Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction Using Non-Linear Filtering Techniques

Super-resolution (SR) is a filtering technique that combines a sequence of under-sampled and degraded low-resolution images to produce an image at a higher resolution. The reconstruction takes advantage of the additional spatio-temporal data available in the sequence of images portraying the same scene. The fundamental problem addressed in super-resolution is a typical example of an inverse problem, wherein multiple low-resolution (LR)images are used to solve for the original high-resolution (HR) image. Super-resolution has already proved useful in many practical cases where multiple frames of the same scene can be obtained, including medical applications, satellite imaging and astronomical observatories. The application of super resolution filtering in consumer cameras and mobile devices shall be possible in the future, especially that the computational and memory resources in these devices are increasing all the time. For that goal, several research problems need to be ...

Trimeche, Mejdi — Tampere University of Technology

Unsupervised and semi-supervised Non-negative Matrix Factorization methods for brain tumor segmentation using multi-parametric MRI data

Gliomas represent about 80% of all malignant primary brain tumors. Despite recent advancements in glioma research, patient outcome remains poor. The 5 year survival rate of the most common and most malignant subtype, i.e. glioblastoma, is about 5%. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the imaging modality of choice in the management of brain tumor patients. Conventional MRI (cMRI) provides excellent soft tissue contrast without exposing the patient to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, advanced MRI modalities, such as perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) have gained interest in the clinical field, and their added value regarding brain tumor diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up has been recognized. Tumor segmentation involves the imaging-based delineation of a tumor and its subcompartments. In gliomas, segmentation plays an important role in treatment planning as well ...

Sauwen, Nicolas — KU Leuven

Advanced signal processing for magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Assertive diagnosis of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy and other metabolic diseases is essential to provide patients with the adequate treatment. Recently, different invasive and non-invasive techniques have been developed for this purpose, nevertheless, due to their harmless properties the non-invasive techniques have gained more value. Magnetic Resonance is a well-known non-invasive technique that provides spectra (metabolite peaks) and images (anatomical structures) of the examined tissue. In Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), molecules containing certain excitable nuclei, such as 1H, provide the metabolite information. As a consequence, the peaks in the MR spectra correspond to observable metabolites which are the biomarkers of diseases. Finally, metabolite concentrations are computed and compared against normal values in order to establish the diagnosis. The method to obtain such amplitudes is also called quantification and its accuracy is essential for diagnosis assessment. Quantification of MRS signals is ...

Osorio Garcia, Maria Isabel — KU Leuven

Classification of brain tumors based on magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nowadays, diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors is based on clinical symptoms, radiological appearance, and often histopathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a major noninvasive tool for the anatomical assessment of tumors in the brain. However, several diagnostic questions, such as the type and grade of the tumor, are difficult to address using MRI. The histopathology of a tissue specimen remains the gold standard, despite the associated risks of surgery to obtain a biopsy. In recent years, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which provides a metabolic profile, has gained a lot of interest for a more detailed and specific noninvasive evaluation of brain tumors. In particular, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is attractive as this may also enable to visualize the heterogeneous spatial extent of tumors, both inside and outside the MRI detectable lesion. As manual, individual, viewing ...

Luts, Jan — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Spatiotonal Adaptivity in Super-Resolution of under-sampled Image Sequences

This thesis concerns the use of spatial and tonal adaptivity in improving the resolution of aliased image sequences under scene or camera motion. Each of the five content chapters focuses on a different subtopic of super-resolution: image registration (chapter 2), image fusion (chapter 3 and 4), super-resolution restoration (chapter 5), and super-resolution synthesis (chapter 6). Chapter 2 derives the Cramer-Rao lower bound of image registration and shows that iterative gradient-based estimators achieve this performance limit. Chapter 3 presents an algorithm for image fusion of irregularly sampled and uncertain data using robust normalized convolution. The size and shape of the fusion kernel is adapted to local curvilinear structures in the image. Each data sample is assigned an intensity-related certainty value to limit the influence of outliers. Chapter 4 presents two fast implementations of the signal-adaptive bilateral filter. The xy-separable implementation filters ...

Pham, Tuan Q. — Delft University of Technology

Unsupervised Models for White Matter Fiber-Bundles Analysis in Multiple Sclerosis

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a meaningful technique for white matter (WM) fiber-tracking and microstructural characterization of axonal/neuronal integrity and connectivity. By measuring water molecules motion in the three directions of space, numerous parametric maps can be reconstructed. Among these, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and axial (λa) and radial (λr) diffusivities have extensively been used to investigate brain diseases. Overall, these findings demonstrated that WM and grey matter (GM) tissues are subjected to numerous microstructural alterations in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it remains unclear whether these tissue alterations result from global processes, such as inflammatory cascades and/or neurodegenerative mechanisms, or local inflammatory and/or demyelinating lesions. Furthermore, these pathological events may occur along afferent or afferent WM fiber pathways, leading to antero- or retrograde degeneration. Thus, for a better understanding of MS pathological processes like its spatial and ...

Stamile, Claudio — Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, KU Leuven

Tissue Characterisation from Intravascular Ultrasound using Texture Analysis

Intravascular ultrasound has, over the past decade, significantly changed the clinical diagnosis and therapeutic strategy of coronary and vascular disease assessment, as it not only allows visualisation of the vessel lumen, but gives a unique view of the pathophysiologic structure of the artery wall. This information is currently unavailable from the universally accepted instrument for artery assessment, angiography, which has on several occasions had its diagnostic accuracy questioned. With intravascular ultrasound, there is the potential to categorise diseased arterial tissue belonging to distinct pathological groups which can ultimately aid in the understanding of individual lesions as well as making a significant contribution to treatment choice and management of cardiac patients. The high resolution image information offered by intravascular ultrasound provides excellent crosssectional views of coronary artery disease at the level of the disease process itself. This information can be used ...

Nailon, William Henry — University Of Edinburgh

Automated Face Recognition from Low-resolution Imagery

Recently, significant advances in the field of automated face recognition have been achieved using computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning methodologies. However, despite claims of super-human performance of face recognition algorithms on select key benchmark tasks, there remain several open problems that preclude the general replacement of human face recognition work with automated systems. State-of-the-art automated face recognition systems based on deep learning methods are able to achieve high accuracy when the face images they are tasked with recognizing subjects from are of sufficiently high quality. However, low image resolution remains one of the principal obstacles to face recognition systems, and their performance in the low-resolution regime is decidedly below human capabilities. In this PhD thesis, we present a systematic study of modern automated face recognition systems in the presence of image degradation in various forms. Based on our ...

Grm, Klemen — University of Ljubljana

Central and peripheral mechanisms: a multimodal approach to understanding and restoring human motor control

All human actions involve motor control. Even the simplest movement requires the coordinated recruitment of many muscles, orchestrated by neuronal circuits in the brain and the spinal cord. As a consequence, lesions affecting the central nervous system, such as stroke, can lead to a wide range of motor impairments. While a certain degree of recovery can often be achieved by harnessing the plasticity of the motor hierarchy, patients typically struggle to regain full motor control. In this context, technology-assisted interventions offer the prospect of intense, controllable and quantifiable motor training. Yet, clinical outcomes remain comparable to conventional approaches, suggesting the need for a paradigm shift towards customized knowledge-driven treatments to fully exploit their potential. In this thesis, we argue that a detailed understanding of healthy and impaired motor pathways can foster the development of therapies optimally engaging plasticity. To this ...

Kinany, Nawal — Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)

Numerical Approaches for Solving the Combined Reconstruction and Registration of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

Heavy demands on the development of medical imaging modalities for breast cancer detection have been witnessed in the last three decades in an attempt to reduce the mortality associated with the disease. Recently, Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) shows its promising in the early diagnosis when lesions are small. In particular, it offers potential benefits over X-ray mammography - the current modality of choice for breast screening - of increased sensitivity and specificity for comparable X-ray dose, speed, and cost. An important feature of DBT is that it provides a pseudo-3D image of the breast. This is of particular relevance for heterogeneous dense breasts of young women, which can inhibit detection of cancer using conventional mammography. In the same way that it is difficult to see a bird from the edge of the forest, detecting cancer in a conventional 2D mammogram ...

Yang, Guang — University College London

Bayesian Fusion of Multi-band Images: A Powerful Tool for Super-resolution

Hyperspectral (HS) imaging, which consists of acquiring a same scene in several hundreds of contiguous spectral bands (a three dimensional data cube), has opened a new range of relevant applications, such as target detection [MS02], classification [C.-03] and spectral unmixing [BDPD+12]. However, while HS sensors provide abundant spectral information, their spatial resolution is generally more limited. Thus, fusing the HS image with other highly resolved images of the same scene, such as multispectral (MS) or panchromatic (PAN) images is an interesting problem. The problem of fusing a high spectral and low spatial resolution image with an auxiliary image of higher spatial but lower spectral resolution, also known as multi-resolution image fusion, has been explored for many years [AMV+11]. From an application point of view, this problem is also important as motivated by recent national programs, e.g., the Japanese next-generation space-borne ...

Wei, Qi — University of Toulouse

Towards an Automated Portable Electroencephalography-based System for Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative terminal disorder that accounts for nearly 70% of dementia cases worldwide. Global dementia incidence is projected to 75 million cases by 2030, with the majority of the affected individuals coming from low- and medium- income countries. Although there is no cure for AD, early diagnosis can improve the quality of life of AD patients and their caregivers. Currently, AD diagnosis is carried out using mental status examinations, expensive neuroimaging scans, and invasive laboratory tests, all of which render the diagnosis time-consuming and costly. Notwithstanding, over the last decade electroencephalography (EEG), specifically resting-state EEG (rsEEG), has emerged as an alternative technique for AD diagnosis with accuracies inline with those obtained with more expensive neuroimaging tools, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET). However the use of rsEEG for ...

Cassani, Raymundo — Université du Québec, Institut national de la recherche scientifique

Least squares support vector machines classification applied to brain tumour recognition using magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a technique which has evolved rapidly over the past 15 years. It has been used specifically in the context of brain tumours and has shown very encouraging correlations between brain tumour type and spectral pattern. In vivo MRS enables the quantification of metabolite concentrations non-invasively, thereby avoiding serious risks to brain damage. While Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is commonly used for identifying the location and size of brain tumours, MRS complements it with the potential to provide detailed chemical information about metabolites present in the brain tissue and enable an early detection of abnormality. However, the introduction of MRS in clinical medicine has been difficult due to problems associated with the acquisition of in vivo MRS signals from living tissues at low magnetic fields acceptable for patients. The low signal-to-noise ratio makes accurate analysis of ...

Lukas, Lukas — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Optimal estimation of diffusion MRI parameters

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is currently the method of choice for the in vivo and non-invasive quantification of water diffusion in biological tissue. Several diffusion models have been proposed to obtain quantitative diffusion parameters, which have shown to provide novel information on the structural and organizational features of biological tissue, the brain white matter in particular. The goal of this dissertation is to improve the accuracy of the diffusion parameter estimation, given the non-Gaussian nature of the diffusion-weighted MR data. In part I of this manuscript, the necessary basics of dMRI are provided. Next, Part II deals with diffusion parameter estimation and includes the main contributions of the research. Finally, Part III covers the construction of a population-based dMRI atlas of the rat brain.

Veraart, Jelle — University of Antwerp

Sparse Signal Recovery From Incomplete And Perturbed Data

Sparse signal recovery consists of algorithms that are able to recover undersampled high dimensional signals accurately. These algorithms require fewer measurements than traditional Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem demands. Sparse signal recovery has found many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, electromagnetic inverse scattering, radar/sonar imaging, seismic data collection, sensor array processing and channel estimation. The focus of this thesis is on electromagentic inverse scattering problem and joint estimation of the frequency offset and the channel impulse response in OFDM. In the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, the aim is to find the electromagnetic properties of unknown targets from measured scattered field. The reconstruction of closely placed point-like objects is investigated. The application of the greedy pursuit based sparse recovery methods, OMP and FTB-OMP, is proposed for increasing the reconstruction resolution. The performances of the proposed methods are compared against NESTA and MT-BCS methods. ...

Senyuva, Rifat Volkan — Bogazici University

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