Estima e Igualacion Ciega de Canales MIMO con y sin Redudancia Espacial (title in Spanish)

The majority of communication systems need the previous knowledge of the channel, which is usually estimated by means of a training sequence. However, the transmission of pilot symbols provokes a reduction in bandwidth efficiency, which precludes the system from reaching the limits predicted by the Information Theory. This problem has motivated the development of a large number of blind channel estimation and equalization techniques, which are able to obtain the channel or the source without the need of transmitting a training signal. Usually, these techniques are based on the previous knowledge of certain properties of the signal, such as its belonging to a finite alphabet, or its higher-order statistics. However, in the case of multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems, it has been proven that the second-order statistics of the observations provide the sufficient information for solving the blind problem. The aim ...

Rodriguez, Javier Via — Universidad de Cantabria


Fast Blind Adaptive Equalisation for Multiuser CDMA Systems

In order to improve communication over a dispersive channel in a CDMA system, we have to re-establish the orthogonally of codes which are used when combining input signals from many users onto a single communication path, as otherwise the performance of such system is limited significantly by inter-symbol interference (ISI) and multiuser access interference (MAI). In order to achieve this, adaptive filters are employed. A variety of adaptive schemes to remove ISI and MAI have been reported in the literature, some of which rely on training sequences, such as the Least Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithms, or on blind adaptation, such as the Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) or the Decision Directed algorithm (DD), which has similar convergence properties as the LMS in the absence of decision errors, the CMA is relatively slow compared to the DD ...

Daas, Adel — University of Strathclyde


Adaptive Equalisation for Impulsive Noise Environments

This thesis addresses the problem of adaptive channel equalisation in environments where the interfering noise exhibits non–Gaussian behaviour due to impulsive phenomena. The family of alpha–stable distributions has proved to be a suitable and flexible tool for the modelling of signals with impulsive nature. However, non–Gaussian alpha–stable signals have infinite variance, and signal processing techniques based on second order moments are meaningless in such environments. In order to exploit the flexibility of the stable family and still take advantage of the existing signal processing tools, a novel framework for the integration of the stable model in a communications context is proposed, based on a finite dynamic range receiver. The performance of traditional signal processing algorithms designed under the Gaussian assumption may degrade seriously in impulsive environments. When this degradation cannot be tolerated, the traditional signal processing methods must be revisited ...

Georgiades, Apostolos Theofani — University Of Edinburgh


Communication Rates for Fading Channels with Imperfect Channel-State Information

An important specificity of wireless communication channels are the rapid fluctuations of propagation coefficients. This effect is called fading and is caused by the motion of obstacles, scatterers and reflectors standing along the different paths of electromagnetic wave propagation between the transmitting and the receiving terminal. These changes in the geometry of the wireless channel prompt the attenuation coefficients and the relative phase shifts between the multiple propagation paths to vary. This suggests to model the channel coefficients (the transfer matrix) as random variables. The present thesis studies information rates for reliable transmission of information over fading channels under the realistic assumption that the receiver has only imperfect knowledge of the random fading state. While the over-idealized assumption of perfect channel-state information at the receiver (CSIR) gives rise to many simple expressions and is fairly well understood, the settings with ...

Pastore, Adriano — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya


Block Transmission Techniques for Wireless Communications

In order to meet the market demand for high datarates, most digital wireless communication systems rely on broadband channels and therefore suffer from Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), a phenomenon that needs to be combatted at the receiver by appropriate equalization techniques in order to restore the transmitted information. In this context, block transmission techniques based on the use of a Cyclic-Prefix (CP) have attracted a lot of attention in the last years for they allow an efficient and computationally cheap ISI cancellation procedure. Historically, OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) was the first proposed block transmission scheme and has been adopted in numerous standards for high-speed data transmission in both wired and wireless applications. In the wireless context however, OFDM suffers of several problems, both on an implementational point of view and from a performance perspective. Some recently proposed block transmission ...

Rousseaux, Olivier — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


OFDM Air-Interface Design for Multimedia Communications

The aim of this dissertation is the investigation of the key issues encountered in the development of wideband radio air-interfaces. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as the enabling technology for transmitting data at extremely high rates over time-dispersive radio channels. OFDM is a transmission scheme, which splits up the data stream, sending the data symbols simultaneously at a drastically reduced symbol rate over a set of parallel sub-carriers. The first part of this thesis deals with the modeling of the time-dispersive and frequency-selective radio channel, utilizing second order Gaussian stochastic processes. A novel channel measurement technique is developed, in which the RMS delay spread of the channel is estimated from the level-crossing rate of the frequency-selective channel transfer function. This method enables the empirical channel characterization utilizing simplified non-coherent measurements of the received power versus frequency. Air-interface and multiple ...

Witrisal, Klaus — Delft University of Technology


Iterative Multi-User Receivers for CDMA Systems

Mobile communication networks of the third and future generations are designed to offer high-data rate services like video-telephony and data-transfer. The current Rake receiver architecture will create a shortage in available bandwidth offered to the users. This is not due to a shortage in spectrum but results from inefficient receiver architectures. Spectral efficiency can be increased considerably through multi-user detection techniques in the receiver algorithms. The present thesis investigates iterative re- ceivers for encoded CDMA transmission in the uplink. The iterative receiver is a suboptimal receiver algorithm with manageable complexity. It consists of an inter- ference mitigating multi-user detector, a bank of single-user decoders, and a channel estimator. Instead of deciding on the transmitted symbols right after the first decod- ing, the receiver feeds back tentative decision symbols to mitigate multiple-access interference in the next iteration. Similarly, soft decision symbols ...

Wehinger, J. — Vienna University of Technology


Antenna Arrays for Multipath and Interference Mitigation in GNSS Receivers

This thesis deals with the synchronization of one or several replicas of a known signal received in a scenario with multipath propagation and directional interference. A connecting theme along this work is the systematic application of the maximum likelihood (ML) principle together with a signal model in which the spatial signatures are unstructured and the noise term is Gaussian- distributed with an unknown correlation matrix. This last assumption is key in obtaining estimators that are capable of mitigating the disturbing signals that exhibit a certain structure, and this is achieved without resorting to the estimation of the parameters of those signals. On the other hand, the assumption of unstructured spatial signatures is interesting from a practical standpoint and facilitates the estimation problem since the estimates of these signatures can be obtained in closed form. This constitutes a first step towards ...

Seco-Granados, Gonzalo — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Computationally Efficient Equalisation of Broadband Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Systems

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are encountered for example in communications if several transmit and receive antennas are empoyed, such that a separate transmit channel exists between every possible pairing of transmitter and receiver antennas. As a results if this spatial diversity, the channel capacity is dramatically increased over the single-inout single-output (SISO) case. While this increase is desired, the use of high data rates requires sophistiocated equalisation and/or detection schemes in the receiver to compensate for spatial and temporal dispersion in broadband MIMO channels, since a time-dispersive, in addition ot spatially-dispersice channel, must be assumed. The estimation of the broadband MIMO channel or its inverse is in general difficult and calls for training sequences that reduce the slot time for the transmission of actual data, which may counteract the promised gain in channel capacity. Another problem can be the computational ...

Bale, Viktor — University of Southampton


Channel Modeling and Estimation For Wireless Communication Systems Using a Time-Frequency Approach

Broadband wireless communication is a very fast growing communication area. Multicarrier modulation techniques like Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Biorthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (BFDM), Pulse Shaping (PS) and Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MCSS) have recently been introduced as robust techniques against intersymbol interference (ISI) and noise, compared to single carrier communication systems over fast fading multipath communication channels. Therefore, multicarrier modulation techniques have been considered as a candidate for new generation, high data rate broadband wireless communication systems and have been adopted as the related standards. Several examples are the European digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and digital video broadcasting (DVB), the IEEE standands for wireless local area networks (WLAN), 802.11a, and wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN), 802.16a. However, Doppler frequency shifts, phase offset, local oscillator frequency shifts, and multi-path fading severely degrade the performance of multicarrier communication systems. For fast-varying channels, ...

Yalcin, Mahmut — Istanbul University


Signal Processing Algorithms for CDMA-Based Wireless Communications

Wireless communication systems rely on a multiple-access technique, i.e., a mechanism to divide the common transmission medium among di erent users. Code-division multiple-access (CDMA) is a multiple-access technique that has received considerable attention in recent years. In a CDMA system, each user spreads his information-bearing signal into a wideband signal, using speci c code information. All users then transmit their wideband signal within the same frequency and time channel. This thesis deals with the development of receivers for various CDMA systems. Digital signal processing plays a central role in this development. In recent literature, so-called multi-user receivers have become very popular. These receivers take into account the full structure of the multi-user interfer- ence (MUI), i.e., the interference originating from the other users. However, they have a rather high computational complexity. In the rst part of this the- sis, we ...

Leus, Geert — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Channel estimation and non-linear transceiver designs for MIMO OFDM relay systems

Multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) systems deploy multiple antennas at either end of a communication link and can provide significant benefits compared to traditional single antenna systems, such as increased data rates through spatial multiplexing gain, and/or improved link reliability through diversity techniques. Recently, the natural extension of utilising multiple antennas in relay networks, known as MIMO relaying, has attracted significant research attention due to the fact that the benefits of MIMO can be coupled with extended network coverage through the use of relaying devices. This thesis concentrates on the design and analysis of different aspects of MIMO relay systems communicating over frequency selective channels with the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The first focus of this thesis is on the development of training based channel estimation algorithms for two-hop MIMO OFDM relaying. In the first phase of channel ...

Millar, Andrew Paul — University of Strathclyde


Diversity Gain Enhancement for Extended Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coding in Wireless Communications

Transmit diversity is a powerful technique for enhancing the channel capacity and reliability of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. This thesis considers extended orthogonal space-time block coding (EO-STBC) with beamsteering angles, which have previously been shown to potentially achieve full diversity and array gain with four transmit and one receive antenna. The optimum setting of beamsteering angles applied in the transmitter, which has to be calculated based on channel state information (CSI) at the receiver side, must be quantised and feed back to the transmitter via a reverse feedback link. When operating in a fading scenario, channel coefficients vary smoothly with time. This smooth evolution of channel coefficients motivates the investigation of differential feedback, which can reduce the number of feedback bits, while potentially maintaining near optimum performance. The hypothesis that the smooth evolution of channel coefficients translates into ...

Hussin, Mohamed Nuri Ahmed — University of Strathclyde


Development of Fuzzy System Based Channel Equalisers

Channel equalisers are used in digital communication receivers to mitigate the effects of inter symbol interference (ISI) and inter user interference in the form of co-channel interference (CCI) and adjacent channel interference (ACI) in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). An equaliser uses a large part of the computations involved in the receiver. Linear equalisers based on adaptive filtering techniques have long been used for this application. Recently, use of nonlinear signal processing techniques like artificial neural networks (ANN) and radial basis functions (RBF) have shown encouraging results in this application. This thesis presents the development of a nonlinear fuzzy system based equaliser for digital communication receivers. The fuzzy equaliser proposed in this thesis provides a parametric implementation of symbolby- symbol maximum a-posteriori probability (MAP) equaliser based on Bayes’s theory. This MAP equaliser is also called Bayesian equaliser. ...

Patra, Sarat Kumar — University Of Edinburgh


Nonlinear receivers for DS-CDMA

The growing demand for capacity in wireless communications is the driving force behind improving established networks and the deployment of a new worldwide mobile standard. Capacity calculations show that the direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) technique has more capacity than the time division multiple access technique. Therefore, most 3rd generation mobile systems will incorporate some sort of DS-CDMA. In this thesis DS-CDMA receiver structures are investigated from the view point of pattern recognition which leads to new DS-CDMA receiver structures. It is known that the optimum DS-CDMA receiver has a nonlinear structure with prohibitive complexity for practical implementation. It is also known that the currently implemented receiver in 2nd generation DSCDMA mobile handsets has poor performance, because it suffers from multiuser interference. Consequently, this work focuses on sub-optimum nonlinear receivers for DS-CDMA in the downlink scenario. First, the ...

Tanner, Rudolf — University Of Edinburgh

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