Modeling, Identification, and Compensation of Channel Mismatch Errors in Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters

Modern signal processing applications emerging in telecommunication and instrumentation industries need high-speed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), which can be achieved by employing a time-interleaved parallel array of ADCs (time-interleaved ADCs). The time interleaving of the channels allows to increase the sampling rate by the number of channels compared to a single channel. Unfortunately, time-interleaved ADCs suffer from channel mismatches that limit their performance, wherefore this thesis deals with the identification and compensation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved ADCs. By using nonlinear hybrid filter banks, we have modeled and analyzed channel mismatches in detail. The model covers linear and nonlinear channel mismatches, unifies, and extends the channel models found in the literature. A novel foreground channel mismatch identification method has been developed, which can be used to fully characterize dynamic linear mismatches. A background identification method provides accurate timing mismatch estimates. Finally, ...

Vogel, Christian — Graz University of Technology


Signal Processing for Ultra Wideband Transceivers

In this thesis novel implementation approaches for standardized and non-standardized ultra wide-band (UWB) systems are presented. These implementation approaches include signal processing algorithms to achieve processing of UWB signals in transceiver front-ends and in digital back-ends. A parallelization of the transceiver in the frequency-domain has been achieved with hybrid filterbank transceivers. The standardized MB-OFDM signaling scheme allows par- allelization in the frequency domain by distributing the orthogonal multicarrier modulation onto multiple units. Furthermore, the channel’s response to wideband signals has been parallelized in the frequency domain and the effects of the parallelization have been investi- gated. Slight performance decreases are observed, where the limiting effects are truncated sidelobes and filter mismatches in analog front-ends. Measures for the performance loss have been defined. For UWB signal generation, a novel broadband signal generation approach is presented. For that purpose, multiple digital-to-analog converters ...

Krall, Christoph — Graz University of Technology


Measurement Methods for Estimating the Error Vector Magnitude in OFDM Transceivers

The error vector magnitude (EVM) is a standard metric to quantify the performance of digital communication systems and related building blocks. Regular EVM measurements require expensive equipment featuring inphase and quadrature (IQ) demodulation, wideband analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), and dedicated receiver algorithms to demodulate the data symbols. With modern high data rate communication standards that require high bandwidths and low amounts of error, it is difficult to avoid bias due to errors in the measurement chain. This thesis develops and discusses measurement methods that address the above-described issues with EVM measurements. The first method is an extension of the regular EVM, yielding two results from a single measurement. One result equals the regular EVM result, whereas the other excludes potential errors due to mismatches of the I- and Q- paths of direct conversion transmitters and receivers (IQ imbalance). This can be ...

Freiberger, Karl — Graz University of Technology


Modeling Analog to Digital Converters at Radio Frequency

This work considers behavior modeling of analog to digital converters with applications in the radio frequency range, including the field of telecommunication as well as test and measurement instrumentation, where the conversion from analog to digital signals often is a bottleneck in performance. The models are intended to post-process output data from the converter and thereby improve the performance of the digital signal. By building a model of practical converters and the way in which they deviate from ideal, imperfections can be corrected using post-correction methods. Behavior modeling implies generation of a suitable stimulus, capturing the output data, and characterizing a model. The demands on the test setup are high for converters in the radio frequency range. The test-bed used in this thesis is composed of commercial state-of-the-art instruments and components designed for signal conditioning and signal capture. Further, in ...

Björsell, Niclas — KTH, Signal Processing


Adaptive Signal Processing for Power Line Communications

This thesis represents a significant part of the research activity conducted during the PhD program in Information Technologies, supported by Selta S.p.A, Cadeo, Italy, focused on the analysis and design of a Power Line Communications (PLC) system. In recent times the PLC technologies have been considered for integration in Smart Grids architectures, as they are used to exploit the existing power line infrastructure for information transmission purposes on low, medium and high voltage lines. The characterization of a reliable PLC system is a current object of research as well as it is the design of modems for communications over the power lines. In this thesis, the focus is on the analysis of a full-duplex PLC modem for communication over high-voltage lines, and, in particular, on the design of the echo canceller device and innovative channel coding schemes. The first part ...

Tripodi, Carlo — Università degli Studi di Parma


Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology


High-End Performance with Low-End Hardware: Analysis of Massive MIMO Base Station Transceivers

Massive MIMO (multiple-input–multiple-output) is a multi-antenna technology for cellular wireless communication, where the base station uses a large number of individually controllable antennas to multiplex users spatially. This technology can provide a high spectral efficiency. One of its main challenges is the immense hardware complexity and cost of all the radio chains in the base station. To make massive MIMO commercially viable, inexpensive, low-complexity hardware with low linearity has to be used, which inherently leads to more signal distortion. This thesis investigates how the degenerated linearity of some of the main components—power amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and low-noise amplifiers—affects the performance of the system, with respect to data rate, power consumption and out-of-band radiation. The main results are: Spatial processing can reduce PAR (peak-to-average ratio) of the transmit signals in the downlink to as low as 0B; this, however, does ...

Mollén, Christopher — Linköpings universitet


Feedback-Channel and Adaptive MIMO Coded-Modulations

When the transmitter of a communication system disposes of some Channel State Information (CSI), it is possible to design linear precoders that optimally allocate the power inducing high gains either in terms of capacity or in terms of reliable communications. In practical scenarios, this channel knowledge is not perfect and thus the transmitted signal suffers from the mismatch between the CSI at the transmitter and the real channel. In that context, this thesis deals with two different, but related, topics: the design of a feasible transmitter channel tracker for time varying channels, and the design of optimal linear precoders robust to imperfect channel estimates. The first part of the thesis proposes the design of a channel tracker that provides an accurate CSI at the transmitter by means of a low capacity feedback link. Historically, those schemes have been criticized because ...

Rey, Francesc — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Transmission over Time- and Frequency-Selective Mobile Wireless Channels

The wireless communication industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, and digital cellular systems are currently designed to provide high data rates at high terminal speeds. High data rates give rise to intersymbol interference (ISI) due to so-called multipath fading. Such an ISI channel is called frequency selective. On the other hand, due to terminal mobility and/or receiver frequency offset the received signal is subject to frequency shifts (Doppler shifts). Doppler shift induces time-selectivity characteristics. The Doppler effect in conjunction with ISI gives rise to a so-called doubly selective channel (frequency- and time-selective). In addition to the channel effects, the analog front-end may suffer from an imbalance between the I and Q branch amplitudes and phases as well as from carrier frequency offset. These analog front-end imperfections then result in an additional and significant degradation in system performance, especially ...

Barhumi, Imad — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Recursive Algorithms for Adaptive Transversal Filters: Optimality and Time-Variance

This thesis presents a unified theory for the design and analysis of recursive algorithms for the adaptation of transversal digital filters. First, the widely used error minimization approach to algorithm design is investigated and it is shown not to allow a coherent derivation of practical algorithms from an optimality criterion. The reason is found in the incompatibility of the assumption of a time-invariant application environment for the optimality definition and of the practical demand on the adaptive filter for tracking in time-varying environments. The present proposal for a deterministic approach to algorithm design goes beyond mere error minimization in that the time variation of the coefficients of the adaptive filter is included as well. In the sequel a wealth of algorithms is shown to fulfil this novel unified description and several algorithm modifications, which often appear ad hoc, are derived ...

Kubin, Gernot — Vienna University of Technology


Analog Joint Source Channel Coding for Wireless Communications

In 1948, the Shannon’s work titled ”A mathematical theory of communication” completely revolutionized the way to understand the problem of the reliable communications. He showed that any communications system is able to transmit with an arbitrarily low error probability as long as the transmission rate is kept below a certain limit. The separation between the source and channel coding was also shown as the optimal strategy to achieve the theoretical limits. Those ideas inspire the development of a whole digital communication theory focused on building more and more sophisticated coding schemes. It leads to most of communication systems were designed according to a digital approach and the separation principle from that moment, whereas other alternatives were set aside. However, in the last years, communication systems based on a jointly optimization of the source and channel encoder has aroused the interest ...

Fresnedo Arias, Óscar — University of A Coruña


Efficient parametric modeling, identification and equalization of room acoustics

Room acoustic signal enhancement (RASE) applications, such as digital equalization, acoustic echo and feedback cancellation, which are commonly found in communication devices and audio equipment, aim at processing the acoustic signals with the final goal of improving the perceived sound quality in rooms. In order to do so, signal processing algorithms require the acoustic response of the room to be represented by means of parametric models and to be identified from the input and output signals of the room acoustic system. In particular, a good model should be both accurate, thus capturing those features of room acoustics that are physically and perceptually most relevant, and efficient, so that it can be implemented as a digital filter and used in practical signal processing tasks. This thesis addresses the fundamental question in room acoustic signal processing concerning the appropriateness of different parametric ...

Vairetti, Giacomo — KU Leuven


Estima e Igualacion Ciega de Canales MIMO con y sin Redudancia Espacial (title in Spanish)

The majority of communication systems need the previous knowledge of the channel, which is usually estimated by means of a training sequence. However, the transmission of pilot symbols provokes a reduction in bandwidth efficiency, which precludes the system from reaching the limits predicted by the Information Theory. This problem has motivated the development of a large number of blind channel estimation and equalization techniques, which are able to obtain the channel or the source without the need of transmitting a training signal. Usually, these techniques are based on the previous knowledge of certain properties of the signal, such as its belonging to a finite alphabet, or its higher-order statistics. However, in the case of multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems, it has been proven that the second-order statistics of the observations provide the sufficient information for solving the blind problem. The aim ...

Rodriguez, Javier Via — Universidad de Cantabria


Factor Graph Based Detection Schemes for Mobile Terrestrial DVB Systems with Long OFDM Blocks

This PhD dissertation analyzes the performance of second generation digital video broadcasting (DVB) systems in mobile terrestrial environments and proposes an iterative detection algorithm based on factor graphs (FG) to reduce the distortion caused by the time variation of the channel, providing error-free communication in very severe mobile conditions. The research work focuses on mobile scenarios where the intercarrier interference (ICI) is very high: high vehicular speeds when long orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) blocks are used. As a starting point, we provide the theoretical background on the main topics behind the transmission and reception of terrestrial digital television signals in mobile environments, long with a general overview of the main signal processing techniques included in last generation terrestrial DVB systems. The proposed FG-based detector design is then assessed over a simpli ed bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-OFDM communication scheme for a ...

Ochandiano, Pello — University of Mondragon


Direction Finding In The Presence of Array Imperfections, Model Mismatches and Multipath

In direction finding (DF) applications, there are several factors affecting the estimation accuracy of the direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of unknown source locations. The major distortions in the estimation process are due to the array imperfections, model mismatches and multipath. The array imperfections usually exist in practical applications due to the nonidealities in the antenna array such as mutual coupling (MC) and gain/phase uncertainties. The model mismatches usually occur when the model of the received signal differs from the signal model used in the processing stage of the DF system. Another distortion is due to multipath signals. In the multipath scenario, the antenna array receives the transmitted signal from more than one path with different directions and the array covariance matrix is rank-deficient. In this thesis, three new methods are proposed for the problems in DF applications in the presence of array ...

Elbir, Ahmet M. — Middle East Technical Univresity

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