Biologically Inspired 3D Face Recognition

Face recognition has been an active area of study for both computer vision and image processing communities, not only for biometrics but also for human-computer interaction applications. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the existing 3D face recognition techniques and seek biologically motivated methods to improve them. We especially look at findings in psychophysics and cognitive science for insights. We propose a biologically motivated computational model, and focus on the earlier stages of the model, whose performance is critical for the later stages. Our emphasis is on automatic localization of facial features. We first propose a strong unsupervised learning algorithm for flexible and automatic training of Gaussian mixture models and use it in a novel feature-based algorithm for facial fiducial point localization. We also propose a novel structural correction algorithm to evaluate the quality of landmarking and ...

Salah, Albert Ali — Bogazici University


Dealing with Variability Factors and Its Application to Biometrics at a Distance

This Thesis is focused on dealing with the variability factors in biometric recognition and applications of biometrics at a distance. In particular, this PhD Thesis explores the problem of variability factors assessment and how to deal with them by the incorporation of soft biometrics information in order to improve person recognition systems working at a distance. The proposed methods supported by experimental results show the benefits of adapting the system considering the variability of the sample at hand. Although being relatively young compared to other mature and long-used security technologies, biometrics have emerged in the last decade as a pushing alternative for applications where automatic recognition of people is needed. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for video surveillance systems at a distance, widely distributed in our lifes, and for the final user: forget about PINs and passwords, you ...

Tome, Pedro — Universidad Autónoma de Madrid


Vulnerabilities and Attack Protection in Security Systems Based on Biometric Recognition

Absolute security does not exist: given funding, willpower and the proper technology, every security system can be compromised. However, the objective of the security community should be to develop such applications that the funding, the will, and the resources needed by the attacker to crack the system prevent him from attempting to do so. This Thesis is focused on the vulnerability assessment of biometric systems. Although being relatively young compared to other mature and long-used security technologies, biometrics have emerged in the last decade as a pushing alternative for applications where automatic recognition of people is needed. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for the final user: forget about PINs and passwords, you are your own key. However, we cannot forget that as any technology aimed to provide a security service, biometric systems are exposed to external attacks which ...

Javier Galbally — Universidad Autonoma de Madrid


Contactless and less-constrained palmprint recognition

Biometric systems consist in the combination of devices, algorithms, and procedures used to recognize the individuals based on the characteristics, physical or behavioral, of their persons. These characteristics are called biometric traits. Nowadays, biometric technologies are becoming more and more widespread, and many people use biometric systems daily. However, in some cases the procedures used for the collection of the biometric traits need the cooperation of the user, controlled environments, illuminations perceived as unpleasant, too strong, or harmful, or the contact of the body with a sensor. For these reasons, techniques for the contactless and less-constrained biometric recognition are being researched, in order to increase the usability and social acceptance of biometric systems, and increase the fields of application of biometric technologies. In this context, the palmprint is a biometric trait whose acquisition is generally well accepted by the users. ...

Genovese, Angelo — Università degli Studi di Milano


Video person recognition strategies using head motion and facial appearance

In this doctoral dissertation, we principally explore the use of the temporal information available in video sequences for person and gender recognition; in particular, we focus on the analysis of head and facial motion, and their potential application as biometric identifiers. We also investigate how to exploit as much video information as possible for the automatic recognition; more precisely, we examine the possibility of integrating the head and mouth motion information with facial appearance into a multimodal biometric system, and we study the extraction of novel spatio-temporal facial features for recognition. We initially present a person recognition system that exploits the unconstrained head motion information, extracted by tracking a few facial landmarks in the image plane. In particular, we detail how each video sequence is firstly pre-processed by semiautomatically detecting the face, and then automatically tracking the facial landmarks over ...

Matta, Federico — Eurécom / Multimedia communications


Efficient integration of thermal technology in facial image processing through interspectral synthesis

Thermal imaging technology has significantly evolved during the last couple of decades, mostly thanks to thermal cameras having become more affordable and user friendly. However, and given that the exploration of thermal imagery is reasonably new, only a few public databases are available to the research community. This limitation consequently prevents the impact of deep learning technologies from generating improved and reliable face biometric systems that operate in the thermal spectrum. A possible solution relates to the development of technologies that bridge the gap between the visible and thermal spectrum. In attempting to respond to this necessity, the research presented in this dissertation aims to explore interspectral synthesis as a direction for efficient and prompt integration of thermal technology in already deployed face biometric systems. As a first contribution, a new database, containing paired visible and thermal face images acquired ...

Mallat, Khawla — EURECOM


Automated Face Recognition from Low-resolution Imagery

Recently, significant advances in the field of automated face recognition have been achieved using computer vision, machine learning, and deep learning methodologies. However, despite claims of super-human performance of face recognition algorithms on select key benchmark tasks, there remain several open problems that preclude the general replacement of human face recognition work with automated systems. State-of-the-art automated face recognition systems based on deep learning methods are able to achieve high accuracy when the face images they are tasked with recognizing subjects from are of sufficiently high quality. However, low image resolution remains one of the principal obstacles to face recognition systems, and their performance in the low-resolution regime is decidedly below human capabilities. In this PhD thesis, we present a systematic study of modern automated face recognition systems in the presence of image degradation in various forms. Based on our ...

Grm, Klemen — University of Ljubljana


Improving Security and Privacy in Biometric Systems

The achievement of perfect security is out of the question. Even if we are not yet aware of them, every security aimed technology has weaknesses which attackers can exploit in order to circumvent the system. We should hence direct our efforts to the development of applications whose security level make it infeasible for computationally bound attackers to break the systems. This Thesis is focused on improving the security and privacy provided by biometric systems. With the increased need for reliable and automatic identity verification, biometrics have emerged in the last decades as a pushing alternative to traditional authentication methods. Certainly, biometrics are very attractive and useful for the general public: forget about PINs and passwords, you are your own key. However, the wide deployment of biometric recognition systems at both large-scale applications (e.g., border management at European level or national ...

Gomez-Barrero, Marta — Universidad Autonoma de Madrid


Identification of versions of the same musical composition by processing audio descriptions

Automatically making sense of digital information, and specially of music digital documents, is an important problem our modern society is facing. In fact, there are still many tasks that, although being easily performed by humans, cannot be effectively performed by a computer. In this work we focus on one of such tasks: the identification of musical piece versions (alternate renditions of the same musical composition like cover songs, live recordings, remixes, etc.). In particular, we adopt a computational approach solely based on the information provided by the audio signal. We propose a system for version identification that is robust to the main musical changes between versions, including timbre, tempo, key and structure changes. Such a system exploits nonlinear time series analysis tools and standard methods for quantitative music description, and it does not make use of a specific modeling strategy ...

Serra, Joan — Universitat Pompeu Fabra


Automatic Analysis of Head and Facial Gestures in Video Streams

Automatic analysis of head gestures and facial expressions is a challenging research area and it has significant applications for intelligent human-computer interfaces. An important task is the automatic classification of non-verbal messages composed of facial signals where both facial expressions and head rotations are observed. This is a challenging task, because there is no definite grammar or code-book for mapping the non-verbal facial signals into a corresponding mental state. Furthermore, non-verbal facial signals and the observed emotions have dependency on personality, society, state of the mood and also the context in which they are displayed or observed. This thesis mainly addresses the three desired tasks for an effective visual information based automatic face and head gesture (FHG) analyzer. First we develop a fully automatic, robust and accurate 17-point facial landmark localizer based on local appearance information and structural information of ...

Cinar Akakin, Hatice — Bogazici University


Revisiting face processing with light field images

Nowadays, in a time where cities contain millions of people and where travelling across the world is becoming easier and easier, the necessity of automatically identifying a person is starting to be compelling. The physical appearance and the behavioural characteristics have been discovered useful to univocally describe a person. The analytic study of the human body measures with the aim of recognising or verifying the identity of a person, is called biometrics, literally "life measure". In the last century, several biometric traits have been investigated according to the most updated technologies available at the moment, improving recognition, computational time and memory capacity. Starting from the 90’s, research on biometrics has received a huge boost thanks to the interest raised by academic institutions, government agencies and private companies. Moreover, the diffusion of new instruments, able to perform faster analyses, and to ...

CHIESA Valeria — EURECOM Sophia Antipolis


Spoofing and Disguise Variations in Face Recognition

Human recognition has become an important topic as the need and investments for security applications grow continuously. Biometrics enable reliable and efficient identity management systems by using physical and behavioral characteristics of the subjects that are permanent, universal and easy to access. This is why, the topic of biometrics attracts higher attention today. Numerous biometric systems exist which utilize various human characteristics. Among all biometrics traits, face recognition is advantageous in terms of accessibility and reliability. It allows identification at relatively high distances for unaware subjects that do not have to cooperate. In this dissertation, two challenges in face recognition are analyzed. The first one is face spoofing. Initially, spoofing in face recognition is explained together with the countermeasure techniques that are proposed for the protection of face recognition systems against spoofing attacks. The second challenge explored in this thesis ...

Kose, Neslihan — EURECOM


Decision threshold estimation and model quality evaluation techniques for speaker verification

The number of biometric applications has increased a lot in the last few years. In this context, the automatic person recognition by some physical traits like fingerprints, face, voice or iris, plays an important role. Users demand this type of applications every time more and the technology seems already mature. People look for security, low cost and accuracy but, at the same time, there are many other factors in connection with biometric applications that are growing in importance. Intrusiveness is undoubtedly a burning factor to decide about the biometrics we will used for our application. At this point, one can realize about the suitability of speaker recognition because voice is the natural way of communicating, can be remotely used and provides a low cost. Automatic speaker recognition is commonly used in telephonic applications although it can also be used in ...

Rodriguez Saeta, Javier — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Three-Dimensional Face Recognition

In this thesis, we attack the problem of identifying humans from their three dimensional facial characteristics. For this purpose, a complete 3D face recognition system is developed. We divide the whole system into sub-processes. These sub-processes can be categorized as follows: 1) registration, 2) representation of faces, 3) extraction of discriminative features, and 4) fusion of matchers. For each module, we evaluate the state-of-the art methods, and also propose novel ones. For the registration task, we propose to use a generic face model which speeds up the correspondence establishment process. We compare the benefits of rigid and non-rigid registration schemes using a generic face model. In terms of face representation schemes, we implement a diverse range of approaches such as point clouds, curvature-based descriptors, and range images. In relation to these, various feature extraction methods are used to determine the ...

Gokberk, Berk — Bogazici University


Digital Processing Based Solutions for Life Science Engineering Recognition Problems

The field of Life Science Engineering (LSE) is rapidly expanding and predicted to grow strongly in the next decades. It covers areas of food and medical research, plant and pests’ research, and environmental research. In each research area, engineers try to find equations that model a certain life science problem. Once found, they research different numerical techniques to solve for the unknown variables of these equations. Afterwards, solution improvement is examined by adopting more accurate conventional techniques, or developing novel algorithms. In particular, signal and image processing techniques are widely used to solve those LSE problems require pattern recognition. However, due to the continuous evolution of the life science problems and their natures, these solution techniques can not cover all aspects, and therefore demanding further enhancement and improvement. The thesis presents numerical algorithms of digital signal and image processing to ...

Hussein, Walid — Technische Universität München

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