Steganoflage: A New Image Steganography Algorithm

Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio and video files. It comes under the assumption that if the feature is visible, the point of attack is evident, thus the goal here is always to conceal the very existence of the embedded data. It does not replace cryptography but rather boosts the security using its obscurity features. Steganography has various useful applications. However, like any other science it can be used for ill intentions. It has been propelled to the forefront of current security techniques by the remarkable growth in computational power, the increase in security awareness, e.g., individuals, groups, agencies, government and through intellectual pursuit. Steganography’s ultimate objectives, which are undetectability, robustness, resistance to various image processing methods and compression, and capacity of the hidden data, are the main factors ...

Cheddad Abbas — University of Ulster


In scalable image/video coding, high resolution content is encoded to the highest visual quality and the bit-streams are adapted to cater various communication channels, display devices and usage requirements. These content adaptations, which include quality, resolution and frame rate scaling may also affect the content protection data, such as, watermarks and are considered as a potential watermark attack. In this thesis, research on robust watermarking techniques for scalable coded image and video, are proposed and the improvements in robustness against various content adaptation attacks, such as, JPEG 2000 for image and Motion JPEG 2000, MC-EZBC and H.264/SVC for video, are reported. The spread spectrum domain, particularly wavelet-based image watermarking schemes often provides better robustness to compression attacks due to its multi-resolution decomposition and hence chosen for this work. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of the available wavelet-based watermarking schemes,is performed ...

Bhowmik, Deepayan — University of Sheffield

Geometric Distortion in Image and Video Watermarking. Robustness and Perceptual Quality Impact

The main focus of this thesis is the problem of geometric distortion in image and video watermarking. In this thesis we discuss the two aspects of the geometric distortion problem, namely the watermark desynchronization aspect and the perceptual quality assessment aspect. Furthermore, this thesis also discusses the challenges of watermarking data compressed in low bit-rates. The main contributions of this thesis are: A watermarking algorithm suitable for low bit-rate video has been proposed. Two different approaches has been proposed to deal with the watermark desynchronization problem. A novel approach has been proposed to quantify the perceptual quality impact of geometric distortion.

Setyawan, Iwan — Delft University of Technology

A statistical approach to motion estimation

Digital video technology has been characterized by a steady growth in the last decade. New applications like video e-mail, third generation mobile phone video communications, videoconferencing, video streaming on the web continuously push for further evolution of research in digital video coding. In order to be sent over the internet or even wireless networks, video information clearly needs compression to meet bandwidth requirements. Compression is mainly realized by exploiting the redundancy present in the data. A sequence of images contains an intrinsic, intuitive and simple idea of redundancy: two successive images are very similar. This simple concept is called temporal redundancy. The research of a proper scheme to exploit the temporal redundancy completely changes the scenario between compression of still pictures and sequence of images. It also represents the key for very high performances in image sequence coding when compared ...

Moschetti, Fulvio — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Speech Watermarking and Air Traffic Control

Air traffic control (ATC) voice radio communication between aircraft pilots and controllers is subject to technical and functional constraints owing to the legacy radio system currently in use worldwide. This thesis investigates the embedding of digital side information, so called watermarks, into speech signals. Applied to the ATC voice radio, a watermarking system could overcome existing limitations, and ultimately increase safety, security and efficiency in ATC. In contrast to conventional watermarking methods, this field of application allows embedding of the data in perceptually irrelevant signal components. We show that the resulting theoretical watermark capacity far exceeds the capacity of conventional watermarking channels. Based on this finding, we present a general purpose blind speech watermarking algorithm that embeds watermark data in the phase of non-voiced speech segments by replacing the excitation signal of an autoregressive signal representation. Our implementation embeds the ...

Hofbauer, Konrad — Graz University

A Game-Theoretic Approach for Adversarial Information Fusion in Distributed Sensor Networks

Every day we share our personal information through digital systems which are constantly exposed to threats. For this reason, security-oriented disciplines of signal processing have received increasing attention in the last decades: multimedia forensics, digital watermarking, biometrics, network monitoring, steganography and steganalysis are just a few examples. Even though each of these elds has its own peculiarities, they all have to deal with a common problem: the presence of one or more adversaries aiming at making the system fail. Adversarial Signal Processing lays the basis of a general theory that takes into account the impact that the presence of an adversary has on the design of effective signal processing tools. By focusing on the application side of Adversarial Signal Processing, namely adversarial information fusion in distributed sensor networks, and adopting a game-theoretic approach, this thesis contributes to the above mission ...

Kallas, Kassem — University of Siena

Toward sparse and geometry adapted video approximations

Video signals are sequences of natural images, where images are often modeled as piecewise-smooth signals. Hence, video can be seen as a 3D piecewise-smooth signal made of piecewise-smooth regions that move through time. Based on the piecewise-smooth model and on related theoretical work on rate-distortion performance of wavelet and oracle based coding schemes, one can better analyze the appropriate coding strategies that adaptive video codecs need to implement in order to be efficient. Efficient video representations for coding purposes require the use of adaptive signal decompositions able to capture appropriately the structure and redundancy appearing in video signals. Adaptivity needs to be such that it allows for proper modeling of signals in order to represent these with the lowest possible coding cost. Video is a very structured signal with high geometric content. This includes temporal geometry (normally represented by motion ...

Divorra Escoda, Oscar — EPFL / Signal Processing Institute

Watermark-based error concealment algorithms for low bit rate video communications

In this work, a novel set of robust watermark-based error concealment (WEC) algorithms are proposed. Watermarking is used to introduce redundancy to the transmitted data with little or no increase in its bit rate during transmission. The proposed algorithms involve generating a low resolution version of a video frame and seamlessly embedding it as a watermark in the frame itself during encoding. At the receiver, the watermark is extracted from the reconstructed frame and the lost information is recovered using the extracted watermark signal, thus enhancing its perceptual quality. Three DCT-based spread spectrum watermark embedding techniques are presented in this work. The first technique uses a multiplicative Gaussian pseudo-noise with a pre-defined spreading gain and fixed chip rate. The second one is its adaptively scaled version and the third technique uses informed watermarking. Two versions of the low resolution reference, ...

Adsumilli, Chowdary — University of California, Santa Barbara

No-Reference Image and Video Quality Assessment

Image and video quality assessment has become an increasingly important subject in digital video coding and transmission scenarios, such as digital television. In this context, a special interest has been put on no-reference objective quality assessment metrics, since they are suitable for real-time quality monitoring once the video delivery system is settled. This Thesis proposes new no-reference quality assessment metrics for images and video. The main goal of the proposed techniques is to estimate the quality of lossy DCT-based encoded video. The proposed metrics share the same key idea: based on elements extracted from the bitstream of the encoded images or video arriving at the point where quality assessment has to be performed, an estimate of the quantization error associated to each DCT coefficient is obtained. Those estimates are perceptually weighted and combined in order to obtain a quality score ...

Brandão, Tomás — Technical University of Lisbon

Characterization and Quality Evaluation of Geometric Distortions in Images with Application to Digital Watermarking

The work of this thesis can be seen as a first step towards the characterization and quality evaluation of the class of local geometric distortions. A first step to solve the problems with geometric attacks is the characterization of the class of perceptually admissible distortions. This requires the development of models to treat the distortions from a mathematical point of view. In this context, the first part of the thesis focuses on modeling local geometric transformations from a mathematical point of view. Watermarking is not the only field where an analysis of geometric distortion in images would be useful. In all the applications dealing with geometric distortions the availability of an objective quality metric capable of dealing with this kind of distortions would be of invaluable help. Thus, in the second part of the thesis, two objective quality metrics for ...

D'Angelo, Angela — University of Siena


In this thesis, a number of novel watermarking techniques for different 3D representations are presented. A novel watermarking method is proposed for the mono-view video, which might be interpreted as the basic implicit representation of 3D scenes. The proposed method solves the common flickering problem in the existing video watermarking schemes by means of adjusting the watermark strength with respect to temporal contrast thresholds of human visual system (HVS), which define the maximum invisible distortions in the temporal direction. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method gives better results in both objective and subjective measures, compared to some recognized methods in the literature. The watermarking techniques for the geometry and image based representations of 3D scenes, denoted as 3D watermarking, are examined and classified into three groups, as 3D-3D, 3D-2D and 2D-2D watermarking, in which the pair of symbols ...

Koz, Alper — Middle East Technical University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Camera based motion estimation and recognition for human-computer interaction

Communicating with mobile devices has become an unavoidable part of our daily life. Unfortunately, the current user interface designs are mostly taken directly from desktop computers. This has resulted in devices that are sometimes hard to use. Since more processing power and new sensing technologies are already available, there is a possibility to develop systems to communicate through different modalities. This thesis proposes some novel computer vision approaches, including head tracking, object motion analysis and device ego-motion estimation, to allow efficient interaction with mobile devices. For head tracking, two new methods have been developed. The first method detects a face region and facial features by employing skin detection, morphology, and a geometrical face model. The second method, designed especially for mobile use, detects the face and eyes using local texture features. In both cases, Kalman filtering is applied to estimate ...

Hannuksela, Jari — University of Oulou

Machine Learning Techniques for Image Forensics in Adversarial Setting

The use of machine-learning for multimedia forensics is gaining more and more consensus, especially due to the amazing possibilities offered by modern machine learning techniques. By exploiting deep learning tools, new approaches have been proposed whose performance remarkably exceed those achieved by state-of-the-art methods based on standard machine-learning and model-based techniques. However, the inherent vulnerability and fragility of machine learning architectures pose new serious security threats, hindering the use of these tools in security-oriented applications, and, among them, multimedia forensics. The analysis of the security of machine learning-based techniques in the presence of an adversary attempting to impede the forensic analysis, and the development of new solutions capable to improve the security of such techniques is then of primary importance, and, recently, has marked the birth of a new discipline, named Adversarial Machine Learning. By focusing on Image Forensics and ...

Nowroozi, Ehsan — Dept. of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena

Channel Modeling and Estimation For Wireless Communication Systems Using a Time-Frequency Approach

Broadband wireless communication is a very fast growing communication area. Multicarrier modulation techniques like Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Biorthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (BFDM), Pulse Shaping (PS) and Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MCSS) have recently been introduced as robust techniques against intersymbol interference (ISI) and noise, compared to single carrier communication systems over fast fading multipath communication channels. Therefore, multicarrier modulation techniques have been considered as a candidate for new generation, high data rate broadband wireless communication systems and have been adopted as the related standards. Several examples are the European digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and digital video broadcasting (DVB), the IEEE standands for wireless local area networks (WLAN), 802.11a, and wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN), 802.16a. However, Doppler frequency shifts, phase offset, local oscillator frequency shifts, and multi-path fading severely degrade the performance of multicarrier communication systems. For fast-varying channels, ...

Yalcin, Mahmut — Istanbul University

Security/Privacy Analysis of Biometric Hashing and Template Protection for Fingerprint Minutiae

This thesis has two main parts. The first part deals with security and privacy analysis of biometric hashing. The second part introduces a method for fixed-length feature vector extraction and hash generation from fingerprint minutiae. The upsurge of interest in biometric systems has led to development of biometric template protection methods in order to overcome security and privacy problems. Biometric hashing produces a secure binary template by combining a personal secret key and the biometric of a person, which leads to a two factor authentication method. This dissertation analyzes biometric hashing both from a theoretical point of view and in regards to its practical application. For theoretical evaluation of biohashes, a systematic approach which uses estimated entropy based on degree of freedom of a binomial distribution is outlined. In addition, novel practical security and privacy attacks against face image hashing ...

Berkay Topcu — Sabanci University

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