Learning from structured EEG and fMRI data supporting the diagnosis of epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that manifests in epileptic seizures as a result of an abnormal, synchronous activity of a large group of neurons. Depending on the affected brain regions, seizures produce various severe clinical symptoms. Epilepsy cannot be cured and in many cases is not controlled by medication either. Surgical resection of the region responsible for generating the epileptic seizures might offer remedy for these patients. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measure the changes of brain activity in time over different locations of the brain. As such, they provide valuable information on the nature, the timing and the spatial origin of the epileptic activity. Unfortunately, both techniques record activity of different brain and artefact sources as well. Hence, EEG and fMRI signals are characterised by low signal to noise ratio. Data quality and the vast amount ...

Hunyadi, Borbála — KU Leuven


Improving data-driven EEG-FMRI analyses for the study of cognitive functioning

Understanding the cognitive processes that are going on in the human brain, requires the combination of several types of observations. For this reason, since several years, neuroscience research started to focus on multimodal approaches. One such multimodal approach is the combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The non-invasive character of these two modalities makes their combination not only harmless and painless, but also especially suited for widespread research in both clinical and experimental applications. Moreover, the complementarity between the high temporal resolution of the EEG and the high spatial resolution of the fMRI, allows obtaining a more complete picture of the processes under study. However, the combination of EEG and fMRI is challenging, not only on the level of the data acquisition, but also when it comes to extracting the activity of interest and interpreting the ...

Vanderperren, Katrien — KU Leuven


Unsupervised and semi-supervised Non-negative Matrix Factorization methods for brain tumor segmentation using multi-parametric MRI data

Gliomas represent about 80% of all malignant primary brain tumors. Despite recent advancements in glioma research, patient outcome remains poor. The 5 year survival rate of the most common and most malignant subtype, i.e. glioblastoma, is about 5%. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the imaging modality of choice in the management of brain tumor patients. Conventional MRI (cMRI) provides excellent soft tissue contrast without exposing the patient to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, advanced MRI modalities, such as perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) have gained interest in the clinical field, and their added value regarding brain tumor diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up has been recognized. Tumor segmentation involves the imaging-based delineation of a tumor and its subcompartments. In gliomas, segmentation plays an important role in treatment planning as well ...

Sauwen, Nicolas — KU Leuven


Data-Driven Multimodal Signal Processing With Applications To EEG-fMRI Fusion

Most cognitive processes in the brain are reflected through several aspects simultaneously, allowing us to observe the same process from different biological phenomena. The diverse nature of these biological processes suggests that a better understanding of cerebral activity may be achieved through multimodal measurements. One of the possible multimodal brain recording settings is the combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is one of the main topics of this thesis. Two groups of EEG-fMRI integration approaches are possible. The first group, commonly called model-based techniques, are very popular due to the fact that the results from such analyses confirm or disprove a specific hypothesis. However, such hypotheses are not always available, requiring a more explorative approach to analyze the data. This exploration is possible with the second group of approaches, the so-called data-driven methods. The data-driven ...

Mijović, Bogdan — KU Leuven


Domain-informed signal processing with application to analysis of human brain functional MRI data

Standard signal processing techniques are implicitly based on the assumption that the signal lies on a regular, homogeneous domain. In practice, however, many signals lie on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain. An application area where data are naturally defined on an irregular or inhomogeneous domain is human brain neuroimaging. The goal in neuroimaging is to map the structure and function of the brain using imaging techniques. In particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique that is conventionally used in non-invasive probing of human brain function. This doctoral dissertation deals with the development of signal processing schemes that adapt to the domain of the signal. It consists of four papers that in different ways deal with exploiting knowledge of the signal domain to enhance the processing of signals. In each paper, special focus is given to the analysis of ...

Behjat, Hamid — Lund University


Compressed sensing approaches to large-scale tensor decompositions

Today’s society is characterized by an abundance of data that is generated at an unprecedented velocity. However, much of this data is immediately thrown away by compression or information extraction. In a compressed sensing (CS) setting the inherent sparsity in many datasets is exploited by avoiding the acquisition of superfluous data in the first place. We combine this technique with tensors, or multiway arrays of numerical values, which are higher-order generalizations of vectors and matrices. As the number of entries scales exponentially in the order, tensor problems are often large-scale. We show that the combination of simple, low-rank tensor decompositions with CS effectively alleviates or even breaks the so-called curse of dimensionality. After discussing the larger data fusion optimization framework for coupled and constrained tensor decompositions, we investigate three categories of CS type algorithms to deal with large-scale problems. First, ...

Vervliet, Nico — KU Leuven


Localisation of Brain Functions: Stimuling Brain Activity and Source Reconstruction for Classification

A key issue in understanding how the brain functions is the ability to correlate functional information with anatomical localisation. Functional information can be provided by a variety of techniques like positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). All these methods provide different, but complementary, information about the functional areas of the brain. PET and fMRI provide spatially accurate picture of brain regions involved in a given task. TMS permits to infer the contribution of the stimulated brain area to the task under investigation. EEG and MEG, which reflects brain activity directly, have temporal accuracy of the order of a millisecond. TMS, EEG and MEG are offset by their low spatial resolution. In this thesis, we propose two methods to improve the spatial accuracy of method based on TMS and EEG. The ...

Noirhomme, Quentin — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Emotion assessment for affective computing based on brain and peripheral signals

Current Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) lack of “emotional intelligence”, i.e. they are not able to identify human emotional states and take this information into account to decide on the proper actions to execute. The goal of affective computing is to fill this lack by detecting emotional cues occurring during Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and synthesizing emotional responses. In the last decades, most of the studies on emotion assessment have focused on the analysis of facial expressions and speech to determine the emotional state of a person. Physiological activity also includes emotional information that can be used for emotion assessment but has received less attention despite of its advantages (for instance it can be less easily faked than facial expressions). This thesis reports on the use of two types of physiological activities to assess emotions in the context of affective computing: the activity ...

Chanel, Guillaume — University of Geneva


Explicit and implicit tensor decomposition-based algorithms and applications

Various real-life data such as time series and multi-sensor recordings can be represented by vectors and matrices, which are one-way and two-way arrays of numerical values, respectively. Valuable information can be extracted from these measured data matrices by means of matrix factorizations in a broad range of applications within signal processing, data mining, and machine learning. While matrix-based methods are powerful and well-known tools for various applications, they are limited to single-mode variations, making them ill-suited to tackle multi-way data without loss of information. Higher-order tensors are a natural extension of vectors (first order) and matrices (second order), enabling us to represent multi-way arrays of numerical values, which have become ubiquitous in signal processing and data mining applications. By leveraging the powerful utitilies offered by tensor decompositions such as compression and uniqueness properties, we can extract more information from multi-way ...

Boussé, Martijn — KU Leuven


Development of an automated neonatal EEG seizure monitor

Brain function requires a continuous flow of oxygen and glucose. An insufficient supply for a few minutes during the first period of life may have severe consequences or even result in death. This happens in one to six infants per 1000 live term births. Therefore, there is a high need for a method which can enable bedside brain monitoring to identify those neonates at risk and be able to start the treatment in time. The most important currently available technology to continuously monitor brain function is electroEncephaloGraphy (or EEG). Unfortunately, visual EEG analysis requires particular skills which are not always present round the clock in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Even if those skills are available it is laborsome to manually analyse many hours of EEG. The lack of time and skill are the main reasons why EEG is ...

Deburchgraeve, Wouter — KU Leuven


Subspace-based exponential data fitting using linear and multilinear algebra

The exponentially damped sinusoidal (EDS) model arises in numerous signal processing applications. It is therefore of great interest to have methods able to estimate the parameters of such a model in the single-channel as well as in the multi-channel case. Because such a model naturally lends itself to subspace representation, powerful matrix approaches like HTLS in the single-channel case, HTLSstack in the multi-channel case and HTLSDstack in the decimative case have been developed to estimate the parameters of the underlying EDS model. They basically consist in stacking the signal in Hankel (single-channel) or block Hankel (multi- channel) data matrices. Then, the signal subspace is estimated by means of the singular value decomposition (SVD). The parameters of the model, namely the amplitudes, the phases, the damping factors, and the frequencies, are estimated from this subspace. Note that the sample covariance matrix ...

Papy, Jean-Michel — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


EEG-Biofeedback and Epilepsy: Concept, Methodology and Tools for (Neuro)therapy Planning and Objective Evaluation

Objective diagnosis and therapy evaluation are still challenging tasks for many neurological disorders. This is highly related to the diversity of cases and the variety of treatment modalities available. Especially in the case of epilepsy, which is a complex disorder not well-explained at the biochemical and physiological levels, there is the need for investigations for novel features, which can be extracted and quantified from electrophysiological signals in clinical practice. Neurotherapy is a complementary treatment applied in various disorders of the central nervous system, including epilepsy. The method is subsumed under behavioral medicine and is considered an operant conditioning in psychological terms. Although the application areas of this promising unconventional approach are rapidly increasing, the method is strongly debated, since the neurophysiological underpinnings of the process are not yet well understood. Therefore, verification of the efficacy of the treatment is one ...

Kirlangic, Mehmet Eylem — Technische Universitaet Ilmenau


Density-based shape descriptors and similarity learning for 3D object retrieval

Next generation search engines will enable query formulations, other than text, relying on visual information encoded in terms of images and shapes. The 3D search technology, in particular, targets specialized application domains ranging from computer aided-design and manufacturing to cultural heritage archival and presentation. Content-based retrieval research aims at developing search engines that would allow users to perform a query by similarity of content. This thesis deals with two fundamentals problems in content-based 3D object retrieval: (1) How to describe a 3D shape to obtain a reliable representative for the subsequent task of similarity search? (2) How to supervise the search process to learn inter-shape similarities for more effective and semantic retrieval? Concerning the first problem, we develop a novel 3D shape description scheme based on probability density of multivariate local surface features. We constructively obtain local characterizations of 3D ...

Akgul, Ceyhun Burak — Bogazici University and Telecom ParisTech


New approaches for EEG signal processing: Artifact EOG removal by ICA-RLS scheme and Tracks extraction method

Localizing the bioelectric phenomena originating from the cerebral cortex and evoked by auditory and somatosensory stimuli are clear objectives to both understand how the brain works and to recognize different pathologies. Diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and epilepsy are intensively studied to find a cure or accurate diagnosis. Epilepsy is considered the disease with major prevalence within disorders with neurological origin. The recurrent and sudden incidence of seizures can lead to dangerous and possibly life-threatening situations. Since disturbance of consciousness and sudden loss of motor control often occur without any warning, the ability to predict epileptic seizures would reduce patients' anxiety, thus considerably improving quality of life and safety. The common procedure for epilepsy seizure detection is based on brain activity monitorization via electroencephalogram (EEG) data. This process consumes a lot of time, especially in the case of long ...

Carlos Guerrero-Mosquera — University Carlos III of Madrid


Automated quantification of preterm brain maturation using electroencephalography

Around 10 percent of all human births is premature, which means that annually about 15 million babies are born before 37 completed weeks of gestation. About one third of the admissions to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) consists of this patient group. Due to complications, 1 million babies die from premature delivery, and it is therefore the most important cause of neonatal death. In general, premature and immature babies have a high risk for neurological abnormalities by maturation in extra-uterine life. Even though improved health care has increased the survival changes of these neonates, they are sensitive to brain damage and consequently, neurocognitive disabilities. Nowadays, critical information about the brain development can be extracted from the electroencephalography (EEG). Clinical experts visually assess evolving EEG characteristics over both short and long periods to evaluate maturation of patients at risk and, ...

Koolen, Ninah — KU Leuven

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