Design and development of multi-biometric systems

Biometric recognition for a long time has been used in confined spaces, usually indoor, where security-critical operations required high accuracy recognition systems, e.g. in police stations, banks, companies, airports. Field activities, on the contrary, required more portability and flexibility leading to the development of devices for less constrained biometric traits acquisition and consequently of robust algorithms for biometric recognition in less constrained conditions. However, the application of "portable" biometric recognition, was still limited in specific fields e.g. for immigration control, and still required dedicated devices. A further step would be to spread the use of biometric recognition on personal devices, as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. Some attempts in this direction were made embedding fingerprint scanners in laptops or smartphones. So far biometric recognition on personal devices has been employed just for a limited set of tasks, as to unlock ...

Galdi, Chiara — University of Salerno and EURECOM

Visual ear detection and recognition in unconstrained environments

Automatic ear recognition systems have seen increased interest over recent years due to multiple desirable characteristics. Ear images used in such systems can typically be extracted from profile head shots or video footage. The acquisition procedure is contactless and non-intrusive, and it also does not depend on the cooperation of the subjects. In this regard, ear recognition technology shares similarities with other image-based biometric modalities. Another appealing property of ear biometrics is its distinctiveness. Recent studies even empirically validated existing conjectures that certain features of the ear are distinct for identical twins. This fact has significant implications for security-related applications and puts ear images on a par with epigenetic biometric modalities, such as the iris. Ear images can also supplement other biometric modalities in automatic recognition systems and provide identity cues when other information is unreliable or even unavailable. In ...

Emeršič, Žiga — University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Computer and Information Science

Facial Soft Biometrics: Methods, Applications and Solutions

This dissertation studies soft biometrics traits, their applicability in different security and commercial scenarios, as well as related usability aspects. We place the emphasis on human facial soft biometric traits which constitute the set of physical, adhered or behavioral human characteristics that can partially differentiate, classify and identify humans. Such traits, which include characteristics like age, gender, skin and eye color, the presence of glasses, moustache or beard, inherit several advantages such as ease of acquisition, as well as a natural compatibility with how humans perceive their surroundings. Specifically, soft biometric traits are compatible with the human process of classifying and recalling our environment, a process which involves constructions of hierarchical structures of different refined traits. This thesis explores these traits, and their application in soft biometric systems (SBSs), and specifically focuses on how such systems can achieve different goals ...

Dantcheva, Antitza — EURECOM / Telecom ParisTech

Revisiting face processing with light field images

Nowadays, in a time where cities contain millions of people and where travelling across the world is becoming easier and easier, the necessity of automatically identifying a person is starting to be compelling. The physical appearance and the behavioural characteristics have been discovered useful to univocally describe a person. The analytic study of the human body measures with the aim of recognising or verifying the identity of a person, is called biometrics, literally "life measure". In the last century, several biometric traits have been investigated according to the most updated technologies available at the moment, improving recognition, computational time and memory capacity. Starting from the 90’s, research on biometrics has received a huge boost thanks to the interest raised by academic institutions, government agencies and private companies. Moreover, the diffusion of new instruments, able to perform faster analyses, and to ...

CHIESA Valeria — EURECOM Sophia Antipolis

Visual Analysis of Faces with Application in Biometrics, Forensics and Health Informatics

Computer vision-based analysis of human facial video provides information regarding to expression, diseases symptoms, and physiological parameters such as heartbeat rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate. It also provides a convenient source of heartbeat signal to be used in biometrics and forensics. This thesis is a collection of works done in five themes in the realm of computer vision-based facial image analysis: Monitoring elderly patients at private homes, Face quality assessment, Measurement of physiological parameters, Contact-free heartbeat biometrics, and Decision support system for healthcare. The work related to monitoring elderly patients at private homes includes a detailed survey and review of the monitoring technologies relevant to older patients living at home by discussing previous reviews and relevant taxonomies, different scenarios for home monitoring solutions for older patients, sensing and data acquisition techniques, data processing and analysis techniques, available datasets for ...

Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul — Aalborg Univeristy

Automatic Signature and Graphical Password Verification: Discriminant Features and New Application Scenarios

The proliferation of handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets brings a new scenario for biometric authentication, and in particular to automatic signature verification. Research on signature verification has been traditionally carried out using signatures acquired on digitizing tablets or Tablet-PCs. This PhD Thesis addresses the problem of user authentication on handled devices using handwritten signatures and graphical passwords based on free-form doodles, as well as the effects of biometric aging on signatures. The Thesis pretends to analyze: (i) which are the effects of mobile conditions on signature and doodle verification, (ii) which are the most distinctive features in mobile conditions, extracted from the pen or fingertip trajectory, (iii) how do different similarity computation (i.e. matching) algorithms behave with signatures and graphical passwords captured on mobile conditions, and (iv) what is the impact of aging on signature features and verification ...

Martinez-Diaz, Marcos — Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

Contributions to Human Motion Modeling and Recognition using Non-intrusive Wearable Sensors

This thesis contributes to motion characterization through inertial and physiological signals captured by wearable devices and analyzed using signal processing and deep learning techniques. This research leverages the possibilities of motion analysis for three main applications: to know what physical activity a person is performing (Human Activity Recognition), to identify who is performing that motion (user identification) or know how the movement is being performed (motor anomaly detection). Most previous research has addressed human motion modeling using invasive sensors in contact with the user or intrusive sensors that modify the user’s behavior while performing an action (cameras or microphones). In this sense, wearable devices such as smartphones and smartwatches can collect motion signals from users during their daily lives in a less invasive or intrusive way. Recently, there has been an exponential increase in research focused on inertial-signal processing to ...

Gil-Martín, Manuel — Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

Face Recognition's Grand Challenge: uncontrolled conditions under control

The number of cameras increases rapidly in squares, shopping centers, railway stations and airport halls. There are hundreds of cameras in the city center of Amsterdam. This is still modest compared to the tens of thousands of cameras in London, where citizens are expected to be filmed by more than three hundred cameras of over thirty separate Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in a single day [84]. These CCTV systems include both publicly owned systems (railway stations, squares, airports) and privately owned systems (shops, banks, hotels). The main purpose of all these cameras is to detect, prevent and monitor crime and anti-social behaviour. Other goals of camera surveillance can be detection of unauthorized access, improvement of service, fire safety, etc. Since the terrorist attack on 9/11, detection and prevention of terrorist activities especially at high profiled locations such as airports, ...

Boom, Bas — University of Twente

Gait Analysis in Unconstrained Environments

Gait can be defined as the individuals’ manner of walking. Its analysis can provide significant information about their identity and health, opening a wide range of possibilities in the field of biometric recognition and medical diagnosis. In the field of biometric, the use of gait to perform recognition can provide advantages, such as acquisition from a distance and without the cooperation of the individual being observed. In the field of medicine, gait analysis can be used to detect or assess the development of different gait related pathologies. It can also be used to assess neurological or systemic disorders as their effects are reflected in the individuals’ gait. This Thesis focuses on performing gait analysis in unconstrained environments, using a single 2D camera. This can be a challenging task due to the lack of depth information and self-occlusions in a 2D ...


Application-driven Advances in Multi-biometric Fusion

Biometric recognition is the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral or biological characteristics. Beside forensic applications, this technology aims at replacing the outdated and attack prone, physical and knowledge-based, proofs of identity. Choosing one biometric characteristic is a tradeoff between universality, acceptability, and permanence, among other factors. Moreover, the accuracy cap of the chosen characteristic may limit the scalability and usability for some applications. The use of multiple biometric sources within a unified frame, i.e. multi-biometrics, aspires to tackle the limitations of single source biometrics and thus enables a wider implementation of the technology. This work aims at presenting application-driven advances in multi-biometrics by addressing different elements of the multi-biometric system work-flow. At first, practical oriented pre-fusion issues regarding missing data imputation and score normalization are discussed. This includes presenting a novel performance anchored score normalization technique that ...

Damer, Naser — Technische Universität Darmstadt

Three Dimensional Human Face Acquisition for Recognition

Machine identification and recognition of human faces is a rapidly growing research area in both the academic and commercial world. Most of the research to date has concentrated on the use of two dimensional information, acquired from video cameras or photographs. The use of a three dimensional system is hoped to remove many of the problems affecting the two dimensional systems such as disruption caused by changes in the face’s orientation or changes in the ambient lighting. A three dimensional system will obviously not be influenced by orientation changes and the lighting is irrelevant, as it is the shape not the shading of the face that is important. For this system to be of practical use it is important that the process of acquiring the necessary information to generate the three dimensional surface model should not require any complex or ...

Tibbalds, Adam D. — University of Cambridge

Grip-Pattern Recognition Applied to a Smart Gun

The verification performance of a biometric recognition system based on grip patterns, as part of a smart gun for use by the police ocers, has been investigated. The biometric features are extracted from a two-dimensional pattern of the pressure, exerted on the grip of a gun by the hand of a person holding it. Such a grip-pattern verication system is interesting, particularly because it is well personalized. For this application a very low false-rejection rate is required, rendering it highly unlikely that the rightful user is not able to fire the gun. We have set the false-rejection rate for verification as below 10E-04, the official requirement of the failure probability of a police gun in the Netherlands. Under this precondition, the false-acceptance rate has to be minimized.

Shang, Xiaoxin — University of Twente

Towards an Automated Portable Electroencephalography-based System for Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative terminal disorder that accounts for nearly 70% of dementia cases worldwide. Global dementia incidence is projected to 75 million cases by 2030, with the majority of the affected individuals coming from low- and medium- income countries. Although there is no cure for AD, early diagnosis can improve the quality of life of AD patients and their caregivers. Currently, AD diagnosis is carried out using mental status examinations, expensive neuroimaging scans, and invasive laboratory tests, all of which render the diagnosis time-consuming and costly. Notwithstanding, over the last decade electroencephalography (EEG), specifically resting-state EEG (rsEEG), has emerged as an alternative technique for AD diagnosis with accuracies inline with those obtained with more expensive neuroimaging tools, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET). However the use of rsEEG for ...

Cassani, Raymundo — Université du Québec, Institut national de la recherche scientifique

Decision threshold estimation and model quality evaluation techniques for speaker verification

The number of biometric applications has increased a lot in the last few years. In this context, the automatic person recognition by some physical traits like fingerprints, face, voice or iris, plays an important role. Users demand this type of applications every time more and the technology seems already mature. People look for security, low cost and accuracy but, at the same time, there are many other factors in connection with biometric applications that are growing in importance. Intrusiveness is undoubtedly a burning factor to decide about the biometrics we will used for our application. At this point, one can realize about the suitability of speaker recognition because voice is the natural way of communicating, can be remotely used and provides a low cost. Automatic speaker recognition is commonly used in telephonic applications although it can also be used in ...

Rodriguez Saeta, Javier — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

Modulation Spectrum Analysis for Noisy Electrocardiogram Signal Processing and Applications

Advances in wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring devices have allowed for new cardiovascular applications to emerge beyond diagnostics, such as stress and fatigue detection, athletic performance assessment, sleep disorder characterization, mood recognition, activity surveillance, biometrics, and fitness tracking, to name a few. Such devices, however, are prone to artifacts, particularly due to movement, thus hampering heart rate and heart rate variability measurement and posing a serious threat to cardiac monitoring applications. To address these issues, this thesis proposes the use of a spectro-temporal signal representation called “modulation spectrum”, which is shown to accurately separate cardiac and noise components from the ECG signals, thus opening doors for noise-robust ECG signal processing tools and applications. First, an innovative ECG quality index based on the modulation spectral signal representation is proposed. The representation quantifies the rate-of-change of ECG spectral components, which are shown to ...

Tobon Vallejo, Diana Patricia — INRS-EMT

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