Sensor Fusion and Calibration using Inertial Sensors, Vision, Ultra-Wideband and GPS

The usage of inertial sensors has traditionally been confined primarily to the aviation and marine industry due to their associated cost and bulkiness. During the last decade, however, inertial sensors have undergone a rather dramatic reduction in both size and cost with the introduction of MEMS technology. As a result of this trend, inertial sensors have become commonplace for many applications and can even be found in many consumer products, for instance smart phones, cameras and game consoles. Due to the drift inherent in inertial technology, inertial sensors are typically used in combination with aiding sensors to stabilize andimprove the estimates. The need for aiding sensors becomes even more apparent due to the reduced accuracy of MEMS inertial sensors. This thesis discusses two problems related to using inertial sensors in combination with aiding sensors. The first is the problem of ...

Hol, Jeroen — Linköping University


Acoustic sensor network geometry calibration and applications

In the modern world, we are increasingly surrounded by computation devices with communication links and one or more microphones. Such devices are, for example, smartphones, tablets, laptops or hearing aids. These devices can work together as nodes in an acoustic sensor network (ASN). Such networks are a growing platform that opens the possibility for many practical applications. ASN based speech enhancement, source localization, and event detection can be applied for teleconferencing, camera control, automation, or assisted living. For this kind of applications, the awareness of auditory objects and their spatial positioning are key properties. In order to provide these two kinds of information, novel methods have been developed in this thesis. Information on the type of auditory objects is provided by a novel real-time sound classification method. Information on the position of human speakers is provided by a novel localization ...

Plinge, Axel — TU Dortmund University


Selected Topics in Inertial and Visual Sensor Fusion: Calibration, Observability Analysis and Applications

Recent improvements in the development of inertial and visual sensors allow building small, lightweight, and cheap motion capture systems, which are becoming a standard feature of smartphones and personal digital assistants. This dissertation describes developments of new motion sensing strategies using the inertial and inertial-visual sensors. The thesis contributions are presented in two parts. The first part focuses mainly on the use of inertial measurement units. First, the problem of sensor calibration is addressed and a low-cost and accurate method to calibrate the accelerometer cluster of this unit is proposed. The method is based on the maximum likelihood estimation framework, which results in a minimum variance unbiased estimator.Then using the inertial measurement unit, a probabilistic user-independent method is proposed for pedestrian activity classification and gait analysis.The work targets two groups of applications including human activity classificationand joint human activity and ...

Panahandeh Ghazaleh — KTH Royal Institute of Technology


Modeling of Magnetic Fields and Extended Objects for Localization Applications

The level of automation in our society is ever increasing. Technologies like self-driving cars, virtual reality, and fully autonomous robots, which all were unimaginable a few decades ago, are realizable today, and will become standard consumer products in the future. These technologies depend upon autonomous localization and situation awareness where careful processing of sensory data is required. To increase efficiency, robustness and reliability, appropriate models for these data are needed. In this thesis, such models are analyzed within three different application areas, namely (1) magnetic localization, (2) extended target tracking, and (3) autonomous learning from raw pixel information. Magnetic localization is based on one or more magnetometers measuring the induced magnetic field from magnetic objects. In this thesis we present a model for determining the position and the orientation of small magnets with an accuracy of a few millimeters. This ...

Wahlström, Niklas — Linköping University


Multi-Sensor Integration for Indoor 3D Reconstruction

Outdoor maps and navigation information delivered by modern services and technologies like Google Maps and Garmin navigators have revolutionized the lifestyle of many people. Motivated by the desire for similar navigation systems for indoor usage from consumers, advertisers, emergency rescuers/responders, etc., many indoor environments such as shopping malls, museums, casinos, airports, transit stations, offices, and schools need to be mapped. Typically, the environment is first reconstructed by capturing many point clouds from various stations and defining their spatial relationships. Currently, there is a lack of an accurate, rigorous, and speedy method for relating point clouds in indoor, urban, satellite-denied environments. This thesis presents a novel and automatic way for fusing calibrated point clouds obtained using a terrestrial laser scanner and the Microsoft Kinect by integrating them with a low-cost inertial measurement unit. The developed system, titled the Scannect, is the ...

Chow, Jacky — University of Calgary


Estimation for Sensor Fusion and Sparse Signal Processing

Progressive developments in computing and sensor technologies during the past decades have enabled the formulation of increasingly advanced problems in statistical inference and signal processing. The thesis is concerned with statistical estimation methods, and is divided into three parts with focus on two different areas: sensor fusion and sparse signal processing. The first part introduces the well-established Bayesian, Fisherian and least-squares estimation frameworks, and derives new estimators. Specifically, the Bayesian framework is applied in two different classes of estimation problems: scenarios in which (i) the signal covariances themselves are subject to uncertainties, and (ii) distance bounds are used as side information. Applications include localization, tracking and channel estimation. The second part is concerned with the extraction of useful information from multiple sensors by exploiting their joint properties. Two sensor configurations are considered here: (i) a monocular camera and an inertial ...

Zachariah, Dave — KTH Royal Institute of Technology


Mixed structural models for 3D audio in virtual environments

In the world of Information and communications technology (ICT), strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D-media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusive use of new technologies by everyone. In order to achieve this, multimodal realistic models that describe our environment are needed, and in particular models that accurately describe the acoustics of the environment and communication through the auditory modality are required. Examples of currently active research directions and application areas include 3DTV and future internet, 3D visual-sound scene coding, transmission and reconstruction and teleconferencing systems, to name but ...

Geronazzo, Michele — University of Padova


Sparse Sensing for Statistical Inference: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

In today's society, we are flooded with massive volumes of data in the order of a billion gigabytes on a daily basis from pervasive sensors. It is becoming increasingly challenging to locally store and transport the acquired data to a central location for signal/data processing (i.e., for inference). To alleviate these problems, it is evident that there is an urgent need to significantly reduce the sensing cost (i.e., the number of expensive sensors) as well as the related memory and bandwidth requirements by developing unconventional sensing mechanisms to extract as much information as possible yet collecting fewer data. The first aim of this thesis is to develop theory and algorithms for data reduction. We develop a data reduction tool called sparse sensing, which consists of a deterministic and structured sensing function (guided by a sparse vector) that is optimally designed ...

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar — Delft University of Technology


Sensor Fusion for Automotive Applications

Mapping stationary objects and tracking moving targets are essential for many autonomous functions in vehicles. In order to compute the map and track estimates, sensor measurements from radar, laser and camera are used together with the standard proprioceptive sensors present in a car. By fusing information from different types of sensors, the accuracy and robustness of the estimates can be increased. Different types of maps are discussed and compared in the thesis. In particular, road maps make use of the fact that roads are highly structured, which allows relatively simple and powerful models to be employed. It is shown how the information of the lane markings, obtained by a front looking camera, can be fused with inertial measurement of the vehicle motion and radar measurements of vehicles ahead to compute a more accurate and robust road geometry estimate. Further, it ...

Lundquist, Christian — Linköping University


Selected Topics In Direct Geolocation Of Radio Transmitters & Passive Targets

This dissertation is dedicated to the exploration of various direct positioning algorithms for radio transmitters and passive target geolocation. Contrary to the traditional ``two-step'' approach, the ``direct positioning'' approach states that the radio transmitter's position can be extracted directly from the raw samples of the radio transmitter signals collected by the system sensors, without explicitly going through an estimation of position-related parameters such as time-delay, angular or amplitude information. In this work, the concept of direct positioning is applied to various models and consistently outperforms the traditional two-step position estimators, while tightly attaining the theoretical performance bounds. In the sequel, we explore 3 models for radio transmitters and passive target geolocation. The first model discussed in chapter 3, harnesses the transmit signal diversity of MIMO Radar systems to enhance passive-target position estimation via direct estimation algorithms. The algorithms are developed ...

Bar-Shalom, Ofer — Tel-Aviv University


Bayesian Algorithms for Mobile Terminal Positioning in Outdoor Wireless Environments

The ability to reliably and cheaply localize mobile terminals will allow users to understand and utilize the what, where and when of the surrounding physical world. Therefore, mobile terminal location information will open novel application opportunities in many areas. The mobile terminal positioning problem is categorized into three different types according to the availability of (1) initial accurate location information and (2) motion measurement data. Location estimation refers to the mobile positioning problem when both the initial location and motion measurement data are not available. If both are available, the positioning problem is referred to as position tracking. When only motion measurements are available the problem is known as global localization. These positioning problems were solved within the Bayesian filtering framework in order to work under a common theoretical context. Filter derivation and implementation algorithms are provided with emphasis on ...

Khalaf-Allah, Mohamed — Leibniz University of Hannover


Robust Wireless Localization in Harsh Mixed Line-of-Sight/Non-Line-of-Sight Environments

This PhD thesis considers the problem of locating some target nodes in different wireless infrastructures such as wireless cellular radio networks and wireless sensor networks. To be as realistic as possible, mixed line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight (LOS/NLOS) localization environment is introduced. Both the conventional non-cooperative localization and the new emerging cooperative localization have been studied thoroughly. Owing to the random nature of the measurements, probabilistic methods are more advanced as compared to the old-fashioned geometric methods. The gist behind the probabilistic methods is to infer the unknown positions of the target nodes in an estimation process, given a set of noisy position related measurements, a probabilistic measurement model, and a few known reference positions. In contrast to the majority of the existing methods, harsh but practical constraints are taken into account: neither offline calibration nor non-line-of-sight state identification is equipped in ...

Yin, Feng — Technische Universität Darmstadt


Low Complexity Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Communication Systems in Presence of Multiple-Access Interference

Ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems use radio signals with a bandwidth in the range of some hundred MHz to several GHz. Radio channels with dense multipath propagation achieve high multipath diversity, which can be used to improve the robustness and capacity of the communication channel. Furthermore the large bandwidth allows to transmit signals with a small power spectral density such that the interference to other radio signals will be negligible, even if they lie within the same frequency band. In this work the focus is on low-complexity receiver architectures for communication systems in presence of multiple-access interference (MAI). The main objective of this thesis is to develop and to study a framework for communications for transmitted reference (TR) UWB systems and energy detection UWB systems. First, we study the hybrid matched-filter (HMF) receiver for TR UWB systems, which employs matched filters ...

Jimmy Baringbing — Graz University of Technology


Estimation of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems: Theory and Applications

This thesis deals with estimation of states and parameters in nonlinear and non-Gaussian dynamic systems. Sequential Monte Carlo methods are mainly used to this end. These methods rely on models of the underlying system, motivating some developments of the model concept. One of the main reasons for the interest in nonlinear estimation is that problems of this kind arise naturally in many important applications. Several applications of nonlinear estimation are studied. The models most commonly used for estimation are based on stochastic difference equations, referred to as state-space models. This thesis is mainly concerned with models of this kind. However, there will be a brief digression from this, in the treatment of the mathematically more intricate differential-algebraic equations. Here, the purpose is to write these equations in a form suitable for statistical signal processing. The nonlinear state estimation problem is ...

Schon, Thomas — Linkopings Universitet


Variational Sparse Bayesian Learning: Centralized and Distributed Processing

In this thesis we investigate centralized and distributed variants of sparse Bayesian learning (SBL), an effective probabilistic regression method used in machine learning. Since inference in an SBL model is not tractable in closed form, approximations are needed. We focus on the variational Bayesian approximation, as opposed to others used in the literature, for three reasons: First, it is a flexible general framework for approximate Bayesian inference that estimates probability densities including point estimates as a special case. Second, it has guaranteed convergence properties. And third, it is a deterministic approximation concept that is even applicable for high dimensional problems where non-deterministic sampling methods may be prohibitive. We resolve some inconsistencies in the literature involved in other SBL approximation techniques with regard to a proper Bayesian treatment and the incorporation of a very desired property, namely scale invariance. More specifically, ...

Buchgraber, Thomas — Graz University of Technology

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