Integration of human color vision models into high quality image compression

Strong academic and commercial interest in image compression has resulted in a number of sophisticated compression techniques. Some of these techniques have evolved into international standards such as JPEG. However, the widespread success of JPEG has slowed the rate of innovation in such standards. Even most recent techniques, such as those proposed in the JPEG2000 standard, do not show significantly improved compression performance; rather they increase the bitstream functionality. Nevertheless, the manifold of multimedia applications demands for further improvements in compression quality. The problem of stagnating compression quality can be overcome by exploiting the limitations of the human visual system (HVS) for compression purposes. To do so, commonly used distortion metrics such as mean-square error (MSE) are replaced by an HVS-model-based quality metric. Thus, the "visual" quality is optimized. Due to the tremendous complexity of the physiological structures involved in ...

Nadenau, Marcus J. — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Modeling Perceived Quality for Imaging Applications

People of all generations are making more and more use of digital imaging systems in their daily lives. The image content rendered by these digital imaging systems largely differs in perceived quality depending on the system and its applications. To be able to optimize the experience of viewers of this content understanding and modeling perceived image quality is essential. Research on modeling image quality in a full-reference framework --- where the original content can be used as a reference --- is well established in literature. In many current applications, however, the perceived image quality needs to be modeled in a no-reference framework at real-time. As a consequence, the model needs to quantitatively predict perceived quality of a degraded image without being able to compare it to its original version, and has to achieve this with limited computational complexity in order ...

Liu, Hantao — Delft University of Technology

Dynamic Scheme Selection in Image Coding

This thesis deals with the coding of images with multiple coding schemes and their dynamic selection. In our society of information highways, electronic communication is taking everyday a bigger place in our lives. The number of transmitted images is also increasing everyday. Therefore, research on image compression is still an active area. However, the current trend is to add several functionalities to the compression scheme such as progressiveness for more comfortable browsing of web-sites or databases. Classical image coding schemes have a rigid structure. They usually process an image as a whole and treat the pixels as a simple signal with no particular characteristics. Second generation schemes use the concept of objects in an image, and introduce a model of the human visual system in the design of the coding scheme. Dynamic coding schemes, as their name tells us, make ...

Fleury, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Facial Soft Biometrics: Methods, Applications and Solutions

This dissertation studies soft biometrics traits, their applicability in different security and commercial scenarios, as well as related usability aspects. We place the emphasis on human facial soft biometric traits which constitute the set of physical, adhered or behavioral human characteristics that can partially differentiate, classify and identify humans. Such traits, which include characteristics like age, gender, skin and eye color, the presence of glasses, moustache or beard, inherit several advantages such as ease of acquisition, as well as a natural compatibility with how humans perceive their surroundings. Specifically, soft biometric traits are compatible with the human process of classifying and recalling our environment, a process which involves constructions of hierarchical structures of different refined traits. This thesis explores these traits, and their application in soft biometric systems (SBSs), and specifically focuses on how such systems can achieve different goals ...

Dantcheva, Antitza — EURECOM / Telecom ParisTech

Video Quality Estimation for Mobile Video Streaming

For the provisioning of video streaming services it is essential to provide a required level of customer satisfaction, given by the perceived video stream quality. It is therefore important to choose the compression parameters as well as the network settings so that they maximize the end-user quality. Due to video compression improvements of the newest video coding standard H.264/AVC, video streaming for low bit and frame rates is possible while preserving its perceptual quality. This is especially suitable for video applications in 3G wireless networks. Mobile video streaming is characterized by low resolutions and low bitrates. The commonly used resolutions are Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF,176x144 pixels) for cell phones, Common Intermediate Format (CIF, 352x288 pixels) and Standard Interchange Format (SIF or QVGA, 320x240 pixels) for data-cards and palmtops (PDA). The mandatory codec for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) streaming ...

Ries, Michal — Vienna University of Technology


In scalable image/video coding, high resolution content is encoded to the highest visual quality and the bit-streams are adapted to cater various communication channels, display devices and usage requirements. These content adaptations, which include quality, resolution and frame rate scaling may also affect the content protection data, such as, watermarks and are considered as a potential watermark attack. In this thesis, research on robust watermarking techniques for scalable coded image and video, are proposed and the improvements in robustness against various content adaptation attacks, such as, JPEG 2000 for image and Motion JPEG 2000, MC-EZBC and H.264/SVC for video, are reported. The spread spectrum domain, particularly wavelet-based image watermarking schemes often provides better robustness to compression attacks due to its multi-resolution decomposition and hence chosen for this work. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of the available wavelet-based watermarking schemes,is performed ...

Bhowmik, Deepayan — University of Sheffield

Geometric Distortion in Image and Video Watermarking. Robustness and Perceptual Quality Impact

The main focus of this thesis is the problem of geometric distortion in image and video watermarking. In this thesis we discuss the two aspects of the geometric distortion problem, namely the watermark desynchronization aspect and the perceptual quality assessment aspect. Furthermore, this thesis also discusses the challenges of watermarking data compressed in low bit-rates. The main contributions of this thesis are: A watermarking algorithm suitable for low bit-rate video has been proposed. Two different approaches has been proposed to deal with the watermark desynchronization problem. A novel approach has been proposed to quantify the perceptual quality impact of geometric distortion.

Setyawan, Iwan — Delft University of Technology

Point Cloud Quality Assessment

Nowadays, richer 3D visual representation formats are emerging, notably light fields and point clouds. These formats enable new applications in many usage domains, notably virtual and augmented reality, geographical information systems, immersive communications, and cultural heritage. Recently, following major improvements in 3D visual data acquisition, there is an increasing interest in point-based visual representation, which models real-world objects as a cloud of sampled points on their surfaces. Point cloud is a 3D representation model where the real visual world is represented by a set of 3D coordinates (the geometry) over the objects with some additional attributes such as color and normals. With the advances in 3D acquisition systems, it is now possible to capture a realistic point cloud to represent a visual scene with a very high resolution. These point clouds may have up to billions of points and, thus, ...

Javaheri, Alireza — Instituto Superior Técnico - University of Lisbon

Embedded Optimization Algorithms for Perceptual Enhancement of Audio Signals

This thesis investigates the design and evaluation of an embedded optimization framework for the perceptual enhancement of audio signals which are degraded by linear and/or nonlinear distortion. In general, audio signal enhancement has the goal to improve the perceived audio quality, speech intelligibility, or another desired perceptual attribute of the distorted audio signal by applying a real-time digital signal processing algorithm. In the designed embedded optimization framework, the audio signal enhancement problem under consideration is formulated and solved as a per-frame numerical optimization problem, allowing to compute the enhanced audio signal frame that is optimal according to a desired perceptual attribute. The first stage of the embedded optimization framework consists in the formulation of the per-frame optimization problem aimed at maximally enhancing the desired perceptual attribute, by explicitly incorporating a suitable model of human sound perception. The second stage of ...

Defraene, Bruno — KU Leuven

Sparse Pulsed Auditory Representations For Speech and Audio Coding

Auditory modeling is a well-established methodology that provides insight into human perception and that facilitates the extraction of signal features most relevant to the human listener for coding applications. This thesis deals with the approach of `coding in the perceptual domain' and is based on an invertible auditory model that provides a pulsed auditory representation of the input speech or audio signal. It is natural for pulsed signal representations to encode only the non-zero samples by specifying their positions as side information. For the considered auditory representation, the number of pulses and, therefore, the amount of side information is too high for an efficient encoding at a relatively low bit rate. The focus of this work is to `sparsify' the pulsed signal representation, i.e., to remove its perceptual irrelevance and its redundancy, to obtain a compact signal representation, which facilitates ...

Christian Feldbauer — Graz University of Technology


In this thesis, a number of novel watermarking techniques for different 3D representations are presented. A novel watermarking method is proposed for the mono-view video, which might be interpreted as the basic implicit representation of 3D scenes. The proposed method solves the common flickering problem in the existing video watermarking schemes by means of adjusting the watermark strength with respect to temporal contrast thresholds of human visual system (HVS), which define the maximum invisible distortions in the temporal direction. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method gives better results in both objective and subjective measures, compared to some recognized methods in the literature. The watermarking techniques for the geometry and image based representations of 3D scenes, denoted as 3D watermarking, are examined and classified into three groups, as 3D-3D, 3D-2D and 2D-2D watermarking, in which the pair of symbols ...

Koz, Alper — Middle East Technical University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Human-Centered Content-Based Image Retrieval

Retrieval of images that lack a (suitable) annotations cannot be achieved through (traditional) Information Retrieval (IR) techniques. Access through such collections can be achieved through the application of computer vision techniques on the IR problem, which is baptized Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). In contrast with most purely technological approaches, the thesis Human-Centered Content-Based Image Retrieval approaches the problem from a human/user centered perspective. Psychophysical experiments were conducted in which people were asked to categorize colors. The data gathered from these experiments was fed to a Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform (Schouten & Van den Broek, 2004), which enabled the segmentation of color space based on human perception (Van den Broek et al., 2008). This unique color space segementation was exploited for texture analysis and image segmentation, and subsequently for full-featured CBIR. In addition, a unique CBIR-benchmark was developed (Van ...

van den Broek, Egon L. — Radboud University Nijmegen

Synthetic test patterns and compression artefact distortion metrics for image codecs

This thesis presents a framework of test methodology to assess spatial domain compression artefacts produced by image and intra-frame coded video codecs. Few researchers have studied this broad range of artefacts. A taxonomy of image and video compression artefacts is proposed. This is based on the point of origin of the artefact in the image communication model. This thesis presents objective evaluation of distortions known as artefacts due to image and intra-frame coded video compression made using synthetic test patterns. The American National Standard Institute document ANSI T1 801 qualitatively defines blockiness, blur and ringing artefacts. These definitions have been augmented with quantitative definitions in conjunction with test patterns proposed. A test and measurement environment is proposed in which the codec under test is exercised using a portfolio of test patterns. The test patterns are designed to highlight the artefact ...

Punchihewa, Amal — Massey University, New Zealand

Dialogue Enhancement and Personalization - Contributions to Quality Assessment and Control

The production and delivery of audio for television involve many creative and technical challenges. One of them is concerned with the level balance between the foreground speech (also referred to as dialogue) and the background elements, e.g., music, sound effects, and ambient sounds. Background elements are fundamental for the narrative and for creating an engaging atmosphere, but they can mask the dialogue, which the audience wishes to follow in a comfortable way. Very different individual factors of the people in the audience clash with the creative freedom of the content creators. As a result, service providers receive regular complaints about difficulties in understanding the dialogue because of too loud background sounds. While this has been a known issue for at least three decades, works analyzing the problem and up-to-date statics were scarce before the contributions in this work. Enabling the ...

Torcoli, Matteo — Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU)

No-Reference Image and Video Quality Assessment

Image and video quality assessment has become an increasingly important subject in digital video coding and transmission scenarios, such as digital television. In this context, a special interest has been put on no-reference objective quality assessment metrics, since they are suitable for real-time quality monitoring once the video delivery system is settled. This Thesis proposes new no-reference quality assessment metrics for images and video. The main goal of the proposed techniques is to estimate the quality of lossy DCT-based encoded video. The proposed metrics share the same key idea: based on elements extracted from the bitstream of the encoded images or video arriving at the point where quality assessment has to be performed, an estimate of the quantization error associated to each DCT coefficient is obtained. Those estimates are perceptually weighted and combined in order to obtain a quality score ...

Brandão, Tomás — Technical University of Lisbon

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