Compressive Sensing Based Candidate Detector and its Applications to Spectrum Sensing and Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging

Signal acquisition is a main topic in signal processing. The well-known Shannon-Nyquist theorem lies at the heart of any conventional analog to digital converters stating that any signal has to be sampled with a constant frequency which must be at least twice the highest frequency present in the signal in order to perfectly recover the signal. However, the Shannon-Nyquist theorem provides a worst-case rate bound for any bandlimited data. In this context, Compressive Sensing (CS) is a new framework in which data acquisition and data processing are merged. CS allows to compress the data while is sampled by exploiting the sparsity present in many common signals. In so doing, it provides an efficient way to reduce the number of measurements needed for perfect recovery of the signal. CS has exploded in recent years with thousands of technical publications and applications ...

Lagunas, Eva — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Cooperative and Cognitive Communication Techniques for Wireless Networks

During the past years wireless communications have been exhibiting an increased growth rendering them the most common way for communication. The continuously increasing demand for wireless services resulted in limited availability of the wireless spectrum. To this end, Cognitive Radio (CR) techniques have been proposed in literature during the past years. The concept of CR approach is to utilize advanced radio and signal-processing technology along with novel spectrum allocation policies to enable new unlicensed wireless users to operate in the existing occupied spectrum areas without degrading the performance of the existing licensed ones. Moreover, the broadcast and fading nature of the wireless channel results in severe degradation on the performance of wireless transmissions. A solution to the problem is the use of multiple-antenna systems so as to achieve spatial diversity. However, in many cases, the communication devices' nature permit the ...

Tsinos, Christos — University of Patras


Stochastic Schemes for Dynamic Network Resource Allocation

Wireless networks and power distribution grids are experiencing increasing demands on their efficiency and reliability. Judicious methods for allocating scarce resources such as power and bandwidth are of paramount importance. As a result, nonlinear optimization and signal processing tools have been incorporated into the design of contemporary networks. This thesis develops schemes for efficient resource allocation (RA) in such dynamic networks, with an emphasis in stochasticity, which is accounted for in the problem formulation as well as in the algorithms and schemes to solve those problems. Stochastic optimization and decomposition techniques are investigated to develop low-complexity algorithms with specific applications in cross-layer design of wireless communications, cognitive radio (CR) networks and smart power distribution systems. The costs and constraints on the availability of network resources, together with diverse quality of service (QoS) requirements, render network design, management, and operation challenging ...

Lopez Ramos, Luis Miguel — King Juan Carlos University


Interweave/Underlay Cognitive Radio Techniques and Applications in Satellite Communication Systems

The demand for precious radio spectrum is continuously increasing while the available radio frequency resource has become scarce due to spectrum segmentation and the dedicated frequency allocation of standardized wireless systems. This scarcity has led to the concept of cognitive radio communication which comprises a variety of techniques capable of allowing the coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems over the same spectrum. In this context, this thesis focuses on interweave and underlay cognitive radio paradigms which are widely considered as important enablers for realising cognitive radio technology. In the interweave paradigm, an unlicensed user explores the spectral holes by means of some spectrum awareness methods and utilizes the available spectral availabilities opportunistically while in the underlay paradigm, an unlicensed user is allowed to coexist with the licensed user only if sufficient protection to the licensed user can be guaranteed. Starting ...

Sharma, Shree Krishna — SnT, University of Luxembourg


Resource Management in Multicarrier Based Cognitive Radio Systems

The ever-increasing growth of the wireless application and services affirms the importance of the effective usage of the limited radio spectrum. Existing spectrum management policies have led to significant spectrum under-utilization. Recent measurements showed that large range of the spectrum is sparsely used in both temporal and spatial manner. This conflict between the inefficient usage of the spectrum and the continuous evolution in the wireless communication calls upon the development of more flexible management policies. Cognitive radio (CR) with the dynamic spectrum access (DSA) is considered to be a key technology in making the best solution of this conflict by allowing a group of secondary users (SUs) to share the radio spectrum originally allocated to the primary user (PUs). The operation of CR should not negatively alter the performance of the PUs. Therefore, the interference control along with the highly ...

Musbah Shaat — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


Energy Efficient Network for Rural Broadband Access

This thesis proposes and discusses aspects of a low-cost wireless network called “Hopscotch” as a potential solution to the rural broadband problem. Providing broadband internet access to rural locations is challenging due to the long distances between internet backbone and households, the sparse population density and difficult terrain. Hopscotch uses a network of renewable powered base stations, termed “WindFi”, connected by point-to-point links, to deliver internet access to rural communities. A combination of frequency bands are used within Hopscotch. Standard IEEE 802.11 5GHz WiFi access technology is used for high capacity links, and an ultra high frequency TV “white space” spectrum overlay in the 600-800 MHz band provides long distance coverage. The advantages of “white space” spectrum are demonstrated for a rural wireless scenario; reducing the number of base stations required to cover a community and decreasing the transmit power ...

McGuire, Colin — University of Strathclyde


Energy-Efficient Target Tracking of Mobile Targets through Wireless Sensor Networks - Cross-layer Design and Optimization

In recent years, advances in signal processing have led the wireless sensor networks to be capable of mobility. The signal processing in a wireless sensor network differs from that of a traditional wireless network mainly in two important aspects. Unlike traditional wireless networks, in a sensor network the signal processing is performed in a fully distributed manner as the sensor measurements in a distributed fashion across the network collected. Additionally, due to the limited onboard resource of a sensor network it is essential to develop energy and bandwidth efficient signal processing algorithms. The thesis is devoted to discuss the state of the arte of algorithms commonly known as tracking algorithms. Although tracking algorithms have only been attracting research and development attention recently, already a wide literature and great variety of proposed approaches regarding the topic exist. The dissertation focus on ...

Arienzo, Loredana — University of Salerno


Competition, Coexistence, and Confidentiality in Multiuser Multi-antenna Wireless Networks

Competition for limited bandwidth, power, and time resources is an intrinsic aspect of multi-user wireless networks. There has been a recent move towards optimizing coexistence and confidentiality at the physical layer of multi-user wireless networks, mainly by exploiting the advanced capabilities of multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO) signal processing methods. Coexistence of disparate networks is made possible via interference mitigation and suppression, and is exemplified by the current interest in cognitive radio (CR) systems. On the other hand, MIMO communications that are secure at the physical layer without depending upon network-layer encryption are achieved by redirecting jamming or multi-user interference to unauthorized receivers, while minimizing that to legitimate receivers. In all cases, the accuracy of the channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitters plays a crucial role in determining the degree of interference mitigation and confidentiality that is achieved. This dissertation ...

Mukherjee, Amitav — University of California Irvine


Distributed Processing Techniques for Parameter Estimation and Efficient Data Gathering in Wireless Communication and Sensor Networks

This dissertation deals with the distributed processing techniques for parameter estimation and efficient data-gathering in wireless communication and sensor networks. The estimation problem consists in inferring a set of parameters from temporal and spatial noisy observations collected by different nodes that monitor an area or field. The objective is to derive an estimate that is as accurate as the one that would be obtained if each node had access to the information across the entire network. With the aim of enabling an energy aware and low-complexity distributed implementation of the estimation task, several useful optimization techniques that generally yield linear estimators were derived in the literature. Up to now, most of the works considered that the nodes are interested in estimating the same vector of global parameters. This scenario can be viewed as a special case of a more general ...

Bogdanovic, Nikola — University of Patras


Distributed Demand-Side Optimization in the Smart Grid

The modern power grid is facing major challenges in the transition to a low-carbon energy sector. The growing energy demand and environmental concerns require carefully revisiting how electricity is generated, transmitted, and consumed, with an eye to the integration of renewable energy sources. The envisioned smart grid is expected to address such issues by introducing advanced information, control, and communication technologies into the energy infrastructure. In this context, demand-side management (DSM) makes the end users responsible for improving the efficiency, reliability and sustainability of the power system: this opens up unprecedented possibilities for optimizing the energy usage and cost at different levels of the network. The design of DSM techniques has been extensively discussed in the literature in the last decade, although the performance of these methods has been scarcely investigated from the analytical point of view. In this thesis, ...

Atzeni, Italo — Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya


Full-Duplex Device-to-Device Communication for 5G Network

With the rapidly growing of the customers’ data traffic demand, improving the system capacity and increasing the user throughput have become essential concerns for the future fifth-generation (5G) wireless communication network. In this context, device-to-device (D2D) communication and in-band full-duplex (FD) are proposed as potential solutions to increase the spatial spectrum utilization and the user rate in a cellular network. D2D allows two nearby devices to communicate without base station (BS) participation or with limited participation. On the other hand, FD communication enables simultaneous transmission and reception in the same frequency band. Due to the short distance property of D2D links, exploiting the FD technology in D2D communication is an excellent choice to further improve the cellular spectrum efficiency and the users’ throughput. However, practical FD transceivers add new challenges for D2D communication. For instance, the existing FD devices cannot ...

Hussein CHOUR — CentraleSupélec (CS) and Université Libanaise (UL)


Optimization of Positioning Capabilities in Wireless Sensor Networks: from power efficiency to medium access

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the ability of sensor nodes to know its position is an enabler for a wide variety of applications for monitoring, control, and automation. Often, sensor data is meaningful only if its position can be determined. Many WSN are deployed indoors or in areas where Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal coverage is not available, and thus GNSS positioning cannot be guaranteed. In these scenarios, WSN may be relied upon to achieve a satisfactory degree of positioning accuracy. Typically, batteries power sensor nodes in WSN. These batteries are costly to replace. Therefore, power consumption is an important aspect, being performance and lifetime ofWSN strongly relying on the ability to reduce it. It is crucial to design effective strategies to maximize battery lifetime. Optimization of power consumption can be made at different layers. For example, at the ...

Moragrega, Ana — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya


On the Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Wireless Networks

The aim of this dissertation is the study of cooperative communications in wireless networks. In cooperative networks, each user transmits its own data and also aids the communication of other users. User cooperation is particularly attractive for the wireless medium, where every user listens to the transmission of other users. The main benefit of user cooperation in wireless networks is, probably, its efficacy to combat the wireless channel impairments. Path loss and shadowing effects are overcome using intermediate nodes, with better channel conditions, to retransmit the received signal to the estination. Further, the channel fading effect can be also mitigated by means of cooperative spatial diversity (the information arrives at the destination through multiple independent paths). These benefits result in an increase of the users spectral efficiency and/or savings on the overall network power resource. Besides these gains, the simple ...

Gomez-Vilardebo, Jesus — Universidad Politecnica de Madrid


Signal processing algorithms for wireless acoustic sensor networks

Recent academic developments have initiated a paradigm shift in the way spatial sensor data can be acquired. Traditional localized and regularly arranged sensor arrays are replaced by sensor nodes that are randomly distributed over the entire spatial field, and which communicate with each other or with a master node through wireless communication links. Together, these nodes form a so-called ‘wireless sensor network’ (WSN). Each node of a WSN has a local sensor array and a signal processing unit to perform computations on the acquired data. The advantage of WSNs compared to traditional (wired) sensor arrays, is that many more sensors can be used that physically cover the full spatial field, which typically yields more variety (and thus more information) in the signals. It is likely that future data acquisition, control and physical monitoring, will heavily rely on this type of ...

Bertrand, Alexander — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Distributed Space-Time Coding Techniques with Limited Feedback in Cooperative MIMO Networks

Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) wireless networks and distributed MIMO relaying wireless networks have attracted significant attention in current generation of wireless communication networks, and will play a key role in the next generation of wireless net- works. The improvement of network capacity, data rate and reliability can be achieved at the cost of increasing computational complexity of employing space-time coding (STC) and distributed STC (DSTC) in MIMO and distributed MIMO relaying networks, respectively. Efficient designs and algorithms to achieve high diversity and coding gains with low computational complexity in encoding and decoding of STC and DSTC schemes are essential. In this thesis, DSTC designs with high diversity and coding gains and efficient detection and code matrices optimization algorithms in cooperative MIMO networks are proposed. Firstly, adaptive power allocation (PA) algorithms with different criteria for a coop- erative MIMO network equipped with ...

Peng, Tong — University of York

The current layout is optimized for mobile phones. Page previews, thumbnails, and full abstracts will remain hidden until the browser window grows in width.

The current layout is optimized for tablet devices. Page previews and some thumbnails will remain hidden until the browser window grows in width.