Equalization and echo cancellation in DMT-based systems

Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a technology to provide broadband communications over the existing twisted pair telephone network. The signals received by a DSL modem are typically corrupted by channel induced noise, background noise, radio frequeny interference (RFI) and undesired echo. In this thesis we focus on the design of digital signal processing algorithms to improve the bit rate and/or the loop reach of current and future DSL systems. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithms we aim at keeping the hardware cost as low as possible. The transmission format of many DSL systems is based on discrete multitone modulation (DMT). To combat channel induced noise, DMT-based receivers perform an equalization step by means of a time domain equalizer (TEQ) and a one-tap frequency domain equalizer (FEQ) per used tone. Despite the variety of TEQ design methods presented in the literature, we ...

Ysebaert, Geert — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Multi-user Signal and Spectra Co-Ordination for digital subscriber lines

The appetite amongst consumers for ever higher data-rates seems insatiable. This booming market presents a huge opportunity for telephone and cable operators. It also presents a challenge: the delivery of broadband services to millions of customers across sparsely populated areas. Fully bre-based networks, whilst technically the most advanced solution, are prohibitively expensive to deploy. Digital subscriber lines (DSL) provide an alternative solution. Seen as a stepping-stone to a fully bre-based network, DSL operates over telephone lines that are already in place, minimizing the cost of deployment. The basic principle behind DSL technology is to increase data-rate by widening the transmission bandwidth. Unfortunately, operating at high frequencies, in a medium originally designed for voice-band transmission, leads to crosstalk between the di erent DSLs. Crosstalk is typically 10-15 dB larger than the background noise and is the dominant source of performance degradation ...

Cendrillon, Raphael — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Equalization and echo cancellation for DMT-based DSL modems

Broadband communications over the local telephone loop has become feasible nowadays by means of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technologies. Asymmetric DSL and one proposal for Very high bit rate DSL adopt Discrete Multitone (DMT) as modulation scheme. In this thesis we develop new equalization and echo cancellation structures for DMT-based receivers. Our main motivation is the application to DMT-based DSL-modems. In literature, a DMT-based receiver containing a multitap time domain equalizer (TEQ) and a 1-taps frequency domain equalizer per tone, has been presented. The TEQ is usually initialized by means of the so-called channel shortening algorithm. This does however not correspond to bit rate optimization, which is a major disadvantage. In part I, we aim at improving upon the channel shortening algorithm. In a first attempt, we maintain the receiver structure and only change the TEQ-initialization algorithm. In a second ...

Van Acker, Katleen — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Advanced equalization techniques for DMT-based systems

Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology is one of the fastest growing broadband internet access media. Whereas asymmetric DSL (ADSL) already offers data rates of a few megabits per second, next-generation ADSL2+ and VDSL promise even higher bit rates to support so-called triple play (high-quality video, voice and high-speed data). The use of a large bandwidth over the phone line (up to 12 MHz for VDSL) induces impairments, such as severe channel distortion, echo, narrow-band radiofrequency interference (RFI) and crosstalk from other DSL systems. DSL communication makes use of so-called discrete multitone (DMT) modulation, supplemented with advanced digital signal processing algorithms, to tackle these impairments and serve a maximum number of customers. In this thesis, we focus on channel equalization and RFI mitigation algorithms that outperform existing algorithms in terms of bit rate. DMT equalization is typically done by means of ...

Vanbleu, Koen — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Equalization, windowing and zero restoration for OFDM and single-carrier block transmission

Fourier transform (DFT). In the case of MCM, the transmitted data is encoded into blocks in the frequency domain, by using an inverse DFT (IDFT) at the transmitter. The receiver then consists of a DFT, followed by a one-tap complex equalizer for each tone. In SC-FDE the information is encoded into blocks in the time domain. At the receiver, the DFT and one-tap equalizer are followed by an extra IDFT. To avoid the loss of orthogonality between the tones, a guard interval (GI) is inserted between each two blocks. If the channel order doesn’t exceed the GI length, zero-forcing equalization is possible. For longer channels, a Per-Tone equalizer (PTEQ) can be used, which minimizes the mean square error of the received symbols. In practice, the individual bands are orthogonal but overlap, due to the slow roll-off of the DFT’s side ...

Cuypers, Gert — KU Leuven


Resource management and optimization in multi-user DSL systems

Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology is currently the most widely deployed broadband internet access technology and will continue to play an important role during the next decade. However, one of the major sources that limits the performance of current DSL systems is crosstalk, which is a channel distortion that is caused by the electromagnetic coupling among the different copper wires (DSL connections). Multi-user resource management is a very promising approach to prevent or even remove the impact of crosstalk, and that can significantly increase the performance of DSL systems. In this thesis, multiple efficient algorithms are proposed for multi-user resource management that only require a very low computational complexity and that can be applied to large-scale DSL systems. The application of these algorithms allows to significantly increase the data rates of DSL systems. It is furthermore shown that the proposed ...

Tsiaflakis, Paschalis — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Signal and Spectrum Coordination for Next Generation DSL Networks

The ability to easily exchange and access data has transformed the way we work, study, inform and entertain ourselves. In particular, the Internet has had an effect on people’s lives in the past two decades that is profound. Profound as this effect may be, people seem not to grow tired of it. On the contrary: as of today, the Internet revolution is far from over. The thirst for bigger amounts of data at higher speeds and biquitous connectivity seem not to abate. This thirst for more, faster and better quality data is both a huge challenge and a huge opportunity for the broadband access industry. The opportunity lies on the fact that, as of the end of 2012, there were 600 million subscribers to broadband services around the world. Plus, even though the market is already enormous, it still has ...

Moraes, Rodrigo B. — KU Leuven


Transmission over Time- and Frequency-Selective Mobile Wireless Channels

The wireless communication industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, and digital cellular systems are currently designed to provide high data rates at high terminal speeds. High data rates give rise to intersymbol interference (ISI) due to so-called multipath fading. Such an ISI channel is called frequency selective. On the other hand, due to terminal mobility and/or receiver frequency offset the received signal is subject to frequency shifts (Doppler shifts). Doppler shift induces time-selectivity characteristics. The Doppler effect in conjunction with ISI gives rise to a so-called doubly selective channel (frequency- and time-selective). In addition to the channel effects, the analog front-end may suffer from an imbalance between the I and Q branch amplitudes and phases as well as from carrier frequency offset. These analog front-end imperfections then result in an additional and significant degradation in system performance, especially ...

Barhumi, Imad — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Near-end crosstalk cancellation in xDSL systems

In xDSL technology, high-speed data are transferred between the central office and the customers, or between two or more central offices using unshielded telephone lines. A major impairment that hinders the increase in data-rate through the twisted-pair line is near-end crosstalk (NEXT) between the adjacent twisted pairs. DSL systems with overlapping transmit and receive spectra are susceptible to NEXT which significantly increases the interference noise in the received signal and also reduces the reliability and availability of the system. One way to cancel the NEXT in the received signal is to deploy adaptive filters. However, if adaptive filters are deployed to cancel every possible NEXT signal from the other twisted pairs, the computational complexity increases in proportion to N^2 where N is the number of twisted pairs in the bundle and, therefore, it becomes prohibitive even for small values of ...

Nongpiur, Rajeev — University of Victoria, Canada


Advanced Multi-Dimensional Signal Processing for Wireless Systems

The thriving development of wireless communications calls for innovative and advanced signal processing techniques targeting at an enhanced performance in terms of reliability, throughput, robustness, efficiency, flexibility, etc.. This thesis addresses such a compelling demand and presents new and intriguing progress towards fulfilling it. We mainly concentrate on two advanced multi-dimensional signal processing challenges for wireless systems that have attracted tremendous research attention in recent years, multi-carrier Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems and multi-dimensional harmonic retrieval. As the key technologies of wireless communications, the numerous benefits of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation, e.g., boosting the data rate and improving the link reliability, have long been identified and have ignited great research interest. In particular, the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-based multi-user MIMO downlink with Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) combines the twofold advantages of MIMO and multi-carrier modulation. It is the essential element ...

Cheng, Yao — Ilmenau University of Technology


Efficient Interference Suppression and Resource Allocation in MIMO and DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

Direct-sequence code-divisionmultiple-access (DS-CDMA) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless networks form the physical layer of the current generation of mobile networks and are anticipated to play a key role in the next generation of mobile networks. The improvements in capacity, data-rates and robustness that these networks provide come at the cost of increasingly complex interference suppression and resource allocation. Consequently, efficient approaches to these tasks are essential if the current rate of progression in mobile technology is to be sustained. In this thesis, linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE) techniques for interference suppression and resource allocation in DS-CDMA and cooperative MIMO networks are considered and a set of novel and efficient algorithms proposed. Firstly, set-membership (SM) reduced-rank techniques for interference suppression in DS-CDMA systems are investigated. The principals of SM filtering are applied to the adaptation of the projection matrix and reduced-rank ...

Patrick Clarke — University of York


Diversity Gain Enhancement for Extended Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coding in Wireless Communications

Transmit diversity is a powerful technique for enhancing the channel capacity and reliability of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. This thesis considers extended orthogonal space-time block coding (EO-STBC) with beamsteering angles, which have previously been shown to potentially achieve full diversity and array gain with four transmit and one receive antenna. The optimum setting of beamsteering angles applied in the transmitter, which has to be calculated based on channel state information (CSI) at the receiver side, must be quantised and feed back to the transmitter via a reverse feedback link. When operating in a fading scenario, channel coefficients vary smoothly with time. This smooth evolution of channel coefficients motivates the investigation of differential feedback, which can reduce the number of feedback bits, while potentially maintaining near optimum performance. The hypothesis that the smooth evolution of channel coefficients translates into ...

Hussin, Mohamed Nuri Ahmed — University of Strathclyde


Quasi-static scheduling for fine-grained embedded multiprocessing

Designing energy-efficient multiprocessing hardware for applications such as video decoding or MIMO-OFDM baseband processing is challenging because these applications require high throughput, as well as flexibility for efficient use of the processing resources. Application specific hardwired accelerator circuits are the most energy-efficient processing resources, but are inflexible by nature. Furthermore, designing an application specific circuit is expensive and time-consuming. A solution that maintains the energy-efficiency of accelerator circuits, but makes them flexible as well, is to make the accelerator circuits fine-grained. Fine-grained application specific processing elements can be designed to implement general purpose functions that can be used in several applications and their small size makes the design and verification times reasonable. This thesis proposes an efficient method for orchestrating the use of heterogeneous fine-grained processing elements in dynamic applications without introducing tremendous orchestration overheads. Furthermore, the thesis presents a ...

Boutellier, Jani — University of Oulu


Resource Management in Multicarrier Based Cognitive Radio Systems

The ever-increasing growth of the wireless application and services affirms the importance of the effective usage of the limited radio spectrum. Existing spectrum management policies have led to significant spectrum under-utilization. Recent measurements showed that large range of the spectrum is sparsely used in both temporal and spatial manner. This conflict between the inefficient usage of the spectrum and the continuous evolution in the wireless communication calls upon the development of more flexible management policies. Cognitive radio (CR) with the dynamic spectrum access (DSA) is considered to be a key technology in making the best solution of this conflict by allowing a group of secondary users (SUs) to share the radio spectrum originally allocated to the primary user (PUs). The operation of CR should not negatively alter the performance of the PUs. Therefore, the interference control along with the highly ...

Musbah Shaat — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


New Approach to Dynamic Spectrum Management for DSL Environments

Currently, the telecommunications market has brought changes to the design of the old model of the telecommunications network. The emergence of new technologies for higher speed access was inevitable in order to meet the requirements of the appearance of the multimedia services (VoD, online gaming etc.). The latest technologies for broadband access over telephone pairs are Digital Subscriber Lines or DSL. This set of xDSL technologies allow the transfer of binary high speed over telephone twisted pair by using a suitable type of line codes. They allow a flow of high-speed information both asymmetrical and symmetrical over the telephone loop. This thesis presents the state of the art of Dynamic Spectrum Management (DSM) technologies suggested to improve the performance of DSL systems and proposes a new approach to this issue. The main contributions of this thesis includes extended bandwidth channel ...

Jakovljevic, Milos — Technical University of Madrid (UPM)

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