Error Resilient Transmission of Video Streaming over Wireless Mobile Networks,

The third generation of mobile systems brought higher data rates that allow for provisioning of multimedia services containing also video. The real-time services like video call, conferencing, and streaming are particularly challenging for mobile communication systems due to the wireless channel quality variations. The mechanism for video compression utilizes a hybrid of temporal and spatial prediction, transform coding and variable length coding. The combination of these methods provides high compression gain, but at the same time makes the encoded stream more prone to errors. In this thesis, techniques for error resilient transmission of video streaming over wireless mobile networks are investigated. Focus is given to the recent H.264/AVC standard, although the ma jority of the proposed method apply to other video coding standards, too. The first part is dedicated to exploiting the residual redundancy of the received video stream at ...

Nemethova, O. — Vienna University of Technology


Multiple Description Coding for Path Diversity Video Streaming

In the current heterogeneous communication environments, the great variety of multimedia systems and applications combined with fast evolution of networking architectures and topologies, give rise to new research problems related to the various elements of the communication chain. This includes, the ever present problem in video communications, which results from the need for coping with transmission errors and losses. In this context, video streaming with path diversity appeared as a novel communication framework, involving different technological fields and posing several research challenges. The research work carried out in this thesis is a contribution to robust video coding and adaptation techniques in the field of Multiple Description Coding (MDC) for multipath video streaming. The thesis starts with a thorough study of MDC and its theoretical basis followed by a description of the most important practical implementation aspects currently available in literature. ...

Correia, Pedro Daniel Frazão — University of Coimbra


Robust and multiresolution video delivery : From H.26x to Matching pursuit based technologies

With the joint development of networking and digital coding technologies multimedia and more particularly video services are clearly becoming one of the major consumers of the new information networks. The rapid growth of the Internet and computer industry however results in a very heterogeneous infrastructure commonly overloaded. Video service providers have nevertheless to oer to their clients the best possible quality according to their respective capabilities and communication channel status. The Quality of Service is not only inuenced by the compression artifacts, but also by unavoidable packet losses. Hence, the packet video stream has clearly to fulll possibly contradictory requirements, that are coding eciency and robustness to data loss. The rst contribution of this thesis is the complete modeling of the video Quality of Service (QoS) in standard and more particularly MPEG-2 applications. The performance of Forward Error Control (FEC) ...

Frossard, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Exploiting Correlation Noise Modeling in Wyner-Ziv Video Coding

Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding is a particular case of distributed video coding, a new video coding paradigm based on the Slepian-Wolf and Wyner-Ziv theorems which mainly exploit the source correlation at the decoder and not only at the encoder as in predictive video coding. Therefore, this new coding paradigm may provide a flexible allocation of complexity between the encoder and the decoder and in-built channel error robustness, interesting features for emerging applications such as low-power video surveillance and visual sensor networks among others. Although some progress has been made in the last eight years, the rate-distortion performance of WZ video coding is still far from the maximum performance attained with predictive video coding. The WZ video coding compression efficiency depends critically on the capability to model the correlation noise between the original information at the encoder and its estimation generated ...

Brites, Catarina — Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST)


ROBUST WATERMARKING TECHNIQUES FOR SCALABLE CODED IMAGE AND VIDEO

In scalable image/video coding, high resolution content is encoded to the highest visual quality and the bit-streams are adapted to cater various communication channels, display devices and usage requirements. These content adaptations, which include quality, resolution and frame rate scaling may also affect the content protection data, such as, watermarks and are considered as a potential watermark attack. In this thesis, research on robust watermarking techniques for scalable coded image and video, are proposed and the improvements in robustness against various content adaptation attacks, such as, JPEG 2000 for image and Motion JPEG 2000, MC-EZBC and H.264/SVC for video, are reported. The spread spectrum domain, particularly wavelet-based image watermarking schemes often provides better robustness to compression attacks due to its multi-resolution decomposition and hence chosen for this work. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of the available wavelet-based watermarking schemes,is performed ...

Bhowmik, Deepayan — University of Sheffield


Techniques for improving the performance of distributed video coding

Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a recently proposed paradigm in video communication, which fits well emerging applications such as wireless video surveillance, multimedia sensor networks, wireless PC cameras, and mobile cameras phones. These applications require a low complexity encoding, while possibly affording a high complexity decoding. DVC presents several advantages: First, the complexity can be distributed between the encoder and the decoder. Second, the DVC is robust to errors, since it uses a channel code. In DVC, a Side Information (SI) is estimated at the decoder, using the available decoded frames, and used for the decoding and reconstruction of other frames. In this Ph.D thesis, we propose new techniques in order to improve the quality of the SI. First, successive refinement of the SI is performed after each decoded DCT band, using a Partially Decoded WZF (PDWZF), along with the ...

Abou-Elailah, Abdalbassir — Telecom Paristech


Video Quality Estimation for Mobile Video Streaming

For the provisioning of video streaming services it is essential to provide a required level of customer satisfaction, given by the perceived video stream quality. It is therefore important to choose the compression parameters as well as the network settings so that they maximize the end-user quality. Due to video compression improvements of the newest video coding standard H.264/AVC, video streaming for low bit and frame rates is possible while preserving its perceptual quality. This is especially suitable for video applications in 3G wireless networks. Mobile video streaming is characterized by low resolutions and low bitrates. The commonly used resolutions are Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF,176x144 pixels) for cell phones, Common Intermediate Format (CIF, 352x288 pixels) and Standard Interchange Format (SIF or QVGA, 320x240 pixels) for data-cards and palmtops (PDA). The mandatory codec for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) streaming ...

Ries, Michal — Vienna University of Technology


Advances in Perceptual Stereo Audio Coding Using Linear Prediction Techniques

A wide range of techniques for coding a single-channel speech and audio signal has been developed over the last few decades. In addition to pure redundancy reduction, sophisticated source and receiver models have been considered for reducing the bit-rate. Traditionally, speech and audio coders are based on different principles and thus each of them offers certain advantages. With the advent of high capacity channels, networks, and storage systems, the bit-rate versus quality compromise will no longer be the major issue; instead, attributes like low-delay, scalability, computational complexity, and error concealments in packet-oriented networks are expected to be the major selling factors. Typical audio coders such as MP3 and AAC are based on subband or transform coding techniques that are not easily reconcilable with a low-delay requirement. The reasons for their inherently longer delay are the relatively long band splitting filters ...

Biswas, Arijit — Technische Universiteit Eindhoven


Watermark-based error concealment algorithms for low bit rate video communications

In this work, a novel set of robust watermark-based error concealment (WEC) algorithms are proposed. Watermarking is used to introduce redundancy to the transmitted data with little or no increase in its bit rate during transmission. The proposed algorithms involve generating a low resolution version of a video frame and seamlessly embedding it as a watermark in the frame itself during encoding. At the receiver, the watermark is extracted from the reconstructed frame and the lost information is recovered using the extracted watermark signal, thus enhancing its perceptual quality. Three DCT-based spread spectrum watermark embedding techniques are presented in this work. The first technique uses a multiplicative Gaussian pseudo-noise with a pre-defined spreading gain and fixed chip rate. The second one is its adaptively scaled version and the third technique uses informed watermarking. Two versions of the low resolution reference, ...

Adsumilli, Chowdary — University of California, Santa Barbara


A statistical approach to motion estimation

Digital video technology has been characterized by a steady growth in the last decade. New applications like video e-mail, third generation mobile phone video communications, videoconferencing, video streaming on the web continuously push for further evolution of research in digital video coding. In order to be sent over the internet or even wireless networks, video information clearly needs compression to meet bandwidth requirements. Compression is mainly realized by exploiting the redundancy present in the data. A sequence of images contains an intrinsic, intuitive and simple idea of redundancy: two successive images are very similar. This simple concept is called temporal redundancy. The research of a proper scheme to exploit the temporal redundancy completely changes the scenario between compression of still pictures and sequence of images. It also represents the key for very high performances in image sequence coding when compared ...

Moschetti, Fulvio — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Adaptive media streaming over multipath networks

With the latest developments in video coding technology and fast deployment of end-user broadband internet connections, real-time media applications become increasingly interesting for both private users and businesses. However, the internet remains a best-effort service network unable to guarantee the stringent requirements of the media application, in terms of high, constant bandwidth, low packet loss rate and transmission delay. Therefore, efficient adaptation mechanisms must be derived in order to bridge the application requirements with the transport medium characteristics. Lately, different network architectures, e.g., peer-to-peer networks, content distribution networks, parallel wireless services, emerge as potential solutions for reducing the cost of communication or infrastructure, and possibly improve the application performance. In this thesis, we start from the path diversity characteristic of these architectures, in order to build a new framework, specific for media streaming in multipath networks. Within this framework we ...

Jurca, Dan — EPFL/ITS, Lausanne, Switzerland


Lossless and nearly lossless digital video coding

In lossless coding, compresssion and decompression of source data result in the exact recovery of the individual elements of the original source data. Lossless image / video coding is necessary in applications where no loss of pixel values is tolerable. Examples are medical imaging, remote sensing, in image/video archives and studio applications where tandem- and trans-coding are used in editing, which can lead to accumulating errors. Nearly-lossless coding is used in applications where a small error, defined as a maximum error or as a root mean square (rms) error, is tolerable. In lossless embedded coding, a losslessly coded bit stream can be decoded at any bit rate lower than the lossless bit rate. In this thesis, research on embedded lossless video coding based on a motion compensated framework, similar to that of MPEG-2, is presented. Transforms that map integers into ...

Abhayaratne, Charith — University of Bath


Nonlinear rate control techniques for constant bit rate MPEG video coders

Digital visual communication has been increasingly adopted as an efficient new medium in a variety of different fields; multi-media computers, digital televisions, telecommunications, etc. Exchange of visual information between remote sites requires that digital video is encoded by compressing the amount of data and transmitting it through specified network connections. The compression and transmission of digital video is an amalgamation of statistical data coding processes, which aims at efficient exchange of visual information without technical barriers due to different standards, services, media, etc. It is associated with a series of different disciplines of digital signal processing, each of which can be applied independently. It includes a few different technical principles; distortion, rate theory, prediction techniques and control theory. The MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video compression standard is based on this paradigm, thus, it contains a variety of different coding ...

Saw, Yoo-Sok — University Of Edinburgh


Optimization of Video Streaming over 3G Networks

VIDEO streaming over cellular networks has been made possible in the last years by better performing video codecs and wireless cellular networks oriented to data transmission. The interaction between two heterogeneous worlds, the telecommunication infrastructure and the coding video software, calls for advanced optimization mechanisms. The actors involved in the optimization process are the cellular system's access network, UMTS and HSDPA, the wireless transmission channel and the fi nal user equipped with a mobile device capable of decoding video sequences. The knowledge and characterization of each of the building blocks allow the optimization of each element to the specifi c needs of the others. This doctoral thesis discusses three main contributions. In the fi rst part, the e ffects of transmission errors on video streams are analyzed. Incorrectly received video packets are usually discarded by the lower layers and not ...

Superiori, Luca — Vienna University of Technology


Novel Methods in H.264/AVC (Inter Prediction, Data Hiding, Bit Rate Transcoding)

H.264 Advanced Video Coding has become the dominant video coding standard in the market, within a few years after the first version of the standard was completed by the ISO/IEC MPEG and the ITU-T VCEG groups in May 2003. That happened mainly due to the great coding efficiency of H.264. Compared to MPEG-2, the previous dominant standard, the H.264 compression ratio is about twice as higher for the same video quality. That makes H.264 ideal for a numerous of applications, such as video broadcasting, video streaming and video conferencing. However, the H.264 efficiency is achieved at the expense of the codec¢s complexity. H.264 complexity is about four times that of MPEG-2. As a consequence, many video coding issues, which have been addressed in previous standards, need to be re-considered. For example the H.264 encoding of a video in real time ...

Kapotas, Spyridon — Hellenic Open University

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