## Efficient Decoding Techniques for LDPC Codes (2007)

Short-length Low-density Parity-check Codes: Construction and Decoding Algorithms

Error control coding is an essential part of modern communications systems. LDPC codes have been demonstrated to offer performance near the fundamental limits of channels corrupted by random noise. Optimal maximum likelihood decoding of LDPC codes is too complex to be practically useful even at short block lengths and so a graph-based message passing decoder known as the belief propagation algorithm is used instead. In fact, on graphs without closed paths known as cycles the iterative message passing decoding is known to be optimal and may converge in a single iteration, although identifying the message update schedule which allows single-iteration convergence is not trivial. At finite block lengths graphs without cycles have poor minimum distance properties and perform poorly even under optimal decoding. LDPC codes with large block length have been demonstrated to offer performance close to that predicted for ...

Healy, Cornelius Thomas — University of York

In a communication system it results undoubtedly of great interest to compress the information generated by the data sources to its most elementary representation, so that the amount of power necessary for reliable communications can be reduced. It is often the case that the redundancy shown by a wide variety of information sources can be modelled by taking into account the probabilistic dependance among consecutive source symbols rather than the probabilistic distribution of a single symbol. These sources are commonly referred to as single or multiterminal sources "with memory" being the memory, in this latter case, the existing temporal correlation among the consecutive symbol vectors generated by the multiterminal source. It is well known that, when the source has memory, the average amount of information per source symbol is given by the entropy rate, which is lower than its entropy ...

Del Ser, Javier — University of Navarra (TECNUN)

Low-Complexity Iterative Detection Algorithms for Multi-Antenna Systems

Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques have been widely employed by dif- ferent wireless systems with many advantages. By using multiple antennas, the system is able to transmit multiple data streams simultaneously and within the same frequency band. The methods known as spatial multiplexing (SM) and spatial diversity (SD) im- proves the high spectral efficiency and link reliability of wireless communication systems without requiring additional transmitting power. By introducing channel coding in the transmission procedure, the information redundancy is introduced to further improve the reliability of SM links and the quality of service for the next generation communication systems. However, the throughput performance of these systems is limited by interference. A number of different interference suppression techniques have been reported in the literature. Theses techniques can be generally categorised into two aspects: the preprocessing techniques at the transmitter side and ...

Peng Li — University of York

Iterative Multi-User Receivers for CDMA Systems

Mobile communication networks of the third and future generations are designed to offer high-data rate services like video-telephony and data-transfer. The current Rake receiver architecture will create a shortage in available bandwidth offered to the users. This is not due to a shortage in spectrum but results from inefficient receiver architectures. Spectral efficiency can be increased considerably through multi-user detection techniques in the receiver algorithms. The present thesis investigates iterative re- ceivers for encoded CDMA transmission in the uplink. The iterative receiver is a suboptimal receiver algorithm with manageable complexity. It consists of an inter- ference mitigating multi-user detector, a bank of single-user decoders, and a channel estimator. Instead of deciding on the transmitted symbols right after the first decod- ing, the receiver feeds back tentative decision symbols to mitigate multiple-access interference in the next iteration. Similarly, soft decision symbols ...

Wehinger, J. — Vienna University of Technology

This dissertation presents a general method and eight algebraic methods for constructing high performance and efficiently encodable non-binary quasi-cyclic LDPC codes based on arrays of special circulant permutation matrices. Two design techniques, array masking and array dispersion, for constructing both regular and irregular LDPC codes with desired specifications are also proposed. Codes constructed based on these methods perform very well over the AWGN channel and flat fading channels. With iterative decoding using a Fast Fourier Transform based sum-product algorithm, they achieve significantly large coding gains over Reed-Solomon codes of the same lengths and rates decoded with either algebraic hard-decision Berlekamp- Massey algorithm or algebraic soft-decision KÂ¨otter-Vardy algorithm. Also presented is a class of asymptotically optimal LDPC codes for correcting bursts of erasures. Due to their quasi-cyclic structure, these non-binary LDPC codes can be encoded using simple shift-registers with linear complexity. ...

Zhou, Bo — University of California, Davis

A Unified Framework for Communications through MIMO Channels

MULTIPLE-INPUT MULTIPLE-OUTPUT (MIMO) CHANNELS constitute a unified way of modeling a wide range of different physical communication channels, which can then be handled with a compact and elegant vector-matrix notation. The two paradigmatic examples are wireless multi-antenna channels and wireline Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) channels. Research in antenna arrays (also known as smart antennas) dates back to the 1960s. However, the use of multiples antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver, which can be naturally modeled as a MIMO channel, has been recently shown to offer a significant potential increase in capacity. DSL has gained popularity as a broadband access technology capable of reliably delivering high data rates over telephone subscriber lines. A DSL system can be modeled as a communication through a MIMO channel by considering all the copper twisted pairs within a binder as a whole rather ...

Palomar, Daniel Perez — Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)

OFDM Multi-User Communication Over Time-Variant Channels

Wireless broadband communications for users moving at vehicular speed is a cor- nerstone of future fourth generation (4G) mobile communication systems. We inves- tigate a multi-carrier (MC) code division multiple access (CDMA) system which is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). A spreading sequence is used in the frequency domain in order to distinguish individual users and to take advantage of the multipath diversity of the wireless channel. The transmission is block oriented. A block consists of OFDM pilot and OFDM data symbols. At pedestrian velocities the channel can be modelled as block fading. We ap- ply iterative multi-user detection and channel estimation. In iterative receivers soft symbols are derived from the output of an soft-input soft-output decoder. These soft symbols are used in order to reduce the interference from other users and to enhance the channel estimates. We ...

Zemen, T. — Vienna University of Technology

Ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems use radio signals with a bandwidth in the range of some hundred MHz to several GHz. Radio channels with dense multipath propagation achieve high multipath diversity, which can be used to improve the robustness and capacity of the communication channel. Furthermore the large bandwidth allows to transmit signals with a small power spectral density such that the interference to other radio signals will be negligible, even if they lie within the same frequency band. In this work the focus is on low-complexity receiver architectures for communication systems in presence of multiple-access interference (MAI). The main objective of this thesis is to develop and to study a framework for communications for transmitted reference (TR) UWB systems and energy detection UWB systems. First, we study the hybrid matched-filter (HMF) receiver for TR UWB systems, which employs matched filters ...

Jimmy Baringbing — Graz University of Technology

Multiuser demodulation for DS-CDMA systems in fading channels

Multiuser demodulation algorithms for centralized receivers of asynchronous direct-sequence (DS) spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems in frequency-selective fading channels are studied. Both DS-CDMA systems with short (one symbol interval) and long (several symbol intervals) spreading sequences are considered. Linear multiuser receivers process ideally the complete received data block. The approximation of ideal infinite memory-length (IIR) linear multiuser detectors by finite memory-length (FIR) detectors is studied. It is shown that the FIR detectors can be made near-far resistant under a given ratio between maximum and minimum received power of users by selecting an appropriate memory-length. Numerical examples demonstrate the fact that moderate memory-lengths of the FIR detectors are sufficient to achieve the performance of the ideal IIR detectors even under severe near-far conditions. Multiuser demodulation in relatively fast fading channels is analyzed. The optimal maximum likelihood sequence detection receiver and suboptimal ...

Juntti, Markku — University of Oulou

Near Maximum Likelihood Multiuser Receivers for Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access

Wideband wireless access based on direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) has been adopted for third-generation mobile communications systems. Hence, DS-CDMA downlink communications systems form the platform for the work in this thesis. The principles of the spread spectrum concept and DS-CDMA technology are first outlined, including a description of the system model and the conventional receiver. The two classes of codes used in this system, namely spreading codes and forward error correction codes (including Turbo codes), are discussed. Due to the fact that practical communications channels are non-ideal, the performance of an individual user is interference limited. As a result, the capacity of the system is greatly restricted. Fortunately, multiuser detection is a scheme that can effectively counteract this multiple access interference. However, the optimum multiuser detection scheme is far too computationally intensive for practical use. Hence, the fundamental interest ...

Sim, Hak Keong — University Of Edinburgh

Distributed Source Coding. Tools and Applications to Video Compression

Distributed source coding is a technique that allows to compress several correlated sources, without any cooperation between the encoders, and without rate loss provided that the decoding is joint. Motivated by this principle, distributed video coding has emerged, exploiting the correlation between the consecutive video frames, tremendously simplifying the encoder, and leaving the task of exploiting the correlation to the decoder. The first part of our contributions in this thesis presents the asymmetric coding of binary sources that are not uniform. We analyze the coding of non-uniform Bernoulli sources, and that of hidden Markov sources. For both sources, we first show that exploiting the distribution at the decoder clearly increases the decoding capabilities of a given channel code. For the binary symmetric channel modeling the correlation between the sources, we propose a tool to estimate its parameter, thanks to an ...

Toto-Zarasoa, Velotiaray — INRIA Rennes-Bretagne Atlantique, Universite de Rennes 1

Adaptive interference suppression algorithms for DS-UWB systems

In multiuser ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, a large number of multipath components (MPCs) are introduced by the channel. One of the main challenges for the receiver is to effectively suppress the interference with affordable complexity. In this thesis, we focus on the linear adaptive interference suppression algorithms for the direct-sequence ultrawideband (DS-UWB) systems in both time-domain and frequency-domain. In the time-domain, symbol by symbol transmission multiuser DS-UWB systems are considered. We first investigate a generic reduced-rank scheme based on the concept of joint and iterative optimization (JIO) that jointly optimizes a projection vector and a reduced-rank filter by using the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) criterion. A low-complexity scheme, named Switched Approximations of Adaptive Basis Functions (SAABF), is proposed as a modification of the generic scheme, in which the complexity reduction is achieved by using a multi-branch framework to simplify the structure ...

Sheng Li — University of York

Decentralized Estimation Under Communication Constraints

In this thesis, we consider the problem of decentralized estimation under communication constraints in the context of Collaborative Signal and Information Processing. Motivated by sensor network applications, a high volume of data collected at distinct locations and possibly in diverse modalities together with the spatially distributed nature and the resource limitations of the underlying system are of concern. Designing processing schemes which match the constraints imposed by the system while providing a reasonable accuracy has been a major challenge in which we are particularly interested in the tradeoff between the estimation performance and the utilization of communications subject to energy and bandwidth constraints. One remarkable approach for decentralized inference in sensor networks is to exploit graphical models together with message passing algorithms. In this framework, after the so-called information graph of the problem is constructed, it is mapped onto the ...

Uney, Murat — Middle East Technical University

A Rate-Splitting Approach to Multiple-Antenna Broadcasting

Signal processing techniques for multiple-antenna transmission can exploit the spatial dimension of the wireless channel to serve multiple users simultaneously, achieving high spectral efficiencies. Realizing such gains; however, is strongly dependent on the availability of highly accurate and up-to-date Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT). This stems from the necessity to deal with multiuser interference through preprocessing; as receivers cannot coordinate in general. In wireless systems, CSIT is subject to uncertainty due to estimation and quantization errors, delays and mismatches. This thesis proposes optimized preprocessing techniques for broadcasting scenarios where a multi-antenna transmitter communicates with single-antenna receivers under CSIT uncertainties. First, we consider a scenario where the transmitter communicates an independent message to each receiver. The most popular preprocessing techniques in this setup are based on linear precoding (or beamforming). Despite their near-optimum rate performances when highly accurate CSIT ...

Joudeh, Hamdi — Imperial College London

On the Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Wireless Networks

The aim of this dissertation is the study of cooperative communications in wireless networks. In cooperative networks, each user transmits its own data and also aids the communication of other users. User cooperation is particularly attractive for the wireless medium, where every user listens to the transmission of other users. The main benefit of user cooperation in wireless networks is, probably, its efficacy to combat the wireless channel impairments. Path loss and shadowing effects are overcome using intermediate nodes, with better channel conditions, to retransmit the received signal to the estination. Further, the channel fading effect can be also mitigated by means of cooperative spatial diversity (the information arrives at the destination through multiple independent paths). These benefits result in an increase of the users spectral efficiency and/or savings on the overall network power resource. Besides these gains, the simple ...

Gomez-Vilardebo, Jesus — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid

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