability and social acceptance of biometric systems, and increase the fields of application of biometric technologies. In this context, the palmprint is a biometric trait whose acquisition is generally well accepted by the users. ...

Genovese, Angelo — Università degli Studi di Milano


Visual Analysis of Faces with Application in Biometrics, Forensics and Health Informatics

Computer vision-based analysis of human facial video provides information regarding to expression, diseases symptoms, and physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate. It also provides a convenient source of heartbeat signal to be used in biometrics and forensics. This thesis is a collection of works done in five themes in the realm of computer vision-based facial image analysis: Monitoring elderly patients at private homes, Face quality assessment, Measurement of physiological parameters, Contact-free heartbeat biometrics, and Decision support system for healthcare. The work related to monitoring elderly patients at private homes includes a detailed survey and review of the monitoring technologies relevant to older patients living at home by discussing previous reviews and relevant taxonomies, different scenarios for home monitoring solutions for older patients, sensing and data acquisition techniques, data processing and analysis techniques, available datasets for ...

Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul — Aalborg Univeristy


Vulnerabilities and Attack Protection in Security Systems Based on Biometric Recognition

Absolute security does not exist: given funding, willpower and the proper technology, every security system can be compromised. However, the objective of the security community should be to develop such applications that the funding, the will, and the resources needed by the attacker to crack the system prevent him from attempting to do so. This Thesis is focused on the vulnerability assessment of biometric systems. Although being relatively young compared to other mature and long-used security technologies, biometrics have emerged in the last decade as a pushing alternative for applications where automatic recognition of people is needed. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for the final user: forget about PINs and passwords, you are your own key. However, we cannot forget that as any technology aimed to provide a security service, biometric systems are exposed to external attacks which ...

Javier Galbally — Universidad Autonoma de Madrid


Biometric Sample Quality and Its Application to Multimodal Authentication Systems

This Thesis is focused on the quality assessment of biometric signals and its application to multimodal biometric systems. Since the establishment of biometrics as an specific research area in late 90s, the biometric community has focused its efforts in the development of accurate recognition algorithms and nowadays, biometric recognition is a mature technology that is used in many applications. However, we can notice recent studies that demonstrate how performance of biometric systems is heavily affected by the quality of biometric signals. Quality measurement has emerged in the biometric community as an important concern after the poor performance observed in biometric systems on certain pathological samples. We first summarize the state-of-the-art in the biometric quality problem. We present the factors influencing biometric quality, which mainly have to do with four issues: the individual itself, the sensor used in the acquisition, the ...

Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid


Improving Security and Privacy in Biometric Systems

The achievement of perfect security is out of the question. Even if we are not yet aware of them, every security aimed technology has weaknesses which attackers can exploit in order to circumvent the system. We should hence direct our efforts to the development of applications whose security level make it infeasible for computationally bound attackers to break the systems. This Thesis is focused on improving the security and privacy provided by biometric systems. With the increased need for reliable and automatic identity verification, biometrics have emerged in the last decades as a pushing alternative to traditional authentication methods. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for the general public: forget about PINs and passwords, you are your own key. However, the wide deployment of biometric recognition systems at both large-scale applications (e.g., border management at European level or national ...

Gomez-Barrero, Marta — Universidad Autonoma de Madrid


Camera based motion estimation and recognition for human-computer interaction

Communicating with mobile devices has become an unavoidable part of our daily life. Unfortunately, the current user interface designs are mostly taken directly from desktop computers. This has resulted in devices that are sometimes hard to use. Since more processing power and new sensing technologies are already available, there is a possibility to develop systems to communicate through different modalities. This thesis proposes some novel computer vision approaches, including head tracking, object motion analysis and device ego-motion estimation, to allow efficient interaction with mobile devices. For head tracking, two new methods have been developed. The first method detects a face region and facial features by employing skin detection, morphology, and a geometrical face model. The second method, designed especially for mobile use, detects the face and eyes using local texture features. In both cases, Kalman filtering is applied to estimate ...

Hannuksela, Jari — University of Oulou


Single-pixel imaging: development and applications of adaptive methods

Single-pixel imaging is a recent paradigm that allows the acquisition of images at reasonably low cost by exploiting hardware compression of the data. The architecture of a single-pixel camera consists of only two elements: a spatial light modulator, and a single-point detector. The key idea is to measure the projection at the detector (i.e., the inner product) of the scene under view -the image- with some patterns. The post-processing of a sequence of measurements obtained with different patterns permits the restoring of the desired image. Single-pixel imaging has several advantages, which are of interest for different applications, and especially in the biomedical field. In particular, a time-resolved single-pixel imaging system benefits fluorescence lifetime sensing. Such a set-up can be coupled to a spectrometer, to supplement the lifetime with spectral information. However, the main limitation of single-pixel imaging is the speed ...

Rousset, Florian — University of Lyon - Politecnico di Milan


Face Recognition's Grand Challenge: uncontrolled conditions under control

The number of cameras increases rapidly in squares, shopping centers, railway stations and airport halls. There are hundreds of cameras in the city center of Amsterdam. This is still modest compared to the tens of thousands of cameras in London, where citizens are expected to be filmed by more than three hundred cameras of over thirty separate Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in a single day [84]. These CCTV systems include both publicly owned systems (railway stations, squares, airports) and privately owned systems (shops, banks, hotels). The main purpose of all these cameras is to detect, prevent and monitor crime and anti-social behaviour. Other goals of camera surveillance can be detection of unauthorized access, improvement of service, fire safety, etc. Since the terrorist attack on 9/11, detection and prevention of terrorist activities especially at high profiled locations such as airports, ...

Boom, Bas — University of Twente


A Robust Face Recognition Algorithm for Real-World Applications

Face recognition is one of the most challenging problems of computer vision and pattern recognition. The difficulty in face recognition arises mainly from facial appearance variations caused by factors, such as expression, illumination, partial face occlusion, and time gap between training and testing data capture. Moreover, the performance of face recognition algorithms heavily depends on prior facial feature localization step. That is, face images need to be aligned very well before they are fed into a face recognition algorithm, which requires precise facial feature localization. This thesis addresses on solving these two main problems -facial appearance variations due to changes in expression, illumination, occlusion, time gap, and imprecise face alignment due to mislocalized facial features- in order to accomplish its goal of building a generic face recognition algorithm that can function reliably under real-world conditions. The proposed face recognition algorithm ...

Ekenel, Hazim Kemal — University of Karlsruhe


Fingerprint Image Processing for Generating Biometric Cryptographic Key

Cryptography and biometrics have been identified as two of the most important aspects of digital security environment. For various types of security problems the merging between cryptography and biometrics has led to the development of Bio crypt technology. The new technology suffers from several limitations and this thesis, addresses the biometric information quality and the security weakness of cryptography. In many applications fingerprint has been chosen as a core of bio crypt combined technology due to it’s maturity in terms of availability, uniqueness, permanence, feasibility, ease of use and acceptance. Fingerprint has been studied from the point of view of information strength to suitability to the cryptographic requirement. The factors relating to generating and constructing combined bio crypt key such as biometric image validity, quality assessment and distinct feature extraction are studied to avoid corruptness of the source biometric images. ...

Al Tarawneh, Mokhled — Newcastle University


Non-rigid Registration-based Data-driven 3D Facial Action Unit Detection

Automated analysis of facial expressions has been an active area of study due to its potential applications not only for intelligent human-computer interfaces but also for human facial behavior research. To advance automatic expression analysis, this thesis proposes and empirically proves two hypotheses: (i) 3D face data is a better data modality than conventional 2D camera images, not only for being much less disturbed by illumination and head pose effects but also for capturing true facial surface information. (ii) It is possible to perform detailed face registration without resorting to any face modeling. This means that data-driven methods in automatic expression analysis can compensate for the confounding effects like pose and physiognomy differences, and can process facial features more effectively, without suffering the drawbacks of model-driven analysis. Our study is based upon Facial Action Coding System (FACS) as this paradigm ...

Savran, Arman — Bogazici University


Location and map awareness technologies in next wireless networks

In a future perspective, the need of mapping an unknown indoor environment, of localizing and retrieving information from objects with zero costs and efforts could be satisfied by the adoption of next 5G technologies. Thanks to the mix of mmW and massive arrays technologies, it will be possible to achieve a higher indoor localization accuracy without relying on a dedicated infrastructure for localization but exploiting that designed for communication purposes. Besides users’ localization and navigation objectives, mapping and thus, the capability of reconstructing indoor scenarios, will be an important field of research with the possibility of sharing environmental information via crowd-sourcing mechanisms between users. Finally, in the Internet of Things vision, it is expected that people, objects and devices will be interconnected to each other with the possibility of exchanging the acquired and estimated data including those regarding objects identification, ...

Guerra, Anna — University of Bologna

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