Enabling Technologies and Cyber-Physical Systems for Mission-Critical Scenarios

Reliable transport systems, defense, public safety and quality assurance in the Industry 4.0 are essential in a modern society. In a mission-critical scenario, a mission failure would jeopardize human lives and put at risk some other assets whose impairment or loss would significantly harm society or business results. Even small degradations of the communications supporting the mission could have large and possibly dire consequences. On the one hand, mission-critical organizations wish to utilize the most modern, disruptive and innovative communication systems and technologies, and yet, on the other hand, need to comply with strict requirements, which are very different to those of non critical scenarios. The aim of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of applying emerging technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and 4G broadband communications in mission-critical scenarios along three key critical infrastructure sectors: ...

Fraga-Lamas, Paula — University of A Coruña


Broadband Wireless Communication Systems for High Mobility Scenarios

Over the last few years multimedia and data-based services experienced a non-stopping growth. Unlike before, people do not use the services only from a static location, but they are continuously on the move between different scenarios, using their mobile devices to access data-based services. In parallel, commuter traffic from rural areas is also rising, since most of work places are in and around cities. During transportation, people intensively employ mobile devices to work, access to social networks, or as an entertainment means. Internet access is required for most of these services. Currently, GSM for Railways (GSM-R), which is based on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), is the most widely used communication system between trains and the elements involved in operation, control, and intercommunication within the railway infrastructure. However, GSM-R is not well suited for supporting advanced services such ...

Rodríguez-Piñeiro, José — University of A Coruña


Measurement-based Performance Evaluation of WiMAX and HSDPA

In this work, a realistic physical layer performance evaluation of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) as well as IEEE 802.16-2004, commonly referred to as Worldwide Inter-operability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), is provided. The performance evaluation is carried out in two measurement campaigns that took place in an alpine and an urban environment. Both, WiMAX and HSDPA use adaptive modulation and coding to adapt the channel coding rate and the size of the symbol alphabet to the current channel conditions. Additionally, both systems allow for multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas to increase the spectral efficiency and the reliability of the transmission. While WiMAX utilizes multiple transmit antennas by simple Alamouti space-time coding, HSDPA implements a closed-loop system with channel adaptive spatial precoding. The necessary, quantized channel information is fed back from the user equipment to the base station. The ...

Mehlfuehrer, Christian — Vienna University of Technology


Digital design and experimental validation of high-performance real-time OFDM systems

The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation is to address a number of challenges encountered in the digital baseband design of modern and future wireless communication systems. The fast and continuous evolution of wireless communications has been driven by the ambitious goal of providing ubiquitous services that could guarantee high throughput, reliability of the communication link and satisfy the increasing demand for efficient re-utilization of the heavily populated wireless spectrum. To cope with these ever-growing performance requirements, researchers around the world have introduced sophisticated broadband physical (PHY)-layer communication schemes able to accommodate higher bandwidth, which indicatively include multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver and are capable of delivering improved spectral efficiency by applying interference management policies. The merging of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) schemes with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) offers a flexible signal processing substrate to implement ...

Font-Bach, Oriol — Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC)


Design and Evaluation of OFDM Radio Interfaces for High Mobility Communications

In the last two decades, multicarrier modulations have emerged as a low complexity solution to combat the effects of the multipath in wireless communications. Among them, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is possibly the most studied modulation scheme, and has also been widely adopted as the foundation of industry standards such as WiMAX or LTE. However, OFDM is sensitive to time-selective channels, which are featured in mobility scenarios, due to the appearance of Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI). Implementation of hardware equipment for the end user is usually implemented in dedicated chips, but in research environments, more flexible solutions are preferred. One popular approach is the so-called Software Defined Radio (SDR), where the signal processing algorithms are implemented in reconfigurable hardware such as Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The aim of this work is two-fold. On the ...

Suárez Casal, Pedro — University of A Coruña


Transmit Beamforming to Multiple Cochannel Multicast Groups

The major contribution of this thesis is on the problem of transmit beamforming to multiple cochannel multicast groups. Two viewpoints are considered: i) minimizing total transmission power while guaranteeing a prescribed minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at each receiver; and ii) a "fair" approach maximizing the overall minimum SINR under a total power budget. The core problem is a multicast generalization of the multiuser downlink beamforming problem; the difference is that each transmitted stream is directed to multiple receivers, each with its own channel. Such generalization is relevant and timely, e.g., in the context of the emerging WiMAX and UMTS-LTE wireless networks. The joint multicast beamforming problem is in general NP-hard, motivating the pursuit of computationally efficient quasi-optimal solutions. In chapter 1, it is shown that semidefinite relaxation coupled with suitable randomization / cochannel multicast power control yield computationally efficient high-quality ...

Karipidis, Eleftherios — Technical University of Crete


Adaptive Communications for Next Generation Broadband Wireless Access Systems

In Broadband Wireless Access systems the efficient use of the resources is crucial from many points of views. From the operator point of view, the bandwidth is a scarce, valuable, and expensive resource which must be exploited in an efficient manner while the Quality of Service (QoS) provided to the users is guaranteed. On the other hand, a tight delay and link quality constraints are imposed on each data flow hence the user experiences the same quality as in fixed networks. During the last few years many techniques have been developed in order to increase the spectral efficiency and the throughput. Among them, the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver (exploiting spatial multiplexing) with the joint optimization of the medium access control layer and the physical layer parameters. In this Ph.D. thesis, different adaptive techniques for ...

Ismael Gutierrez González — Universitat Ramon Llull


Testbed-based Evaluation of Mobile Communication Systems

The ever increasing demand for mobility calls for new mobile communication systems that deal more efficiently with the very limited bandwidth available. While such systems do exist and work well in computer simulations, little is known about their performance under real world conditions. Little is also known about how to best determine and compare the throughput performance of such wireless communication schemes in specific, realistic outdoor scenarios. The range of effective answers spans from performing numerical simulations to building prototypes. In recent years we have determined that a cost, time, and manpower efficient ---as well as effective--- method is that of carrying out quasi-realtime testbed measurements. In this approach, all possible transmit data is generated off-line in Matlab, but only the required data is then transmitted over a wireless channel which is altered by moving the receive antennas. The for ...

Caban, Sebastian — Vienna University of Technology


Quality of Service Optimization in the Broadcast Channel with Imperfect Transmit Channel State Information

This work considers a Broadcast Channel (BC) system, where the transmitter is equipped with multiple antennas and each user at the receiver side could have one or more antennas. Depending on the number of antennas at the receiver side, such a system is known as Multiple-User Multiple-Input Single-Output (MU-MISO), for single antenna users, or Multiple-UserMultiple-InputMultiple-Output (MU-MIMO), for several antenna users. This model is suitable for current wireless communication systems. Regarding the direction of the data flow, we differentiate between downlink channel or BC, and uplink channel or Multiple Access Channel (MAC). In the BC the signals are sent from the Base Station (BS) to the users, whereas the information from the users is sent to the BS in the MAC. In this work we focus on the BC where the BS applies linear precoding taking advantage of multiple antennas. The ...

González-Coma, José Pablo — University of a Coruña


Performance Evaluation of Practical OFDM Systems with Imperfect Synchronization

This work aims to expose the potential performance loss due to synchronization errors in the downlink of the two major cellular standards of OFDM systems, i.e., the WiMAX OFDM physical layer and the LTE. Different to most results in literature, the physical layer coded throughput is utilized as the major performance measure. The influence of an imperfect carrier frequency synchronization or symbol timing is evaluated via analytical modeling and standard compliant link level simulations. In the frequency aspect, a modified differential estimator for the residual frequency offset in WiMAX is proposed. It is shown that the theoretical performance of such an estimator approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound and provides a significant gain in terms of the mean squared error. However, such an improvement becomes negligible in terms of the coded throughput. Therefore, a throughput loss prediction model is proposed for ...

Wang, Qi — Vienna University of Technology


Design and Implementation of Efficient Algorithms for Wireless MIMO Communication Systems

In the last decade, one of the most significant technological developments that led to the new broadband wireless generation is the communication via multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. MIMO technologies have been adopted by many wireless standards such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), Wordlwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). This is mainly due to their ability to increase the maximum transmission rates, together with the achieved reliability and coverage of current wireless communications, all without the need for additional bandwidth nor transmit power. Nevertheless, the advantages provided by MIMO systems come at the expense of a substantial increase in the cost to deploy multiple antennas and also in the receiver complexity, which has a major impact on the power consumption. Therefore, the design of low-complexity receivers is an important issue which is tackled throughout this ...

Roger, Sandra — Universitat Politècnica de València (Technical University of Valencia)


System Level Modeling and Optimization of the LTE Downlink

This thesis presents the design and application of a Link-to-System (L2S) model capable of predicting the downlink throughput performance of cellular mobile networks based on the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. The aim of a L2S model is to accurately abstract the physical layer at a fraction of the complexity of detailed link level simulations. Thus, it dramatically reduces the necessary simulation run time and by extension enables the simulation of much more complex scenarios. The thesis is divided in four main parts. First, the basics of the LTE standard are presented, with the link abstraction model being presented afterwards. Extensions for the L2S model for the cases of Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) and imperfect channel state information are presented in the third section. In the last chapter, the performance of the application of Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) ...

Colom Ikuno, Josep — Vienna University of Technology


Device-to-Device Wireless Communications

Device-to-Device (D2D) is one of the important proposed solutions to increase the capacity, offload the traffic, and improve the energy effciency in next generation cellular networks. D2D communication is known as a direct communication between two users without using cellular infrastructure networks. Despite of large expected bene fits in terms of capacity in D2D, the coexistence of D2D and cellular networks in the same spectrum creates new challenges in interference management and network design. To limit the interference power control schemes on cellular networks and D2D networks are typically adopted. Even though power control is introduced to limit the interference level, it does not prevent cellular and D2D users from experiencing coverage limitation when sharing the same radio resources. Therefore, the design of such networks requires the availability of suitable methods able to properly model the eff ect of interference ...

Alhalabi, Ashraf S.A. — Universita Degli Sudi di Bologna


Modeling and Digital Mitigation of Transmitter Imperfections in Radio Communication Systems

To satisfy the continuously growing demands for higher data rates, modern radio communication systems employ larger bandwidths and more complex waveforms. Furthermore, radio devices are expected to support a rich mixture of standards such as cellular networks, wireless local-area networks, wireless personal area networks, positioning and navigation systems, etc. In general, a "smart'' device should be flexible to support all these requirements while being portable, cheap, and energy efficient. These seemingly conflicting expectations impose stringent radio frequency (RF) design challenges which, in turn, call for their proper understanding as well as developing cost-effective solutions to address them. The direct-conversion transceiver architecture is an appealing analog front-end for flexible and multi-standard radio systems. However, it is sensitive to various circuit impairments, and modern communication systems based on multi-carrier waveforms such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple ...

Kiayani, Adnan — Tampere University of Technology


Adaptive Signal Processing for Power Line Communications

This thesis represents a significant part of the research activity conducted during the PhD program in Information Technologies, supported by Selta S.p.A, Cadeo, Italy, focused on the analysis and design of a Power Line Communications (PLC) system. In recent times the PLC technologies have been considered for integration in Smart Grids architectures, as they are used to exploit the existing power line infrastructure for information transmission purposes on low, medium and high voltage lines. The characterization of a reliable PLC system is a current object of research as well as it is the design of modems for communications over the power lines. In this thesis, the focus is on the analysis of a full-duplex PLC modem for communication over high-voltage lines, and, in particular, on the design of the echo canceller device and innovative channel coding schemes. The first part ...

Tripodi, Carlo — Università degli Studi di Parma

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