Transmit Beamforming to Multiple Cochannel Multicast Groups

The major contribution of this thesis is on the problem of transmit beamforming to multiple cochannel multicast groups. Two viewpoints are considered: i) minimizing total transmission power while guaranteeing a prescribed minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at each receiver; and ii) a "fair" approach maximizing the overall minimum SINR under a total power budget. The core problem is a multicast generalization of the multiuser downlink beamforming problem; the difference is that each transmitted stream is directed to multiple receivers, each with its own channel. Such generalization is relevant and timely, e.g., in the context of the emerging WiMAX and UMTS-LTE wireless networks. The joint multicast beamforming problem is in general NP-hard, motivating the pursuit of computationally efficient quasi-optimal solutions. In chapter 1, it is shown that semidefinite relaxation coupled with suitable randomization / cochannel multicast power control yield computationally efficient high-quality ...

Karipidis, Eleftherios — Technical University of Crete


Adaptive Communications for Next Generation Broadband Wireless Access Systems

In Broadband Wireless Access systems the efficient use of the resources is crucial from many points of views. From the operator point of view, the bandwidth is a scarce, valuable, and expensive resource which must be exploited in an efficient manner while the Quality of Service (QoS) provided to the users is guaranteed. On the other hand, a tight delay and link quality constraints are imposed on each data flow hence the user experiences the same quality as in fixed networks. During the last few years many techniques have been developed in order to increase the spectral efficiency and the throughput. Among them, the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver (exploiting spatial multiplexing) with the joint optimization of the medium access control layer and the physical layer parameters. In this Ph.D. thesis, different adaptive techniques for ...

Ismael Gutierrez González — Universitat Ramon Llull


Optimization of Video Streaming over 3G Networks

VIDEO streaming over cellular networks has been made possible in the last years by better performing video codecs and wireless cellular networks oriented to data transmission. The interaction between two heterogeneous worlds, the telecommunication infrastructure and the coding video software, calls for advanced optimization mechanisms. The actors involved in the optimization process are the cellular system's access network, UMTS and HSDPA, the wireless transmission channel and the fi nal user equipped with a mobile device capable of decoding video sequences. The knowledge and characterization of each of the building blocks allow the optimization of each element to the specifi c needs of the others. This doctoral thesis discusses three main contributions. In the fi rst part, the e ffects of transmission errors on video streams are analyzed. Incorrectly received video packets are usually discarded by the lower layers and not ...

Superiori, Luca — Vienna University of Technology


Robust and multiresolution video delivery : From H.26x to Matching pursuit based technologies

With the joint development of networking and digital coding technologies multimedia and more particularly video services are clearly becoming one of the major consumers of the new information networks. The rapid growth of the Internet and computer industry however results in a very heterogeneous infrastructure commonly overloaded. Video service providers have nevertheless to oer to their clients the best possible quality according to their respective capabilities and communication channel status. The Quality of Service is not only inuenced by the compression artifacts, but also by unavoidable packet losses. Hence, the packet video stream has clearly to fulll possibly contradictory requirements, that are coding eciency and robustness to data loss. The rst contribution of this thesis is the complete modeling of the video Quality of Service (QoS) in standard and more particularly MPEG-2 applications. The performance of Forward Error Control (FEC) ...

Frossard, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Stochastic Schemes for Dynamic Network Resource Allocation

Wireless networks and power distribution grids are experiencing increasing demands on their efficiency and reliability. Judicious methods for allocating scarce resources such as power and bandwidth are of paramount importance. As a result, nonlinear optimization and signal processing tools have been incorporated into the design of contemporary networks. This thesis develops schemes for efficient resource allocation (RA) in such dynamic networks, with an emphasis in stochasticity, which is accounted for in the problem formulation as well as in the algorithms and schemes to solve those problems. Stochastic optimization and decomposition techniques are investigated to develop low-complexity algorithms with specific applications in cross-layer design of wireless communications, cognitive radio (CR) networks and smart power distribution systems. The costs and constraints on the availability of network resources, together with diverse quality of service (QoS) requirements, render network design, management, and operation challenging ...

Lopez Ramos, Luis Miguel — King Juan Carlos University


Error Resilient Transmission of Video Streaming over Wireless Mobile Networks,

The third generation of mobile systems brought higher data rates that allow for provisioning of multimedia services containing also video. The real-time services like video call, conferencing, and streaming are particularly challenging for mobile communication systems due to the wireless channel quality variations. The mechanism for video compression utilizes a hybrid of temporal and spatial prediction, transform coding and variable length coding. The combination of these methods provides high compression gain, but at the same time makes the encoded stream more prone to errors. In this thesis, techniques for error resilient transmission of video streaming over wireless mobile networks are investigated. Focus is given to the recent H.264/AVC standard, although the ma jority of the proposed method apply to other video coding standards, too. The first part is dedicated to exploiting the residual redundancy of the received video stream at ...

Nemethova, O. — Vienna University of Technology


Video Quality Estimation for Mobile Video Streaming

For the provisioning of video streaming services it is essential to provide a required level of customer satisfaction, given by the perceived video stream quality. It is therefore important to choose the compression parameters as well as the network settings so that they maximize the end-user quality. Due to video compression improvements of the newest video coding standard H.264/AVC, video streaming for low bit and frame rates is possible while preserving its perceptual quality. This is especially suitable for video applications in 3G wireless networks. Mobile video streaming is characterized by low resolutions and low bitrates. The commonly used resolutions are Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF,176x144 pixels) for cell phones, Common Intermediate Format (CIF, 352x288 pixels) and Standard Interchange Format (SIF or QVGA, 320x240 pixels) for data-cards and palmtops (PDA). The mandatory codec for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) streaming ...

Ries, Michal — Vienna University of Technology


Adaptive media streaming over multipath networks

With the latest developments in video coding technology and fast deployment of end-user broadband internet connections, real-time media applications become increasingly interesting for both private users and businesses. However, the internet remains a best-effort service network unable to guarantee the stringent requirements of the media application, in terms of high, constant bandwidth, low packet loss rate and transmission delay. Therefore, efficient adaptation mechanisms must be derived in order to bridge the application requirements with the transport medium characteristics. Lately, different network architectures, e.g., peer-to-peer networks, content distribution networks, parallel wireless services, emerge as potential solutions for reducing the cost of communication or infrastructure, and possibly improve the application performance. In this thesis, we start from the path diversity characteristic of these architectures, in order to build a new framework, specific for media streaming in multipath networks. Within this framework we ...

Jurca, Dan — EPFL/ITS, Lausanne, Switzerland


Antenna Selection Techniques in Single- and Multi-user Systems: A Cross-layer Approach

Over the last decade, the massive demand for high data-rate wireless applications has motivated the study and design of new communication technologies. Among all of them, multi-antenna schemes have been shown to provide remarkable benefits in terms of spectral efficiency. In order to achieve channel capacity bounds, some sort of pre-processing on the transmit side must be encompassed. Unless reciprocity between the forward and reverse links can be assumed, a feedback channel is required to convey channel state information. In such a context, transmit antenna selection emerges as an effective alternative requiring a low amount of information in the feedback channel. Antenna selection algorithms are usually designed in order to maximize physical layer performance but, recently, optimization criteria based on cross-layer designs are gaining popularity. This is mainly motivated by the inefficiency observed in the direct application of the Open ...

López Vicario, José — CTTC-Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya


Quality of Experience Evaluation Methodology via Crowdsourcing

Provisioning of digital video services is a difficult task as it is hard to estimate optimal settings of video parameters, given transmission constraints, while maximizing the overall end-user quality. With Internet streaming services becoming part of our everyday life, end-to-end optimization of such systems is important. On one hand, huge effort is given into subjective or objective evaluation of the end-user perception. High quality audiovisual perception with respect to the minimized costs of the provided service is one of the main interests for the network providers. On the other hand, subjective evaluations to determine best video and audio configurations are often evaluated in controlled test laboratory environments, which have little to do with the real environments in which consumers enjoy such content. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to take into account interactions between quality of the content and ...

Gardlo, Bruno — University of Zilina


Link Error Analysis and Modeling for Cross-Layer Design in UMTS Mobile Communication

Particularly in wireless mobile communications, link errors severely affect the quality of the services due to the high error probability and the specific error characteristics (burst errors) in the radio access part of the network. In this thesis it is shown that a thorough analysis and the appropriate modeling of the radiolink error behaviour is essential not only to evaluate and optimize the higher layer protocols and services. It is also the basis for finding network-aware cross-layer processing algorithms which are capable of exploiting the specific properties of the link error statistics (e.g. the predictability). This thesis presents the analysis of the radio link errors based on measurements in live UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) radio access networks. It is shown that due to the link error characteristics basically two scenarios have to be distinguished: static and dynamic (regardless of ...

Karner, W. — Vienna University of Technology


A flexible scalable video coding framework with adaptive spatio-temporal decompositions

The work presented in this thesis covers topics that extend the scalability functionalities in video coding and improve the compression performance. Two main novel approaches are presented, each targeting a different part of the scalable video coding (SVC) architecture: motion adaptive wavelet transform based on the wavelet transform in lifting implementation, and a design of a flexible framework for generalised spatio-temporal decomposition. Motion adaptive wavelet transform is based on the newly introduced concept of connectivity-map. The connectivity-map describes the underlying irregular structure of regularly sampled data. To enable a scalable representation of the connectivity-map, the corresponding analysis and synthesis operations have been derived. These are then employed to define a joint wavelet connectivity-map decomposition that serves as an adaptive alternative to the conventional wavelet decomposition. To demonstrate its applicability, the presented decomposition scheme is used in the proposed SVC framework, ...

Sprljan, Nikola — Queen Mary University of London


Real Time Stereo to Multi-view Video Conversion

A novel and efficient methodology is presented for the conversion of stereo to multi-view video in order to address the 3D content requirements for the next generation 3D-TVs and auto-stereoscopic multi-view displays. There are two main algorithmic blocks in such a conversion system; stereo matching and virtual view rendering that enable extraction of 3D information from stereo video and synthesis of inexistent virtual views, respectively. In the intermediate steps of these functional blocks, a novel edge-preserving filter is proposed that recursively constructs connected support regions for each pixel among color-wise similar neighboring pixels. The proposed recursive update structure eliminates pre-defined window dependency of the conventional approaches, providing complete content adaptibility with quite low computational complexity. Based on extensive tests, it is observed that the proposed filtering technique yields better or competetive results against some leading techniques in the literature. The ...

Cigla, Cevahir — Middle East Technical University


Energy-Efficient Distributed Multicast Beamforming Using Iterative Second-Order Cone Programming

In multi-user (MU) downlink beamforming, a high spectral efficiency along with a low transmit power is achieved by separating multiple users in space rather than in time or frequency using spatially selective transmit beams. For streaming media applications, multi-group multicast (MGM) downlink beamforming is a promising approach to exploit the broadcasting property of the wireless medium to transmit the same information to a group of users. To limit inter-group interference, the individual streams intended for different multicast groups are spatially separated using MGM downlink beamforming. Spatially selective downlink beamforming requires the employment of an array of multiple antennas at the base station (BS). The hardware costs associated with the use of multiple antennas may be prohibitive in practice. A way to avoid the expensive employment of multiple antennas at the BS is to exploit user cooperation in wireless networks where ...

Bornhorst, Nils — Technische Universität Darmstadt


Multiple Description Coding for Path Diversity Video Streaming

In the current heterogeneous communication environments, the great variety of multimedia systems and applications combined with fast evolution of networking architectures and topologies, give rise to new research problems related to the various elements of the communication chain. This includes, the ever present problem in video communications, which results from the need for coping with transmission errors and losses. In this context, video streaming with path diversity appeared as a novel communication framework, involving different technological fields and posing several research challenges. The research work carried out in this thesis is a contribution to robust video coding and adaptation techniques in the field of Multiple Description Coding (MDC) for multipath video streaming. The thesis starts with a thorough study of MDC and its theoretical basis followed by a description of the most important practical implementation aspects currently available in literature. ...

Correia, Pedro Daniel Frazão — University of Coimbra

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