An enhanced sensitivity procedure for continuous gravitational wave detection: targeting the Galactic Center

The recent announcement by the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations of the direct detection of gravitational waves started the era of gravitational wave astrophysics. Up to now there have been five confirmed detections (GW150914, GW151226, GW170104, GW170814 and GW170817). Each of the GW events detected so far, shed light on multiple aspects of gravity. The first four events were due to the coalescence of a binary black hole system. August 17th 2017 marked the beginning of the so-called Multi-Messenger astronomy: the binary neutron star merger GW170817 has been observed almost simultaneously by LIGO and Virgo interferometers and several telescopes in space and on Earth, which detected the electromagnetic counterpart of this event (first as a short gamma-ray burst, GRB 170817A, and then in the visible, infra-red and X-ray bands). These last two years of great scientific discoveries would not have been ...

Piccinni, Ornella Juliana — Sapienza University, INFN Roma1


Probabilistic modeling for sensor fusion with inertial measurements

In recent years, inertial sensors have undergone major developments. The quality of their measurements has improved while their cost has decreased, leading to an increase in availability. They can be found in stand-alone sensor units, so-called inertial measurement units, but are nowadays also present in for instance any modern smartphone, in Wii controllers and in virtual reality headsets. The term inertial sensor refers to the combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes. These measure the external specific force and the angular velocity, respectively. Integration of their measurements provides information about the sensor’s position and orientation. However, the position and orientation estimates obtained by simple integration suffer from drift and are therefore only accurate on a short time scale. In order to improve these estimates, we combine the inertial sensors with additional sensors and models. To combine these different sources of information, also ...

Kok, Manon — Linköping University


Sensor Fusion and Calibration using Inertial Sensors, Vision, Ultra-Wideband and GPS

The usage of inertial sensors has traditionally been confined primarily to the aviation and marine industry due to their associated cost and bulkiness. During the last decade, however, inertial sensors have undergone a rather dramatic reduction in both size and cost with the introduction of MEMS technology. As a result of this trend, inertial sensors have become commonplace for many applications and can even be found in many consumer products, for instance smart phones, cameras and game consoles. Due to the drift inherent in inertial technology, inertial sensors are typically used in combination with aiding sensors to stabilize andimprove the estimates. The need for aiding sensors becomes even more apparent due to the reduced accuracy of MEMS inertial sensors. This thesis discusses two problems related to using inertial sensors in combination with aiding sensors. The first is the problem of ...

Hol, Jeroen — Linköping University


On-board Processing for an Infrared Observatory

During the past two decades, image compression has developed from a mostly academic Rate-Distortion (R-D) field, into a highly commercial business. Various lossless and lossy image coding techniques have been developed. This thesis represents an interdisciplinary work between the field of astronomy and digital image processing and brings new aspects into both of the fields. In fact, image compression had its beginning in an American space program for efficient data storage. The goal of this research work is to recognize and develop new methods for space observatories and software tools to incorporate compression in space astronomy standards. While the astronomers benefit from new objective processing and analysis methods and improved efficiency and quality, for technicians a new field of application and research is opened. For validation of the processing results, the case of InfraRed (IR) astronomy has been specifically analyzed. ...

Belbachir, Ahmed Nabil — Vienna University of Technology


Acoustic Event Detection: Feature, Evaluation and Dataset Design

It takes more time to think of a silent scene, action or event than finding one that emanates sound. Not only speaking or playing music but almost everything that happens is accompanied with or results in one or more sounds mixed together. This makes acoustic event detection (AED) one of the most researched topics in audio signal processing nowadays and it will probably not see a decline anywhere in the near future. This is due to the thirst for understanding and digitally abstracting more and more events in life via the enormous amount of recorded audio through thousands of applications in our daily routine. But it is also a result of two intrinsic properties of audio: it doesn’t need a direct sight to be perceived and is less intrusive to record when compared to image or video. Many applications such ...

Mina Mounir — KU Leuven, ESAT STADIUS


Implementation of the radiation characteristics of musical instruments in wave field synthesis applications

In this thesis a method to implement the radiation characteristics of musical instruments in wave field synthesis systems is developed. It is applied and tested in two loudspeaker systems. Because the loudspeaker systems have a comparably low number of loudspeakers the wave field is synthesized at discrete listening positions by solving a linear equation system. Thus, for every constellation of listening and source position all loudspeakers can be used for the synthesis. The calculations are done in spectral domain, denying sound propagation velocity at first. This approach causes artefacts in the loudspeaker signals and synthesis errors in the listening area which are compensated by means of psychoacoustic methods. With these methods the aliasing frequency is determined by the extent of the listening area whereas in other wave field synthesis systems it is determined by the distance of adjacent loudspeakers. Musical ...

Ziemer, Tim — University of Hamburg


Modeling Analog to Digital Converters at Radio Frequency

This work considers behavior modeling of analog to digital converters with applications in the radio frequency range, including the field of telecommunication as well as test and measurement instrumentation, where the conversion from analog to digital signals often is a bottleneck in performance. The models are intended to post-process output data from the converter and thereby improve the performance of the digital signal. By building a model of practical converters and the way in which they deviate from ideal, imperfections can be corrected using post-correction methods. Behavior modeling implies generation of a suitable stimulus, capturing the output data, and characterizing a model. The demands on the test setup are high for converters in the radio frequency range. The test-bed used in this thesis is composed of commercial state-of-the-art instruments and components designed for signal conditioning and signal capture. Further, in ...

Björsell, Niclas — KTH, Signal Processing


Sensor Fusion for Automotive Applications

Mapping stationary objects and tracking moving targets are essential for many autonomous functions in vehicles. In order to compute the map and track estimates, sensor measurements from radar, laser and camera are used together with the standard proprioceptive sensors present in a car. By fusing information from different types of sensors, the accuracy and robustness of the estimates can be increased. Different types of maps are discussed and compared in the thesis. In particular, road maps make use of the fact that roads are highly structured, which allows relatively simple and powerful models to be employed. It is shown how the information of the lane markings, obtained by a front looking camera, can be fused with inertial measurement of the vehicle motion and radar measurements of vehicles ahead to compute a more accurate and robust road geometry estimate. Further, it ...

Lundquist, Christian — Linköping University


Distributed Detection and Localization

This thesis delves into the detection and localization aspects of distributed Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Specifically, the research concentrates on WSNs in which sensors autonomously carry out detection tasks and transmit their decisions to a fusion center (FC). The FC’s role is to make a comprehensive decision about the presence of a specific event of interest and estimate its potential location. Given its broad significance, the thesis specializes in applying WSNs for industrial monitoring, particularly in the process and energy industry. Three distinct approaches are explored in this thesis: (i) per-sample/batch detection, (ii) quickest detection, and (iii) sequential detection. Each framework proposes a set of detection and associated localization rules. A primary objective of this work is to develop detection and localization strategies that leverage existing information about the monitored environment, bridging the gap between monitoring systems and the knowledge ...

Gianluca Tabella — Norwegian University of Science and Technology


Audio-visual processing and content management techniques, for the study of (human) bioacoustics phenomena

The present doctoral thesis aims towards the development of new long-term, multi-channel, audio-visual processing techniques for the analysis of bioacoustics phenomena. The effort is focused on the study of the physiology of the gastrointestinal system, aiming at the support of medical research for the discovery of gastrointestinal motility patterns and the diagnosis of functional disorders. The term "processing" in this case is quite broad, incorporating the procedures of signal processing, content description, manipulation and analysis, that are applied to all the recorded bioacoustics signals, the auxiliary audio-visual surveillance information (for the monitoring of experiments and the subjects' status), and the extracted audio-video sequences describing the abdominal sound-field alterations. The thesis outline is as follows. The main objective of the thesis, which is the technological support of medical research, is presented in the first chapter. A quick problem definition is initially ...

Dimoulas, Charalampos — Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece


Modeling of Magnetic Fields and Extended Objects for Localization Applications

The level of automation in our society is ever increasing. Technologies like self-driving cars, virtual reality, and fully autonomous robots, which all were unimaginable a few decades ago, are realizable today, and will become standard consumer products in the future. These technologies depend upon autonomous localization and situation awareness where careful processing of sensory data is required. To increase efficiency, robustness and reliability, appropriate models for these data are needed. In this thesis, such models are analyzed within three different application areas, namely (1) magnetic localization, (2) extended target tracking, and (3) autonomous learning from raw pixel information. Magnetic localization is based on one or more magnetometers measuring the induced magnetic field from magnetic objects. In this thesis we present a model for determining the position and the orientation of small magnets with an accuracy of a few millimeters. This ...

Wahlström, Niklas — Linköping University


Multi-Sensor Integration for Indoor 3D Reconstruction

Outdoor maps and navigation information delivered by modern services and technologies like Google Maps and Garmin navigators have revolutionized the lifestyle of many people. Motivated by the desire for similar navigation systems for indoor usage from consumers, advertisers, emergency rescuers/responders, etc., many indoor environments such as shopping malls, museums, casinos, airports, transit stations, offices, and schools need to be mapped. Typically, the environment is first reconstructed by capturing many point clouds from various stations and defining their spatial relationships. Currently, there is a lack of an accurate, rigorous, and speedy method for relating point clouds in indoor, urban, satellite-denied environments. This thesis presents a novel and automatic way for fusing calibrated point clouds obtained using a terrestrial laser scanner and the Microsoft Kinect by integrating them with a low-cost inertial measurement unit. The developed system, titled the Scannect, is the ...

Chow, Jacky — University of Calgary


Realtime and Accurate Musical Control of Expression in Voice Synthesis

In the early days of speech synthesis research, understanding voice production has attracted the attention of scientists with the goal of producing intelligible speech. Later, the need to produce more natural voices led researchers to use prerecorded voice databases, containing speech units, reassembled by a concatenation algorithm. With the outgrowth of computer capacities, the length of units increased, going from diphones to non-uniform units, in the so-called unit selection framework, using a strategy referred to as 'take the best, modify the least'. Today the new challenge in voice synthesis is the production of expressive speech or singing. The mainstream solution to this problem is based on the “there is no data like more data” paradigm: emotionspecific databases are recorded and emotion-specific units are segmented. In this thesis, we propose to restart the expressive speech synthesis problem, from its original voice ...

D' Alessandro, N. — Universite de Mons


Tensor-based blind source separation for structured EEG-fMRI data fusion

A complex physical system like the human brain can only be comprehended by the use of a combination of various medical imaging techniques, each of which shed light on only a specific aspect of the neural processes that take place beneath the skull. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) are two such modalities, which enable the study of brain (dys)function. While the EEG is measured with a limited set of scalp electrodes which record rapid electrical changes resulting from neural activity, fMRI offers a superior spatial resolution at the expense of only picking up slow fluctuations of oxygen concentration that takes place near active brain cells. Hence, combining these very complementary modalities is an appealing, but complicated task due to their heterogeneous nature. In this thesis, we devise advanced signal processing techniques which integrate the multimodal data stemming from ...

Van Eyndhoven, Simon — KU Leuven


Functional Neuroimaging Data Characterisation Via Tensor Representations

The growing interest in neuroimaging technologies generates a massive amount of biomedical data that exhibit high dimensionality. Tensor-based analysis of brain imaging data has by now been recognized as an effective approach exploiting its inherent multi-way nature. In particular, the advantages of tensorial over matrix-based methods have previously been demonstrated in the context of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) source localization; the identification of the regions of the brain which are activated at specific time instances. However, such methods can also become ineffective in realistic challenging scenarios, involving, e.g., strong noise and/or significant overlap among the activated regions. Moreover, they commonly rely on the assumption of an underlying multilinear model generating the data. In the first part of this thesis, we aimed at investigating the possible gains from exploiting the 3-dimensional nature of the brain images, through a higher-order tensorization ...

Christos Chatzichristos — National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

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