Non-rigid Registration-based Data-driven 3D Facial Action Unit Detection

Automated analysis of facial expressions has been an active area of study due to its potential applications not only for intelligent human-computer interfaces but also for human facial behavior research. To advance automatic expression analysis, this thesis proposes and empirically proves two hypotheses: (i) 3D face data is a better data modality than conventional 2D camera images, not only for being much less disturbed by illumination and head pose effects but also for capturing true facial surface information. (ii) It is possible to perform detailed face registration without resorting to any face modeling. This means that data-driven methods in automatic expression analysis can compensate for the confounding effects like pose and physiognomy differences, and can process facial features more effectively, without suffering the drawbacks of model-driven analysis. Our study is based upon Facial Action Coding System (FACS) as this paradigm ...

Savran, Arman — Bogazici University

Automatic Analysis of Head and Facial Gestures in Video Streams

Automatic analysis of head gestures and facial expressions is a challenging research area and it has significant applications for intelligent human-computer interfaces. An important task is the automatic classification of non-verbal messages composed of facial signals where both facial expressions and head rotations are observed. This is a challenging task, because there is no definite grammar or code-book for mapping the non-verbal facial signals into a corresponding mental state. Furthermore, non-verbal facial signals and the observed emotions have dependency on personality, society, state of the mood and also the context in which they are displayed or observed. This thesis mainly addresses the three desired tasks for an effective visual information based automatic face and head gesture (FHG) analyzer. First we develop a fully automatic, robust and accurate 17-point facial landmark localizer based on local appearance information and structural information of ...

Cinar Akakin, Hatice — Bogazici University

Three-Dimensional Face Recognition

In this thesis, we attack the problem of identifying humans from their three dimensional facial characteristics. For this purpose, a complete 3D face recognition system is developed. We divide the whole system into sub-processes. These sub-processes can be categorized as follows: 1) registration, 2) representation of faces, 3) extraction of discriminative features, and 4) fusion of matchers. For each module, we evaluate the state-of-the art methods, and also propose novel ones. For the registration task, we propose to use a generic face model which speeds up the correspondence establishment process. We compare the benefits of rigid and non-rigid registration schemes using a generic face model. In terms of face representation schemes, we implement a diverse range of approaches such as point clouds, curvature-based descriptors, and range images. In relation to these, various feature extraction methods are used to determine the ...

Gokberk, Berk — Bogazici University

Video person recognition strategies using head motion and facial appearance

In this doctoral dissertation, we principally explore the use of the temporal information available in video sequences for person and gender recognition; in particular, we focus on the analysis of head and facial motion, and their potential application as biometric identifiers. We also investigate how to exploit as much video information as possible for the automatic recognition; more precisely, we examine the possibility of integrating the head and mouth motion information with facial appearance into a multimodal biometric system, and we study the extraction of novel spatio-temporal facial features for recognition. We initially present a person recognition system that exploits the unconstrained head motion information, extracted by tracking a few facial landmarks in the image plane. In particular, we detail how each video sequence is firstly pre-processed by semiautomatically detecting the face, and then automatically tracking the facial landmarks over ...

Matta, Federico — Eurécom / Multimedia communications

Improvements in Pose Invariance and Local Description for Gabor-based 2D Face Recognition

Automatic face recognition has attracted a lot of attention not only because of the large number of practical applications where human identification is needed but also due to the technical challenges involved in this problem: large variability in facial appearance, non-linearity of face manifolds and high dimensionality are some the most critical handicaps. In order to deal with the above mentioned challenges, there are two possible strategies: the first is to construct a “good” feature space in which the manifolds become simpler (more linear and more convex). This scheme usually comprises two levels of processing: (1) normalize images geometrically and photometrically and (2) extract features that are stable with respect to these variations (such as those based on Gabor filters). The second strategy is to use classification structures that are able to deal with non-linearities and to generalize properly. To ...

Gonzalez-Jimenez, Daniel — University of Vigo

A Robust Face Recognition Algorithm for Real-World Applications

Face recognition is one of the most challenging problems of computer vision and pattern recognition. The difficulty in face recognition arises mainly from facial appearance variations caused by factors, such as expression, illumination, partial face occlusion, and time gap between training and testing data capture. Moreover, the performance of face recognition algorithms heavily depends on prior facial feature localization step. That is, face images need to be aligned very well before they are fed into a face recognition algorithm, which requires precise facial feature localization. This thesis addresses on solving these two main problems -facial appearance variations due to changes in expression, illumination, occlusion, time gap, and imprecise face alignment due to mislocalized facial features- in order to accomplish its goal of building a generic face recognition algorithm that can function reliably under real-world conditions. The proposed face recognition algorithm ...

Ekenel, Hazim Kemal — University of Karlsruhe

Deep learning for semantic description of visual human traits

The recent progress in artificial neural networks (rebranded as “deep learning”) has significantly boosted the state-of-the-art in numerous domains of computer vision offering an opportunity to approach the problems which were hardly solvable with conventional machine learning. Thus, in the frame of this PhD study, we explore how deep learning techniques can help in the analysis of one the most basic and essential semantic traits revealed by a human face, namely, gender and age. In particular, two complementary problem settings are considered: (1) gender/age prediction from given face images, and (2) synthesis and editing of human faces with the required gender/age attributes. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has currently become a standard model for image-based object recognition in general, and therefore, is a natural choice for addressing the first of these two problems. However, our preliminary studies have shown that the ...

Antipov, Grigory — Télécom ParisTech (Eurecom)

Face recognition, a landmarks tale

Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their application of face recognition should be considered science-fiction. The successes are not, or at least not yet, realistic. This does, however, not mean that it does not, or will never, work. To the contrary, face recognition is used in places where the user does not need or want to cooperate, for example entry to stadiums or stations, or the detection of double entries into databases. Another important reason to use face recognition is that it can be a user-friendly biometric security. Face recognition works reliably and robustly when there is little ...

Beumer, Gert M. — University of Twente

Knowledge driven facial modelling

This research aims at supporting users if not involved in computer graphics, facial physiology, or psychology and in need of generating realistic facial animations. Realism is to be understood in terms of the visual appeal of a single rendered image and focused on believable behaviour of the animated face. Our goal is to develop a system enabling semi-automatic facial animation, allowing an average user to generate facial animation in a simple manner. A system with knowledge about the communicative functions of facial expressions that would support an average user to generate facial animation valid from a psychological and physiological point of view.

Wojdel, Anna — Delft University of Technology

Facial Soft Biometrics: Methods, Applications and Solutions

This dissertation studies soft biometrics traits, their applicability in different security and commercial scenarios, as well as related usability aspects. We place the emphasis on human facial soft biometric traits which constitute the set of physical, adhered or behavioral human characteristics that can partially differentiate, classify and identify humans. Such traits, which include characteristics like age, gender, skin and eye color, the presence of glasses, moustache or beard, inherit several advantages such as ease of acquisition, as well as a natural compatibility with how humans perceive their surroundings. Specifically, soft biometric traits are compatible with the human process of classifying and recalling our environment, a process which involves constructions of hierarchical structures of different refined traits. This thesis explores these traits, and their application in soft biometric systems (SBSs), and specifically focuses on how such systems can achieve different goals ...

Dantcheva, Antitza — EURECOM / Telecom ParisTech

Object Recognition in Subspaces: Applications in Biometry and 3D Model Retrieval

Shape description is a crucial step in many computer vision applications. This thesis is an attempt to introduce various representations of two and three dimensional shape information. These representations are aimed to be in homogeneous parametric forms in 2D or 3D space, such that subspace-based feature extraction techniques are applicable on them. We tackle three di erent applications: (i) Person recognition with hand biometry, (ii) Person recognition with three-dimensional face biometry, (iii) Indexing and retrieval of generic three-dimensional models. For each application, we propose various combinations of shape representation schemes and subspace-based feature extraction methods. We consider subspaces with fixed bases such as cosines, complex exponentials and tailored subspaces such as Principal Component Analysis, Independent Component Analysis and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization. Most of the descriptors we propose are dependent on the pose of the object. In this thesis we give ...

Dutagaci, Helin — Bogazici University

Spoofing and Disguise Variations in Face Recognition

Human recognition has become an important topic as the need and investments for security applications grow continuously. Biometrics enable reliable and efficient identity management systems by using physical and behavioral characteristics of the subjects that are permanent, universal and easy to access. This is why, the topic of biometrics attracts higher attention today. Numerous biometric systems exist which utilize various human characteristics. Among all biometrics traits, face recognition is advantageous in terms of accessibility and reliability. It allows identification at relatively high distances for unaware subjects that do not have to cooperate. In this dissertation, two challenges in face recognition are analyzed. The first one is face spoofing. Initially, spoofing in face recognition is explained together with the countermeasure techniques that are proposed for the protection of face recognition systems against spoofing attacks. The second challenge explored in this thesis ...

Kose, Neslihan — EURECOM

Three dimensional shape modeling: segmentation, reconstruction and registration

Accounting for uncertainty in three-dimensional (3D) shapes is important in a large number of scientific and engineering areas, such as biometrics, biomedical imaging, and data mining. It is well known that 3D polar shaped objects can be represented by Fourier descriptors such as spherical harmonics and double Fourier series. However, the statistics of these spectral shape models have not been widely explored. This thesis studies several areas involved in 3D shape modeling, including random field models for statistical shape modeling, optimal shape filtering, parametric active contours for object segmentation and surface reconstruction. It also investigates multi-modal image registration with respect to tumor activity quantification. Spherical harmonic expansions over the unit sphere not only provide a low dimensional polarimetric parameterization of stochastic shape, but also correspond to the Karhunen-Lo´eve (K-L) expansion of any isotropic random field on the unit sphere. Spherical ...

Li, Jia — University of Michigan

Face Recognition Robust to Occlusions

Face recognition is an important technology in computer vision, which often acts as an essential component in biometrics systems, HCI systems, access control systems, multimedia indexing applications, etc. In recent years, identification of subjects in non-controlled scenarios has received large amount of attentions from the biometrics research community. The deployment of real-time and robust face recognition systems can significantly reinforce the safety and security in public places or/and private residences. However, variations due to expressions/illuminations/poses/occlusions can significantly deteriorate the performance of face recognition systems in non-controlled environments. Partial occlusion, which significantly changes the appearance of part of a face, cannot only cause large performance deterioration of face recognition, but also can cause severe security issues. In this thesis, we focus on the occlusion problem in automatic face recognition in noncontrolled environments. Toward this goal, we propose a framework that consists ...

Min, Rui — Telecom ParisTech

Facial features segmentation, analysis and recognition of facial expressions by the Transferable Belief Model

Facial features segmentation, analysis and recognition of facial expressions by the Transferable Belief Model The aim of this work is the analysis and the classification of facial expressions. Experiments in psychology show that human is able to recognize the emotions based on the visualization of the temporal evolution of some characteristic fiducial points. Thus we firstly propose an automatic system for the extraction of the permanent facial features (eyes, eyebrows and lips). In this work we are interested in the problem of the segmentation of the eyes and the eyebrows. The segmentation of lips contours is based on a previous work developed in the laboratory. The proposed algorithm for eyes and eyebrows contours segmentation consists of three steps: firstly, the definition of parametric models to fit as accurate as possible the contour of each feature; then, a whole set of ...

Hammal, Zakia — GIPSA-lab/DIS

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