Decompositions Parcimonieuses Structurees: Application a la presentation objet de la musique

The amount of digital music available both on the Internet and by each listener has considerably raised for about ten years. The organization and the accessibillity of this amount of data demand that additional informations are available, such as artist, album and song names, musical genre, tempo, mood or other symbolic or semantic attributes. Automatic music indexing has thus become a challenging research area. If some tasks are now correctly handled for certain types of music, such as automatic genre classification for stereotypical music, music instrument recoginition on solo performance and tempo extraction, others are more difficult to perform. For example, automatic transcription of polyphonic signals and instrument ensemble recognition are still limited to some particular cases. The goal of our study is not to obain a perfect transcription of the signals and an exact classification of all the instruments ...

Leveau, Pierre — Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Telecom ParisTech


Parameter Estimation -in sparsity we trust

This thesis is based on nine papers, all concerned with parameter estimation. The thesis aims at solving problems related to real-world applications such as spectroscopy, DNA sequencing, and audio processing, using sparse modeling heuristics. For the problems considered in this thesis, one is not only concerned with finding the parameters in the signal model, but also to determine the number of signal components present in the measurements. In recent years, developments in sparse modeling have allowed for methods that jointly estimate the parameters in the model and the model order. Based on these achievements, the approach often taken in this thesis is as follows. First, a parametric model of the considered signal is derived, containing different parameters that capture the important characteristics of the signal. When the signal model has been determined, an optimization problem is formed aimed at finding ...

Swärd, Johan — Lund University


Bayesian methods for sparse and low-rank matrix problems

Many scientific and engineering problems require us to process measurements and data in order to extract information. Since we base decisions on information, it is important to design accurate and efficient processing algorithms. This is often done by modeling the signal of interest and the noise in the problem. One type of modeling is Compressed Sensing, where the signal has a sparse or low-rank representation. In this thesis we study different approaches to designing algorithms for sparse and low-rank problems. Greedy methods are fast methods for sparse problems which iteratively detects and estimates the non-zero components. By modeling the detection problem as an array processing problem and a Bayesian filtering problem, we improve the detection accuracy. Bayesian methods approximate the sparsity by probability distributions which are iteratively modified. We show one approach to making the Bayesian method the Relevance Vector ...

Sundin, Martin — Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH


Bayesian Compressed Sensing using Alpha-Stable Distributions

During the last decades, information is being gathered and processed at an explosive rate. This fact gives rise to a very important issue, that is, how to effectively and precisely describe the information content of a given source signal or an ensemble of source signals, such that it can be stored, processed or transmitted by taking into consideration the limitations and capabilities of the several digital devices. One of the fundamental principles of signal processing for decades is the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, which states that the minimum number of samples needed to reconstruct a signal without error is dictated by its bandwidth. However, there are many cases in our everyday life in which sampling at the Nyquist rate results in too many data and thus, demanding an increased processing power, as well as storage requirements. A mathematical theory that emerged ...

Tzagkarakis, George — University of Crete


Decompositions parcimonieuses: approches Baysiennes et application a la compression d' image

This thesis interests in different methods of image compression combining both Bayesian aspects and ``sparse decomposition'' aspects. Two compression methods are in particular investigated. Transform coding, first, is addressed from a transform optimization point of view. The optimization is considered at two levels: in the spatial domain by adapting the support of the transform, and in the transform domain by selecting local bases among finite sets. The study of bases learned with an algorithm from the literature constitutes an introduction to a novel learning algorithm, which encourages the sparsity of the decompositions. Predictive coding is then addressed. Motivated by recent contributions based on sparse decompositions, we propose a novel Bayesian prediction algorithm based on mixtures of sparse decompositions. Finally, these works allowed to underline the interest of structuring the sparsity of the decompositions. For example, a weighting of the decomposition ...

Dremeau, Angelique — INRIA


Group-Sparse Regression - With Applications in Spectral Analysis and Audio Signal Processing

This doctorate thesis focuses on sparse regression, a statistical modeling tool for selecting valuable predictors in underdetermined linear models. By imposing different constraints on the structure of the variable vector in the regression problem, one obtains estimates which have sparse supports, i.e., where only a few of the elements in the response variable have non-zero values. The thesis collects six papers which, to a varying extent, deals with the applications, implementations, modifications, translations, and other analysis of such problems. Sparse regression is often used to approximate additive models with intricate, non-linear, non-smooth or otherwise problematic functions, by creating an underdetermined model consisting of candidate values for these functions, and linear response variables which selects among the candidates. Sparse regression is therefore a widely used tool in applications such as, e.g., image processing, audio processing, seismological and biomedical modeling, but is ...

Kronvall, Ted — Lund University


Cosparse regularization of physics-driven inverse problems

Inverse problems related to physical processes are of great importance in practically every field related to signal processing, such as tomography, acoustics, wireless communications, medical and radar imaging, to name only a few. At the same time, many of these problems are quite challenging due to their ill-posed nature. On the other hand, signals originating from physical phenomena are often governed by laws expressible through linear Partial Differential Equations (PDE), or equivalently, integral equations and the associated Green’s functions. In addition, these phenomena are usually induced by sparse singularities, appearing as sources or sinks of a vector field. In this thesis we primarily investigate the coupling of such physical laws with a prior assumption on the sparse origin of a physical process. This gives rise to a “dual” regularization concept, formulated either as sparse analysis (cosparse), yielded by a PDE ...

Kitić, Srđan — Université de Rennes 1


Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging reconstruction problems using wavelet representations

To reduce scanning time or improve spatio-temporal resolution in some MRI applications, parallel MRI acquisition techniques with multiple coils have emerged since the early 90’s as powerful methods. In these techniques, MRI images have to be reconstructed from ac- quired undersampled “k-space” data. To this end, several reconstruction techniques have been proposed such as the widely-used SENSitivity Encoding (SENSE) method. However, the reconstructed images generally present artifacts due to the noise corrupting the ob- served data and coil sensitivity profile estimation errors. In this work, we present novel SENSE-based reconstruction methods which proceed with regularization in the complex wavelet domain so as to promote the sparsity of the solution. These methods achieve ac- curate image reconstruction under degraded experimental conditions, in which neither the SENSE method nor standard regularized methods (e.g. Tikhonov) give convincing results. The proposed approaches relies on ...

Lotfi CHAARI — University Paris-Est


Distributed Demand-Side Optimization in the Smart Grid

The modern power grid is facing major challenges in the transition to a low-carbon energy sector. The growing energy demand and environmental concerns require carefully revisiting how electricity is generated, transmitted, and consumed, with an eye to the integration of renewable energy sources. The envisioned smart grid is expected to address such issues by introducing advanced information, control, and communication technologies into the energy infrastructure. In this context, demand-side management (DSM) makes the end users responsible for improving the efficiency, reliability and sustainability of the power system: this opens up unprecedented possibilities for optimizing the energy usage and cost at different levels of the network. The design of DSM techniques has been extensively discussed in the literature in the last decade, although the performance of these methods has been scarcely investigated from the analytical point of view. In this thesis, ...

Atzeni, Italo — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya


Toward sparse and geometry adapted video approximations

Video signals are sequences of natural images, where images are often modeled as piecewise-smooth signals. Hence, video can be seen as a 3D piecewise-smooth signal made of piecewise-smooth regions that move through time. Based on the piecewise-smooth model and on related theoretical work on rate-distortion performance of wavelet and oracle based coding schemes, one can better analyze the appropriate coding strategies that adaptive video codecs need to implement in order to be efficient. Efficient video representations for coding purposes require the use of adaptive signal decompositions able to capture appropriately the structure and redundancy appearing in video signals. Adaptivity needs to be such that it allows for proper modeling of signals in order to represent these with the lowest possible coding cost. Video is a very structured signal with high geometric content. This includes temporal geometry (normally represented by motion ...

Divorra Escoda, Oscar — EPFL / Signal Processing Institute


Regularization techniques in model fitting and parameter estimation

We consider fitting data by linear and nonlinear models. The specific problems that we aim at, although they encompass classic formulations, have as common ground the fact that we attack a special situation: the ill-posed problems. In the linear case, we consider the total least squares problem. There exist special methods to approach the so-called nongeneric cases, but we propose extensions for the more commonly encountered close-to-nongeneric problems. Several methods of introducing regularization in the context of total least squares are analyzed. They are based on truncation methods or on penalty optimization. The obtained problems might not have closed form solutions. We discuss numerical linear algebra and local optimization methods. Data fitting by nonlinear or nonparametric models is the second subject of the thesis. We extend the nonlinear regression theory to the case when we have to deal with supplementary ...

Sima, Diana — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Blind Source Separation of functional dynamic MRI signals via Dictionary Learning

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) constitutes a non-invasive medical imaging technique that allows the exploration of the inner anatomy, tissues, and physiological processes of the body. Among the different MRI applications, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has slowly become an essential tool for investigating the brain behavior and, nowadays, it plays a fundamental role in clinical and neurophysiological research. Due to its particular nature, specialized signal processing techniques are required in order to analyze the fMRI data properly. Among the various related techniques that have been developed over the years, the General Linear Model (GLM) is one of the most widely used approaches, and it usually appears as a default in many specialized software toolboxes for fMRI. On the other end, Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods constitute the most common alternative to GLM, especially when no prior information regarding the brain ...

Morante, Manuel — National and Kapodistrian University of Athens


MIMO Radars with Sparse Sensing

Multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radars achieve high resolution of arrival direction by transmitting orthogonal waveforms, performing matched filtering at the receiver end and then jointly processing the measurements of all receive antennas. This dissertation studies the use of compressive sensing (CS) and matrix completion (MC) techniques as means of reducing the amount of data that need to be collected by a MIMO radar system, without sacrificing the system’s good resolution properties. MIMO radars with sparse sensing are useful in networked radar scenarios, in which the joint processing of the measurements is done at a fusion center, which might be connected to the receive antennas via a wireless link. In such scenarios, reduced amount of data translates into bandwidth and power saving in the receiver-fusion center link. First, we consider previously defined CS-based MIMO radar schemes, and propose optimal transmit antenna ...

Sun, Shunqiao — Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey


PARTICLE METHODS FOR BAYESIAN MULTI-OBJECT TRACKING AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION

In this thesis a number of improvements have been established for specific methods which utilize sequential Monte Carlo (SMC), aka. Particle filtering (PF) techniques. The first problem is the Bayesian multi-target tracking (MTT) problem for which we propose the use of non-parametric Bayesian models that are based on time varying extension of Dirichlet process (DP) models. The second problem studied in this thesis is an important application area for the proposed DP based MTT method; the tracking of vocal tract resonance frequencies of the speech signals. Lastly, we investigate SMC based parameter estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian state space models in which we provide a performance improvement for the path density based methods by utilizing regularization techniques.

Ozkan, Emre — Middle East Technical University


Realtime and Accurate Musical Control of Expression in Voice Synthesis

In the early days of speech synthesis research, understanding voice production has attracted the attention of scientists with the goal of producing intelligible speech. Later, the need to produce more natural voices led researchers to use prerecorded voice databases, containing speech units, reassembled by a concatenation algorithm. With the outgrowth of computer capacities, the length of units increased, going from diphones to non-uniform units, in the so-called unit selection framework, using a strategy referred to as 'take the best, modify the least'. Today the new challenge in voice synthesis is the production of expressive speech or singing. The mainstream solution to this problem is based on the “there is no data like more data” paradigm: emotionspecific databases are recorded and emotion-specific units are segmented. In this thesis, we propose to restart the expressive speech synthesis problem, from its original voice ...

D' Alessandro, N. — Universite de Mons

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