Broadband Wireless Communication Systems for High Mobility Scenarios

Over the last few years multimedia and data-based services experienced a non-stopping growth. Unlike before, people do not use the services only from a static location, but they are continuously on the move between different scenarios, using their mobile devices to access data-based services. In parallel, commuter traffic from rural areas is also rising, since most of work places are in and around cities. During transportation, people intensively employ mobile devices to work, access to social networks, or as an entertainment means. Internet access is required for most of these services. Currently, GSM for Railways (GSM-R), which is based on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), is the most widely used communication system between trains and the elements involved in operation, control, and intercommunication within the railway infrastructure. However, GSM-R is not well suited for supporting advanced services such ...

Rodríguez-Piñeiro, José — University of A Coruña


Design and Exploration of Radio Frequency Identification Systems by Rapid Prototyping

In this thesis I describe the setup and design of a flexible rapid prototyping platform for RFID systems to provide an experimental verification environment for RFID systems, that allows their real-time exploration in distinct measurement setups. Furthermore, I use this system to test the feasibility of novel signal processing algorithms for RFID reader receivers, which promise a performance increase to state-of-the-art-receivers. Three different scenarios are considered: 1. In the first scenario, a single tag communicates with a single receive antenna reader. The performance of the optimal maximum likelihood sequence decoder is identified, and losses due to channel estimation and synchronisation are discussed. Due to the wide deviation from the nominal data rate in the uplink communication, especially synchronisation shows to be a critical issue. 2. In the second scenario, the single tag communicates with a multiple receive antenna RFID reader. ...

Angerer, Christoph — Vienna University of Technology


Design and applications of Filterbank structures implementing Reed-Solomon codes

In nowadays communication systems, error correction provides robust data transmission through imperfect (noisy) channels. Error correcting codes are a crucial component in most storage and communication systems – wired or wireless –, e.g. GSM, UMTS, xDSL, CD/DVD. At least as important as the data integrity issue is the recent realization that error correcting codes fundamentally change the trade-offs in system design. High-integrity, low redundancy coding can be applied to increase data rate, or battery life time or by reducing hardware costs, making it possible to enter mass market. When it comes to the design of error correcting codes and their properties, there are two main theories that play an important role in this work. Classical coding theory aims at finding the best code given an available block length. This thesis focuses on the ubiquitous Reed-Solomon codes, one of the major ...

Van Meerbergen, Geert — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Face Recognition's Grand Challenge: uncontrolled conditions under control

The number of cameras increases rapidly in squares, shopping centers, railway stations and airport halls. There are hundreds of cameras in the city center of Amsterdam. This is still modest compared to the tens of thousands of cameras in London, where citizens are expected to be filmed by more than three hundred cameras of over thirty separate Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems in a single day [84]. These CCTV systems include both publicly owned systems (railway stations, squares, airports) and privately owned systems (shops, banks, hotels). The main purpose of all these cameras is to detect, prevent and monitor crime and anti-social behaviour. Other goals of camera surveillance can be detection of unauthorized access, improvement of service, fire safety, etc. Since the terrorist attack on 9/11, detection and prevention of terrorist activities especially at high profiled locations such as airports, ...

Boom, Bas — University of Twente


UWB Channel Fading Statistics and Transmitted-Reference Communication

It is well known that Ultra WideBand (UWB) transmission is inherently robust against small-scale-fading (SSF) that arises in multipath scattering environments, due to its large signal bandwidth. However, no model with a physical interpretation exists that relates the variations of received signal strength to the signal bandwidth and general channel parameters, like e.g. the average channel power delay profile. Such a model would be of relevance for e.g. system designers, who have to make tradeoffs between system aspects, like complexity and energy efficiency on one hand, and robustness against small-scale fading on the other hand. In this thesis, a model is presented that allows for such a tradeoff analysis, relating the average power delay profile parameters and signal bandwidth to the statistical properties of the SSF. Additionally, it is shown how the uncoded and coded BER of BPSK modulation can ...

Romme, Jac — Graz University of Technology


Mobile Cellular Communications with Base Station Antenna Arrays: Spectrum Efficiency, Algorithms and Propagation Models

This thesis deals with the problem of increasing the spectrum efficiency of cellular systems, by the use of antenna array base stations. The focus of the thesis is on downlink transmission in frequency division duplex systems, i.e., systems with different up and downlink carrier frequency. In a short summary the thesis: * Proposes five reasonable propagation models. * Uses these models to design and analyze three different beamformers: The maximum desired power (MDP), the summed interference to carrier ratio minimizing (SCIR) and the generalized-SCIR beamformer. * Introduces three capacity enhancement approaches: same sector frequency reuse (SSFR), reduced cluster size without nulling (RCS-WON) and reduced cluster size with nulling (RCS-WIN). * Proposes channel allocation, power control, and beamforming algorithms for these approaches. * Estimates the ``outage probability'' (probability of insufficient quality), for SICR-SSFR, SICR-RCS-WON and SICR-RCS-WIN, using simulations as well as ...

Zetterberg, Per — Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden


Tag Localization in Passive UHF RFID

Tag localization in passive ultra-high frequency radio frequency identification (UHF RFID) has become something of a holy grail since the system was introduced. First and foremost, it promises improved accuracy for inventory systems, which have to deal with false positive reads outside the intended read zone and the consequent corruption of inventory lists. This thesis addresses the problem of passive UHF RFID tag localization, with a focus on range finding methods. It shows how typical system setups influence the propagation channel and why this creates a harsh environment for any type of localization. Based on the conclusions drawn in this channel analysis, tag localization approaches are investigated. It is shown that robust and accurate localization of state-of-the-art UHF RFID transponders is possible only in controlled environments. Wideband and ultra-wideband methods offer considerably greater robustness and accuracy in typical fields of ...

Arnitz, Daniel — Graz University of Technology


Collision Recovery Receivers for RFIDs

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a very fast emerging technology that wirelessly transmits the identity of a tag attached to an object or a person. It usually operates in a dense tag environment. My work is focused on passive Ultra High Frequency (UHF) tags whose transmission on the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer is scheduled by Framed Slotted Aloha (FSA). In this thesis, I propose the use of multiple antennas at the reader side in order to recover from collision. By exploiting the fact that a tag signal is real-valued while all other components of a received signal are complexed-valued, I have separated real and imaginary part and in that way I have achieved a recovery from a collision that contains a two times higher number of tags than the number of the receive antennas at the reader, under perfect ...

Kaitovic, Jelena — TU Wien


OFDM Multi-User Communication Over Time-Variant Channels

Wireless broadband communications for users moving at vehicular speed is a cor- nerstone of future fourth generation (4G) mobile communication systems. We inves- tigate a multi-carrier (MC) code division multiple access (CDMA) system which is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). A spreading sequence is used in the frequency domain in order to distinguish individual users and to take advantage of the multipath diversity of the wireless channel. The transmission is block oriented. A block consists of OFDM pilot and OFDM data symbols. At pedestrian velocities the channel can be modelled as block fading. We ap- ply iterative multi-user detection and channel estimation. In iterative receivers soft symbols are derived from the output of an soft-input soft-output decoder. These soft symbols are used in order to reduce the interference from other users and to enhance the channel estimates. We ...

Zemen, T. — Vienna University of Technology


OFDM Air-Interface Design for Multimedia Communications

The aim of this dissertation is the investigation of the key issues encountered in the development of wideband radio air-interfaces. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is considered as the enabling technology for transmitting data at extremely high rates over time-dispersive radio channels. OFDM is a transmission scheme, which splits up the data stream, sending the data symbols simultaneously at a drastically reduced symbol rate over a set of parallel sub-carriers. The first part of this thesis deals with the modeling of the time-dispersive and frequency-selective radio channel, utilizing second order Gaussian stochastic processes. A novel channel measurement technique is developed, in which the RMS delay spread of the channel is estimated from the level-crossing rate of the frequency-selective channel transfer function. This method enables the empirical channel characterization utilizing simplified non-coherent measurements of the received power versus frequency. Air-interface and multiple ...

Witrisal, Klaus — Delft University of Technology


Analysis of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Satellite-based Positioning Applications

Multipath remains a dominant source of ranging errors in any Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) or the developing European satellite navigation system Galileo. Multipath is undesirable in the context of GNSS, since the reception of multipath can create significant distortion to the shape of the correlation function used in the time delay estimate of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) of a navigation receiver, leading to an error in the receiver's position estimate. Therefore, in order to mitigate the impact of multipath on a navigation receiver, the multipath problem has been approached from several directions, including the development of novel signal processing techniques. Many of these techniques rely on modifying the tracking loop discriminator (i.e., the DLL and its enhanced variants) in order to make it resistant to multipath, but their performance in severe ...

Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul Hasan — Tampere University of Technology


Advanced Algebraic Concepts for Efficient Multi-Channel Signal Processing

Modern society is undergoing a fundamental change in the way we interact with technology. More and more devices are becoming "smart" by gaining advanced computation capabilities and communication interfaces, from household appliances over transportation systems to large-scale networks like the power grid. Recording, processing, and exchanging digital information is thus becoming increasingly important. As a growing share of devices is nowadays mobile and hence battery-powered, a particular interest in efficient digital signal processing techniques emerges. This thesis contributes to this goal by demonstrating methods for finding efficient algebraic solutions to various applications of multi-channel digital signal processing. These may not always result in the best possible system performance. However, they often come close while being significantly simpler to describe and to implement. The simpler description facilitates a thorough analysis of their performance which is crucial to design robust and reliable ...

Roemer, Florian — Ilmenau University of Technology


Signal Design for Active Sensing and Communications

Man-made active sensing systems such as active radar and sonar have been a vital part of our civilization's advancement in navigation, defense, meteorology, and space exploration. Modern active sensing systems rely heavily on the significant progress in the science and technology of communications made within the last century. Not surprising, the fast growing communications technology has changed each and every aspect of our everyday lives. This thesis is concerned with signal design for improving the performance of active sensing and communication systems: The target detection and estimation performance of the active sensing systems can be considerably improved by a judicious design of the probing signals. Similarly, signal design has a crucial role in the implementation and efficiency of communication systems. Signal optimization for active sensing and communications usually deals with various measures of quality. This thesis focuses on several quality ...

Soltanalian, Mojtaba — Uppsala University


Sparsity-Aware Wireless Networks: Localization and Sensor Selection

Wireless networks have revolutionized nowadays world by providing real-time cost efficient service and connectivity. Even such an unprecedented level of service could not fulfill the insatiable desire of the modern world for more advanced technologies. As a result, a great deal of attention has been directed towards (mobile) wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which are comprised of considerably cheap nodes that can cooperate to perform complex tasks in a distributed fashion in extremely harsh environments. Unique features of wireless environments, added complexity owing to mobility, distributed nature of the network setup, and tight performance and energy constraints, pose a challenge for researchers to devise systems which strike a proper balance between performance and resource utilization. We study some of the fundamental challenges of wireless (sensor) networks associated with resource efficiency, scalability, and location-awareness. The pivotal point which distinguishes our studies from ...

Jamali-Rad, Hadi — TU Delft


Multi-Sensor Integration for Indoor 3D Reconstruction

Outdoor maps and navigation information delivered by modern services and technologies like Google Maps and Garmin navigators have revolutionized the lifestyle of many people. Motivated by the desire for similar navigation systems for indoor usage from consumers, advertisers, emergency rescuers/responders, etc., many indoor environments such as shopping malls, museums, casinos, airports, transit stations, offices, and schools need to be mapped. Typically, the environment is first reconstructed by capturing many point clouds from various stations and defining their spatial relationships. Currently, there is a lack of an accurate, rigorous, and speedy method for relating point clouds in indoor, urban, satellite-denied environments. This thesis presents a novel and automatic way for fusing calibrated point clouds obtained using a terrestrial laser scanner and the Microsoft Kinect by integrating them with a low-cost inertial measurement unit. The developed system, titled the Scannect, is the ...

Chow, Jacky — University of Calgary

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