## Robust Network Topology Inference and Processing of Graph Signals (2022)

Distributed Stochastic Optimization in Non-Differentiable and Non-Convex Environments

The first part of this dissertation considers distributed learning problems over networked agents. The general objective of distributed adaptation and learning is the solution of global, stochastic optimization problems through localized interactions and without information about the statistical properties of the data. Regularization is a useful technique to encourage or enforce structural properties on the resulting solution, such as sparsity or constraints. A substantial number of regularizers are inherently non-smooth, while many cost functions are differentiable. We propose distributed and adaptive strategies that are able to minimize aggregate sums of objectives. In doing so, we exploit the structure of the individual objectives as sums of differentiable costs and non-differentiable regularizers. The resulting algorithms are adaptive in nature and able to continuously track drifts in the problem; their recursions, however, are subject to persistent perturbations arising from the stochastic nature of ...

Vlaski, Stefan — University of California, Los Angeles

Signal processing algorithms for wireless acoustic sensor networks

Recent academic developments have initiated a paradigm shift in the way spatial sensor data can be acquired. Traditional localized and regularly arranged sensor arrays are replaced by sensor nodes that are randomly distributed over the entire spatial field, and which communicate with each other or with a master node through wireless communication links. Together, these nodes form a so-called ‘wireless sensor network’ (WSN). Each node of a WSN has a local sensor array and a signal processing unit to perform computations on the acquired data. The advantage of WSNs compared to traditional (wired) sensor arrays, is that many more sensors can be used that physically cover the full spatial field, which typically yields more variety (and thus more information) in the signals. It is likely that future data acquisition, control and physical monitoring, will heavily rely on this type of ...

Bertrand, Alexander — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Reconstruction and clustering with graph optimization and priors on gene networks and images

The discovery of novel gene regulatory processes improves the understanding of cell phenotypic responses to external stimuli for many biological applications, such as medicine, environment or biotechnologies. To this purpose, transcriptomic data are generated and analyzed from DNA microarrays or more recently RNAseq experiments. They consist in genetic expression level sequences obtained for all genes of a studied organism placed in different living conditions. From these data, gene regulation mechanisms can be recovered by revealing topological links encoded in graphs. In regulatory graphs, nodes correspond to genes. A link between two nodes is identified if a regulation relationship exists between the two corresponding genes. Such networks are called Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs). Their construction as well as their analysis remain challenging despite the large number of available inference methods. In this thesis, we propose to address this network inference problem ...

Pirayre, Aurélie — IFP Energies nouvelles

Advances in graph signal processing: Graph filtering and network identification

To the surprise of most of us, complexity in nature spawns from simplicity. No matter how simple a basic unit is, when many of them work together, the interactions among these units lead to complexity. This complexity is present in the spreading of diseases, where slightly different policies, or conditions,might lead to very different results; or in biological systems where the interactions between elements maintain the delicate balance that keep life running. Fortunately, despite their complexity, current advances in technology have allowed us to have more than just a sneak-peak at these systems. With new views on how to observe such systems and gather data, we aimto understand the complexity within. One of these new views comes from the field of graph signal processing which provides models and tools to understand and process data coming from such complex systems. With ...

Coutino, Mario — Delft University of Technology

Signal Strength Based Localization and Path-loss Exponent Self-Estimation in Wireless Networks

Wireless communications and networking are gradually permeating our life and substantially influencing every corner of this world. Wireless devices, particularly those of small size, will take part in this trend more widely, efficiently, seamlessly and smartly. Techniques requiring only limited resources, especially in terms of hardware, are becoming more important and urgently needed. That is why we focus this thesis around analyzing wireless communications and networking based on signal strength (SS) measurements, since these are easy and convenient to gather. SS-based techniques can be incorporated into any device that is equipped with a wireless chip. More specifically, this thesis studies \textbf{SS-based localization} and \textbf{path-loss exponent (PLE) self-estimation}. Although these two research lines might seem unrelated, they are actually marching towards the same goal. The former can easily enable a very simple wireless chip to infer its location. But to solve ...

Hu, Yongchang — Delft University of Technology

Sensing physical fields: Inverse problems for the diffusion equation and beyond

Due to significant advances made over the last few decades in the areas of (wireless) networking, communications and microprocessor fabrication, the use of sensor networks to observe physical phenomena is rapidly becoming commonplace. Over this period, many aspects of sensor networks have been explored, yet a thorough understanding of how to analyse and process the vast amounts of sensor data collected remains an open area of research. This work, therefore, aims to provide theoretical, as well as practical, advances this area. In particular, we consider the problem of inferring certain underlying properties of the monitored phenomena, from our sensor measurements. Within mathematics, this is commonly formulated as an inverse problem; whereas in signal processing, it appears as a (multidimensional) sampling and reconstruction problem. Indeed it is well known that inverse problems are notoriously ill-posed and very demanding to solve; meanwhile ...

Murray-Bruce, John — Imperial College London

GRAPH-TIME SIGNAL PROCESSING: FILTERING AND SAMPLING STRATEGIES

The necessity to process signals living in non-Euclidean domains, such as signals de- fined on the top of a graph, has led to the extension of signal processing techniques to the graph setting. Among different approaches, graph signal processing distinguishes it- self by providing a Fourier analysis of these signals. Analogously to the Fourier transform for time and image signals, the graph Fourier transform decomposes the graph signals in terms of the harmonics provided by the underlying topology. For instance, a graph signal characterized by a slow variation between adjacent nodes has a low frequency content. Along with the graph Fourier transform, graph filters are the key tool to alter the graph frequency content of a graph signal. This thesis focuses on graph filters that are performed distributively in the node domain–that is, each node needs to exchange in- formation ...

Elvin Isufi — Delft University of Technology

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the ability of sensor nodes to know its position is an enabler for a wide variety of applications for monitoring, control, and automation. Often, sensor data is meaningful only if its position can be determined. Many WSN are deployed indoors or in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal coverage is not available, and thus GNSS positioning cannot be guaranteed. In these scenarios, WSN may be relied upon to achieve a satisfactory degree of positioning accuracy. Typically, batteries power sensor nodes in WSN. These batteries are costly to replace. Therefore, power consumption is an important aspect, being performance and lifetime ofWSN strongly relying on the ability to reduce it. It is crucial to design effective strategies to maximize battery lifetime. Optimization of power consumption can be made at different layers. For example, at the ...

Moragrega, Ana — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Acoustic Sensor Networks

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of wireless devices for individual use to the point of being ubiquitous. Recent trends have been incorporating many of these devices (or nodes) together, which acquire signals and work in unison over wireless channels, in order to accomplish a predefined task. This type of cooperative sensing and communication between devices form the basis of a so-called wireless sensor network (WSN). Due to the ever increasing processing power of these nodes, WSNs are being assigned more complicated and computationally demanding tasks. Recent research has started to exploit this increased processing power in order for the WSNs to perform tasks pertaining to audio signal acquisition and processing forming so-called wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs). Audio signal processing poses new and unique problems when compared to traditional sensing applications as the signals observed often have ...

Szurley, Joseph — KU Leuven

Joint Downlink Beamforming and Discrete Resource Allocation Using Mixed-Integer Programming

Multi-antenna processing is widely adopted as one of the key enabling technologies for current and future cellular networks. Particularly, multiuser downlink beamforming (also known as space-division multiple access), in which multiple users are simultaneously served with spatial transmit beams in the same time and frequency resource, achieves high spectral efficiency with reduced energy consumption. To harvest the potential of multiuser downlink beamforming in practical systems, optimal beamformer design shall be carried out jointly with network resource allocation. Due to the specifications of cellular standards and/or implementation constraints, resource allocation in practice naturally necessitates discrete decision makings, e.g., base station (BS) association, user scheduling and admission control, adaptive modulation and coding, and codebook-based beamforming (precoding). This dissertation focuses on the joint optimization of multiuser downlink beamforming and discrete resource allocation in modern cellular networks. The problems studied in this thesis involve ...

Cheng, Yong — Technische Universität Darmstadt

Stochastic Schemes for Dynamic Network Resource Allocation

Wireless networks and power distribution grids are experiencing increasing demands on their efficiency and reliability. Judicious methods for allocating scarce resources such as power and bandwidth are of paramount importance. As a result, nonlinear optimization and signal processing tools have been incorporated into the design of contemporary networks. This thesis develops schemes for efficient resource allocation (RA) in such dynamic networks, with an emphasis in stochasticity, which is accounted for in the problem formulation as well as in the algorithms and schemes to solve those problems. Stochastic optimization and decomposition techniques are investigated to develop low-complexity algorithms with specific applications in cross-layer design of wireless communications, cognitive radio (CR) networks and smart power distribution systems. The costs and constraints on the availability of network resources, together with diverse quality of service (QoS) requirements, render network design, management, and operation challenging ...

Lopez Ramos, Luis Miguel — King Juan Carlos University

Minimax Robustness in Signal Processing for Communications

From a signal processing for communications perspective, three fundamental transceiver design components are the channel precoder, the channel estimator, and the channel equalizer. The optimal design of these blocks is typically formulated as an optimization problem with a certain objective function, and a given constraint set. However, besides the objective function and the constraint set, their optimal design crucially depends upon the adopted system model and the assumed system state. While, optimization under a perfect knowledge of these underlying parameters (system model and state) is relatively straight forward and well explored, the optimization under their imperfect (partial or uncertain) knowledge is more involved and cumbersome. Intuitively, the central question that arises here is: should we fully trust the available imperfect knowledge of the underlying parameters, should we just ignore it, or should we go for an "intermediate" approach? In this ...

Nisar, Muhammad Danish — Technical University Munich, Germany

Distributed Signal Processing Algorithms for Acoustic Sensor Networks

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of wireless devices for individual use to the point of being ubiquitous. Recent trends have been incorporating many of these devices (or nodes) together, which acquire signals and work in unison over wireless channels, in order to accomplish a predefined task. This type of cooperative sensing and communication between devices form the basis of a so-called wireless sensor network (WSN). Due to the ever increasing processing power of these nodes, WSNs are being assigned more complicated and computationally demanding tasks. Recent research has started to exploit this increased processing power in order for the WSNs to perform tasks pertaining to audio signal acquisition and processing forming so-called wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs). Audio signal processing poses new and unique problems when compared to traditional sensing applications as the signals observed often have ...

Szurley, Joseph C. — KU Leuven

This dissertation deals with the distributed processing techniques for parameter estimation and efficient data-gathering in wireless communication and sensor networks. The estimation problem consists in inferring a set of parameters from temporal and spatial noisy observations collected by different nodes that monitor an area or field. The objective is to derive an estimate that is as accurate as the one that would be obtained if each node had access to the information across the entire network. With the aim of enabling an energy aware and low-complexity distributed implementation of the estimation task, several useful optimization techniques that generally yield linear estimators were derived in the literature. Up to now, most of the works considered that the nodes are interested in estimating the same vector of global parameters. This scenario can be viewed as a special case of a more general ...

Bogdanovic, Nikola — University of Patras

Miniaturization effects and node placement for neural decoding in EEG sensor networks

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive neurorecording technique, which has the potential to be used for 24/7 neuromonitoring in daily life, e.g., in the context of neural prostheses, brain-computer interfaces, or for improved diagnosis of brain disorders. Although existing mobile wireless EEG headsets are a useful tool for short-term experiments, they are still too heavy, bulky and obtrusive, for long-term EEG-monitoring in daily life. However, we are now witnessing a wave of new miniature EEG sensor devices containing small electrodes embedded in them, which we refer to as Mini-EEGs. Mini-EEGs ideally consist of a wireless node with a small scalp area footprint, in which the electrodes, amplifier and wireless radio are embedded. However, due to their miniaturization, these mini-EEGs have the drawback that only a few EEG channels can be recorded within a small area. The latter also implies that the ...

Mundanad Narayanan, Abhijith — KU Leuven

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