On Adaptive MMSE Receiver Strategies for TD-CDMA

In this thesis a modified implementation of the adaptive minimum mean squared error (MMSE) receiver for a time division code division multiple access (TD-CDMA) system for third generation mobile communications is presented. This implementation can operate with spreading sequences which span over a few symbols and in environments where more than one spreading code is allocated to a single user. Two structures which combine the presented MMSE structure and the Rake receiver are also presented in an attempt to combine the advantages of both structures. After analysing the effect on a direct sequence spread spectrum system of multiple access interference and multipath fading induced inter-chip interference, the existing techniques for multiple access interference suppression capabilities are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the adaptive MMSE receiver, which takes into account the effect of multipath fading without requiring any additional channel ...

Garcia-Alis, Daniel — University of Strathclyde


Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology


Adaptive interference suppression algorithms for DS-UWB systems

In multiuser ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, a large number of multipath components (MPCs) are introduced by the channel. One of the main challenges for the receiver is to effectively suppress the interference with affordable complexity. In this thesis, we focus on the linear adaptive interference suppression algorithms for the direct-sequence ultrawideband (DS-UWB) systems in both time-domain and frequency-domain. In the time-domain, symbol by symbol transmission multiuser DS-UWB systems are considered. We first investigate a generic reduced-rank scheme based on the concept of joint and iterative optimization (JIO) that jointly optimizes a projection vector and a reduced-rank filter by using the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) criterion. A low-complexity scheme, named Switched Approximations of Adaptive Basis Functions (SAABF), is proposed as a modification of the generic scheme, in which the complexity reduction is achieved by using a multi-branch framework to simplify the structure ...

Sheng Li — University of York


Advanced Interference Suppression Techniques for Spread Spectrum Systems

Code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques have been widely employed by different wireless systems with many advantages. However, the performance of these systems is limited by interference. A number of different interference suppression techniques have been proposed, including multiuser detection, beamforming, adaptive supervised and blind algorithms, and transmit processing techniques requiring a limited feedback channel. Recently, CDMA techniques have also been combined with multicarrier and multiantenna schemes to further increase the system capacity and performance. This thesis investigates the existing algorithms and structures and proposes novel interference suppression algorithms for spread spectrum systems. Firstly we investigate blind constrained constant modulus (CCM) stochastic gradient (SG) receivers with a low-complexity variable step-size mechanism for downlink direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) systems. This algorithm provides better performance than existing blind schemes in non-stationary scenarios. Convergence and tracking analyses of the proposed adaptation techniques are ...

Yunlong Cai — University of York


Distributed Space-Time Coding Techniques with Limited Feedback in Cooperative MIMO Networks

Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) wireless networks and distributed MIMO relaying wireless networks have attracted significant attention in current generation of wireless communication networks, and will play a key role in the next generation of wireless net- works. The improvement of network capacity, data rate and reliability can be achieved at the cost of increasing computational complexity of employing space-time coding (STC) and distributed STC (DSTC) in MIMO and distributed MIMO relaying networks, respectively. Efficient designs and algorithms to achieve high diversity and coding gains with low computational complexity in encoding and decoding of STC and DSTC schemes are essential. In this thesis, DSTC designs with high diversity and coding gains and efficient detection and code matrices optimization algorithms in cooperative MIMO networks are proposed. Firstly, adaptive power allocation (PA) algorithms with different criteria for a coop- erative MIMO network equipped with ...

Peng, Tong — University of York


Nonlinear receivers for DS-CDMA

The growing demand for capacity in wireless communications is the driving force behind improving established networks and the deployment of a new worldwide mobile standard. Capacity calculations show that the direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) technique has more capacity than the time division multiple access technique. Therefore, most 3rd generation mobile systems will incorporate some sort of DS-CDMA. In this thesis DS-CDMA receiver structures are investigated from the view point of pattern recognition which leads to new DS-CDMA receiver structures. It is known that the optimum DS-CDMA receiver has a nonlinear structure with prohibitive complexity for practical implementation. It is also known that the currently implemented receiver in 2nd generation DSCDMA mobile handsets has poor performance, because it suffers from multiuser interference. Consequently, this work focuses on sub-optimum nonlinear receivers for DS-CDMA in the downlink scenario. First, the ...

Tanner, Rudolf — University Of Edinburgh


Array Signal Processing Algorithms for Beamforming and Direction Finding

Array processing is an area of study devoted to processing the signals received from an antenna array and extracting information of interest. It has played an important role in widespread applications like radar, sonar, and wireless communications. Numerous adaptive array processing algorithms have been reported in the literature in the last several decades. These algorithms, in a general view, exhibit a trade-off between performance and required computational complexity. In this thesis, we focus on the development of array processing algorithms in the application of beamforming and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. In the beamformer design, we employ the constrained minimum variance (CMV) and the constrained constant modulus (CCM) criteria to propose full-rank and reduced-rank adaptive algorithms. Specifically, for the full-rank algorithms, we present two low-complexity adaptive step size mechanisms with the CCM criterion for the step size adaptation of the ...

Lei Wang — University of York


Adaptive Equalisation for Downlink UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

The third generation mobile system Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) has been mainly specified to provide various multimedia capabilities and good service quality. However, since UMTS is based on direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) techniques the performance and the capacity of such systems is significantly limited by multiuser access interference (MAI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI). Therefore, robust and reliable detectors are required to mitigate these effects. Specifically, the multi-user detector exhibits a significant improvement in capacity and spectrum efficiency compared with the conventional matched filter receiver and single-user detector. Nevertheless, its complexity and prior knowledge requirement render it unsuitable for application in the downlink due to handset constraints. In this thesis, we propose a new robust and simple blind multiuser equaliser for downlink DS-CDMA systems, the so-called filtered-R multiple error CM algorithm (FIRMER-CMA) equaliser. The latter has ...

Hadef, Mahmoud — University of Southampton


Detection and Resource Allocation Algorithms for Cooperative MIMO Relay Systems

Cooperative communications and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems are important topics in current research that will play key roles in the future of wireless networks and standards. These techniques can provide gains in data throughput, network capacity, coverage, outage, reduced error rates and power consumption, but can have an increased cost in computational complexity and present new problems in many areas. In this thesis, the various challenges in accurately detecting and estimating data signals and allocating resources in the cooperative systems are investigated. Firstly, we propose a cross-layer design strategy that consists of a cooperative maximum likelihood (ML) detector operating in conjunction with link selection for a cooperative MIMO network. The cooperative ML detector is derived, with considerations and approximations made for the knowledge of the system information that is available to the detector. Link selection in the cooperative network ...

Hesketh, Thomas John — University of York


Near Maximum Likelihood Multiuser Receivers for Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access

Wideband wireless access based on direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA) has been adopted for third-generation mobile communications systems. Hence, DS-CDMA downlink communications systems form the platform for the work in this thesis. The principles of the spread spectrum concept and DS-CDMA technology are first outlined, including a description of the system model and the conventional receiver. The two classes of codes used in this system, namely spreading codes and forward error correction codes (including Turbo codes), are discussed. Due to the fact that practical communications channels are non-ideal, the performance of an individual user is interference limited. As a result, the capacity of the system is greatly restricted. Fortunately, multiuser detection is a scheme that can effectively counteract this multiple access interference. However, the optimum multiuser detection scheme is far too computationally intensive for practical use. Hence, the fundamental interest ...

Sim, Hak Keong — University Of Edinburgh


Coordination Strategies for Interference Management in MIMO Dense Cellular Networks

The envisioned rapid and exponential increase of wireless data traffic demand in the next years imposes rethinking current wireless cellular networks due to the scarcity of the available spectrum. In this regard, three main drivers are considered to increase the capacity of today's most advanced (4G systems) and future (5G systems and beyond) cellular networks: i) use more bandwidth (more Hz) through spectral aggregation, ii) enhance the spectral efficiency per base station (BS) (more bits/s/Hz/BS) by using multiple antennas at BSs and users (i.e. MIMO systems), and iii) increase the density of BSs (more BSs/km2) through a dense and heterogeneous deployment (known as dense heterogeneous cellular networks). We focus on the last two drivers. First, the use of multi-antenna systems allows exploiting the spatial dimension for several purposes: improving the capacity of a conventional point-to-point wireless link, increasing the number ...

Lagen, Sandra — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Iterative Multi-User Receivers for CDMA Systems

Mobile communication networks of the third and future generations are designed to offer high-data rate services like video-telephony and data-transfer. The current Rake receiver architecture will create a shortage in available bandwidth offered to the users. This is not due to a shortage in spectrum but results from inefficient receiver architectures. Spectral efficiency can be increased considerably through multi-user detection techniques in the receiver algorithms. The present thesis investigates iterative re- ceivers for encoded CDMA transmission in the uplink. The iterative receiver is a suboptimal receiver algorithm with manageable complexity. It consists of an inter- ference mitigating multi-user detector, a bank of single-user decoders, and a channel estimator. Instead of deciding on the transmitted symbols right after the first decod- ing, the receiver feeds back tentative decision symbols to mitigate multiple-access interference in the next iteration. Similarly, soft decision symbols ...

Wehinger, J. — Vienna University of Technology


Advanced Multi-Dimensional Signal Processing for Wireless Systems

The thriving development of wireless communications calls for innovative and advanced signal processing techniques targeting at an enhanced performance in terms of reliability, throughput, robustness, efficiency, flexibility, etc.. This thesis addresses such a compelling demand and presents new and intriguing progress towards fulfilling it. We mainly concentrate on two advanced multi-dimensional signal processing challenges for wireless systems that have attracted tremendous research attention in recent years, multi-carrier Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems and multi-dimensional harmonic retrieval. As the key technologies of wireless communications, the numerous benefits of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation, e.g., boosting the data rate and improving the link reliability, have long been identified and have ignited great research interest. In particular, the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based multi-user MIMO downlink with Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) combines the twofold advantages of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation. It is the essential element ...

Cheng, Yao — Ilmenau University of Technology


Virtual-MIMO Systems with Compress-and-Forward Cooperation

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have recently emerged as one of the most significant wireless techniques, as they can greatly improve the channel capacity and link reliability of wireless communications. These benefits have encouraged extensive research on a virtual MIMO system where the transmitter has multiple antennas and each of the receivers has a single antenna. Single-antenna receivers can work together to form a virtual antenna array and reap some performance benefits of MIMO systems. The idea of receiver-side local cooperation is attractive for wireless networks since a wireless receiver may not have multiple antennas due to size and cost limitations. In this thesis we investigate a virtual-MIMO wireless system using the receiver-side cooperation with the compress-and-forward (CF) protocol. Firstly, to perform CF at the relay, we propose to use standard source coding techniques, based on the analysis of its expected ...

Jiang, Jing — University of Edinburgh


Multiuser demodulation for DS-CDMA systems in fading channels

Multiuser demodulation algorithms for centralized receivers of asynchronous direct-sequence (DS) spread-spectrum code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems in frequency-selective fading channels are studied. Both DS-CDMA systems with short (one symbol interval) and long (several symbol intervals) spreading sequences are considered. Linear multiuser receivers process ideally the complete received data block. The approximation of ideal infinite memory-length (IIR) linear multiuser detectors by finite memory-length (FIR) detectors is studied. It is shown that the FIR detectors can be made near-far resistant under a given ratio between maximum and minimum received power of users by selecting an appropriate memory-length. Numerical examples demonstrate the fact that moderate memory-lengths of the FIR detectors are sufficient to achieve the performance of the ideal IIR detectors even under severe near-far conditions. Multiuser demodulation in relatively fast fading channels is analyzed. The optimal maximum likelihood sequence detection receiver and suboptimal ...

Juntti, Markku — University of Oulou

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