## Bayesian resolution of the non linear inverse problem of Electrical Impedance Tomography with Finite Element modeling (1997)

Bayesian Approaches in Image Source Seperation

In this thesis, a general solution to the component separation problem in images is introduced. Unlike most existing works, the spatial dependencies of images are modelled in the separation process with the use of Markov random fields (MRFs). In the MRFs model, Cauchy density is used for the gradient images. We provide a general Bayesian framework for the estimation of the parameters of this model. Due to the intractability of the problem we resort to numerical solutions for the joint maximization of the a posteriori distribution of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise variances. For numerical solution, four different methods are proposed. In first method, the difficulty of working analytically with general Gibbs distributions of MRF is overcome by using an approximate density. In this approach, the Gibbs distribution is modelled by the product of directional Gaussians. The ...

Kayabol, Koray — Istanbul University

Bayesian Fusion of Multi-band Images: A Powerful Tool for Super-resolution

Hyperspectral (HS) imaging, which consists of acquiring a same scene in several hundreds of contiguous spectral bands (a three dimensional data cube), has opened a new range of relevant applications, such as target detection [MS02], classification [C.-03] and spectral unmixing [BDPD+12]. However, while HS sensors provide abundant spectral information, their spatial resolution is generally more limited. Thus, fusing the HS image with other highly resolved images of the same scene, such as multispectral (MS) or panchromatic (PAN) images is an interesting problem. The problem of fusing a high spectral and low spatial resolution image with an auxiliary image of higher spatial but lower spectral resolution, also known as multi-resolution image fusion, has been explored for many years [AMV+11]. From an application point of view, this problem is also important as motivated by recent national programs, e.g., the Japanese next-generation space-borne ...

Wei, Qi — University of Toulouse

Particle Filters and Markov Chains for Learning of Dynamical Systems

Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods provide computational tools for systematic inference and learning in complex dynamical systems, such as nonlinear and non-Gaussian state-space models. This thesis builds upon several methodological advances within these classes of Monte Carlo methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the combination of SMC and MCMC in so called particle MCMC algorithms. These algorithms rely on SMC for generating samples from the often highly autocorrelated state-trajectory. A specific particle MCMC algorithm, referred to as particle Gibbs with ancestor sampling (PGAS), is suggested. By making use of backward sampling ideas, albeit implemented in a forward-only fashion, PGAS enjoys good mixing even when using seemingly few particles in the underlying SMC sampler. This results in a computationally competitive particle MCMC algorithm. As illustrated in this thesis, PGAS is a useful tool for both ...

Lindsten, Fredrik — Linköping University

Statistical Analysis of Cognitivve Signals measured by fNIRS

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) needs a standardization in signal processing tools before it is recognized as a reliable neuroimaging modality. This thesis study tries to present a comprehensive analysis of the feasibility of applying statistical inference methods to fNIRS signals. Using hierarchical linear models, both classical and Bayesian techniques are pursued and performance of different methods are presented on a comparative basis. The results obtained from a set of cognitive signals show that fNIRS can identify cognitive activity both at the subject and group levels. The analysis suggests that mixed or Bayesian hierarchical models are especially convenient for fNIRS signals. A related problem that is discussed in this thesis study is to guarantee that the outcome of the statistical analysis is congruent with underlying physiology. This problem is studied by putting constraints over the parameters to be estimated. Carrying ...

Ciftci, Koray — Bogazici University

Image Sequence Restoration Using Gibbs Distributions

This thesis addresses a number of issues concerned with the restoration of one type of image sequence namely archived black and white motion pictures. These are often a valuable historical record but because of the physical nature of the film they can suffer from a variety of degradations which reduce their usefulness. The main visual defects are â€˜dirt and sparkleâ€™ due to dust and dirt becoming attached to the film or abrasion removing the emulsion and â€˜line scratchesâ€™ due to the film running against foreign bodies in the camera or projector. For an image restoration algorithm to be successful it must be based on a mathematical model of the image. A number of models have been proposed and here we explore the use of a general class of model known as Markov Random Fields (MRFs) based on Gibbs distributions by ...

Morris, Robin David — University of Cambridge

Bayesian State-Space Modelling of Spatio-Temporal Non-Gaussian Radar Returns

Radar backscatter from an ocean surface is commonly referred to as sea clutter. Any radar backscatter not due to the scattering from an ocean surface constitutes a potential target. This thesis is concerned with the study of target detection techniques in the presence of high resolution sea clutter. In this dissertation, the high resolution sea clutter is treated as a compound process, where a fast oscillating speckle component is modulated in power by a slowly varying modulating component. While the short term temporal correlations of the clutter are associated with the speckle, the spatial correlations are largely associated with the modulating component. Due to the disparate statistical and correlation properties of the two components, a piecemeal approach is adopted throughout this thesis, whereby the spatial and the temporal correlations of high resolution sea clutter are treated independently. As an extension ...

Noga, Jacek Leszek — University of Cambridge

The solution to many image restoration and reconstruction problems is often defined as the minimizer of a penalized criterion that accounts simultaneously for the data and the prior. This thesis deals more specifically with the minimization of edge-preserving penalized criteria. We focus on algorithms for large-scale problems. The minimization of penalized criteria can be addressed using a half-quadratic approach (HQ). Converging HQ algorithms have been proposed. However, their numerical cost is generally too high for large-scale problems. An alternative is to implement inexact HQ algorithms. Nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithms can also be considered using scalar HQ algorithms for the line search (NLCG+HQ1D). Some issues on the convergence of the aforementioned algorithms remained open until now. In this thesis we : - Prove the convergence of inexact HQ algorithms and NLCG+HQ1D. - Point out strong links between HQ algorithms and NLCG+HQ1D. ...

Labat, Christian — IRCCyN, Nantes, France

Bayesian Compressed Sensing using Alpha-Stable Distributions

During the last decades, information is being gathered and processed at an explosive rate. This fact gives rise to a very important issue, that is, how to effectively and precisely describe the information content of a given source signal or an ensemble of source signals, such that it can be stored, processed or transmitted by taking into consideration the limitations and capabilities of the several digital devices. One of the fundamental principles of signal processing for decades is the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, which states that the minimum number of samples needed to reconstruct a signal without error is dictated by its bandwidth. However, there are many cases in our everyday life in which sampling at the Nyquist rate results in too many data and thus, demanding an increased processing power, as well as storage requirements. A mathematical theory that emerged ...

Tzagkarakis, George — University of Crete

This dissertation is concerned with the development of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for the Bayesian restoration of degraded audio signals. First, the Bayesian approach to time series modelling is reviewed, then established MCMC methods are introduced. The first problem to be addressed is that of model order uncertainty. A reversible-jump sampler is proposed which can move between models of different order. It is shown that faster convergence can be achieved by exploiting the analytic structure of the time series model. This approach to model order uncertainty is applied to the problem of noise reduction using the simulation smoother. The effects of incorrect autoregressive (AR) model orders are demonstrated, and a mixed model order MCMC noise reduction scheme is developed. Nonlinear time series models are surveyed, and the advantages of linear-in- the-parameters models explained. A nonlinear AR (NAR) model, ...

Troughton, Paul Thomas — University of Cambridge

Robust Methods for Sensing and Reconstructing Sparse Signals

Compressed sensing (CS) is a recently introduced signal acquisition framework that goes against the traditional Nyquist sampling paradigm. CS demonstrates that a sparse, or compressible, signal can be acquired using a low rate acquisition process. Since noise is always present in practical data acquisition systems, sensing and reconstruction methods are developed assuming a Gaussian (light-tailed) model for the corrupting noise. However, when the underlying signal and/or the measurements are corrupted by impulsive noise, commonly employed linear sampling operators, coupled with Gaussian-derived reconstruction algorithms, fail to recover a close approximation of the signal. This dissertation develops robust sampling and reconstruction methods for sparse signals in the presence of impulsive noise. To achieve this objective, we make use of robust statistics theory to develop appropriate methods addressing the problem of impulsive noise in CS systems. We develop a generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD) ...

Carrillo, Rafael — University of Delaware

Accelerating Monte Carlo methods for Bayesian inference in dynamical models

Making decisions and predictions from noisy observations are two important and challenging problems in many areas of society. Some examples of applications are recommendation systems for online shopping and streaming services, connecting genes with certain diseases and modelling climate change. In this thesis, we make use of Bayesian statistics to construct probabilistic models given prior information and historical data, which can be used for decision support and predictions. The main obstacle with this approach is that it often results in mathematical problems lacking analytical solutions. To cope with this, we make use of statistical simulation algorithms known as Monte Carlo methods to approximate the intractable solution. These methods enjoy well-understood statistical properties but are often computational prohibitive to employ. The main contribution of this thesis is the exploration of different strategies for accelerating inference methods based on sequential Monte Carlo ...

Dahlin, Johan — Linköping University

The problem of signal separation is a very broad and fundamental one. A powerful paradigm within which signal separation can be achieved is the assumption that the signals/sources are statistically independent of one another. This is known as Independent Component Analysis (ICA). In this thesis, the theoretical aspects and derivation of ICA are examined, from which disparate approaches to signal separation are drawn together in a unifying framework. This is followed by a review of signal separation techniques based on ICA. Second order statistics based output decorrelation methods are employed to try to solve the challenging problem of separating convolutively mixed signals, in the context of mainly audio source separation and the Cocktail Party Problem. Various optimisation techniques are devised to implement second order signal separation of both artificially mixed signals and real mixtures. A study of the advantages and ...

Ahmed, Alijah — University of Cambridge

Inverse Scattering Procedures for the Reconstruction of One-Dimensional Permittivity Range Profiles

Inverse scattering is relevant to a very large class of problems, where the unknown structure of a scattering object is estimated by measuring the scattered field produced by known probing waves. Therefore, for more than three decades, the promises of non-invasive imaging inspection by electromagnetic probing radiations have been justifying a research interest on these techniques. Several application areas are involved, such as civil and industrial engineering, non-destructive testing and medical imaging as well as subsurface inspection for oil exploration or unexploded devices. In spite of this relevance, most scattering tomography techniques are not reliable enough to solve practical problems. Indeed, the nonlinear relationship between the scattered field and the object function and the robustness of the inversion algorithms are still open issues. In particular, microwave tomography presents a number of specific difficulties that make it much more involved to ...

Genovesi, Simone — University of Pisa

Cosparse regularization of physics-driven inverse problems

Inverse problems related to physical processes are of great importance in practically every field related to signal processing, such as tomography, acoustics, wireless communications, medical and radar imaging, to name only a few. At the same time, many of these problems are quite challenging due to their ill-posed nature. On the other hand, signals originating from physical phenomena are often governed by laws expressible through linear Partial Differential Equations (PDE), or equivalently, integral equations and the associated Green’s functions. In addition, these phenomena are usually induced by sparse singularities, appearing as sources or sinks of a vector field. In this thesis we primarily investigate the coupling of such physical laws with a prior assumption on the sparse origin of a physical process. This gives rise to a “dual” regularization concept, formulated either as sparse analysis (cosparse), yielded by a PDE ...

Kitić, Srđan — Université de Rennes 1

Sensing physical fields: Inverse problems for the diffusion equation and beyond

Due to significant advances made over the last few decades in the areas of (wireless) networking, communications and microprocessor fabrication, the use of sensor networks to observe physical phenomena is rapidly becoming commonplace. Over this period, many aspects of sensor networks have been explored, yet a thorough understanding of how to analyse and process the vast amounts of sensor data collected remains an open area of research. This work, therefore, aims to provide theoretical, as well as practical, advances this area. In particular, we consider the problem of inferring certain underlying properties of the monitored phenomena, from our sensor measurements. Within mathematics, this is commonly formulated as an inverse problem; whereas in signal processing, it appears as a (multidimensional) sampling and reconstruction problem. Indeed it is well known that inverse problems are notoriously ill-posed and very demanding to solve; meanwhile ...

Murray-Bruce, John — Imperial College London

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