## Nonlinear unmixing of hyperspectral images (2013)

The spectral signatures of the materials contained in hyperspectral images, also called endmembers (EMs), can be significantly affected by variations in atmospheric, illumination or environmental conditions typically occurring within an image. Traditional spectral unmixing (SU) algorithms neglect the spectral variability of the endmembers, what propagates significant mismodeling errors throughout the whole unmixing process and compromises the quality of the estimated abundances. Therefore, significant effort have been recently dedicated to mitigate the effects of spectral variability in SU. However, many challenges still remain in how to best explore a priori information about the problem in order to improve the quality, the robustness and the efficiency of SU algorithms that account for spectral variability. In this thesis, new strategies are developed to address spectral variability in SU. First, an (over)-segmentation-based multiscale regularization strategy is proposed to explore spatial information about the abundance ...

Borsoi, Ricardo Augusto — Université Côte d'Azur; Federal University of Santa Catarina

Bayesian Fusion of Multi-band Images: A Powerful Tool for Super-resolution

Hyperspectral (HS) imaging, which consists of acquiring a same scene in several hundreds of contiguous spectral bands (a three dimensional data cube), has opened a new range of relevant applications, such as target detection [MS02], classification [C.-03] and spectral unmixing [BDPD+12]. However, while HS sensors provide abundant spectral information, their spatial resolution is generally more limited. Thus, fusing the HS image with other highly resolved images of the same scene, such as multispectral (MS) or panchromatic (PAN) images is an interesting problem. The problem of fusing a high spectral and low spatial resolution image with an auxiliary image of higher spatial but lower spectral resolution, also known as multi-resolution image fusion, has been explored for many years [AMV+11]. From an application point of view, this problem is also important as motivated by recent national programs, e.g., the Japanese next-generation space-borne ...

Wei, Qi — University of Toulouse

Robust Signal Processing with Applications to Positioning and Imaging

This dissertation investigates robust signal processing and machine learning techniques, with the objective of improving the robustness of two applications against various threats, namely Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based positioning and satellite imaging. GNSS technology is widely used in different fields, such as autonomous navigation, asset tracking, or smartphone positioning, while the satellite imaging plays a central role in monitoring, detecting and estimating the intensity of key natural phenomena, such as flooding prediction and earthquake detection. Considering the use of both GNSS positioning and satellite imaging in critical and safety-of-life applications, it is necessary to protect those two technologies from either intentional or unintentional threats. In the real world, the common threats to GNSS technology include multipath propagation and intentional/unintentional interferences. This thesis investigates methods to mitigate the influence of such sources of error, with the final objective of ...

Li, Haoqing — Northeastern University

Bayesian Approaches in Image Source Seperation

In this thesis, a general solution to the component separation problem in images is introduced. Unlike most existing works, the spatial dependencies of images are modelled in the separation process with the use of Markov random fields (MRFs). In the MRFs model, Cauchy density is used for the gradient images. We provide a general Bayesian framework for the estimation of the parameters of this model. Due to the intractability of the problem we resort to numerical solutions for the joint maximization of the a posteriori distribution of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise variances. For numerical solution, four different methods are proposed. In first method, the difficulty of working analytically with general Gibbs distributions of MRF is overcome by using an approximate density. In this approach, the Gibbs distribution is modelled by the product of directional Gaussians. The ...

Kayabol, Koray — Istanbul University

Statistical Physics Approach to Design and Analysis of Multiuser Systems Under Channel Uncertainty

Code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with random spreading and channel uncertainty at the receiver are studied. Frequency selective single antenna, as well as, narrowband multiple antenna channels are considered. Rayleigh fading is assumed in all cases. General Bayesian approach is used to derive both iterative and non-iterative estimators whose performance is obtained in the large system limit via the replica method from statistical physics. The effect of spatial correlation on the performance of a multiple antenna CDMA system operating in a flat-fading channel is studied. Per-antenna spreading (PAS) with random signature sequences and spatial multiplexing is used at the transmitter. Non-iterative multiuser detectors (MUDs) using imperfect channel state information (CSI) are derived. Training symbol based channel estimators having mismatched a priori knowledge about the antenna correlation are considered. Both the channel estimator and the MUD are shown to admit a simple ...

Vehkapera, Mikko — Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Feature Extraction and Data Reduction for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Earth Observation

Earth observation and land-cover analysis became a reality in the last 2-3 decades thanks to NASA airborne and spacecrafts such as Landsat. Inclusion of Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) technology in some of these platforms has made possible acquiring large data sets, with high potential in analytical tasks but at the cost of advanced signal processing. In this thesis, effective/efficient feature extraction methods are proposed. Initially, contributions are introduced for efficient computation of the covariance matrix widely used in data reduction methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA). By taking advantage of the cube structure in HSI, onsite and real-time covariance computation is achieved, reducing memory requirements as well. Furthermore, following the PCA algorithm, a novel method called Folded-PCA (Fd-PCA) is proposed for efficiency while extracting both global and local features within the spectral pixels, achieved by folding the spectral samples from ...

Zabalza, Jaime — University of Strathclyde

Automatic Handwritten Signature Verification - Which features should be looked at?

The increasing need for personal authentication in many daily applications has made biometrics a fundamental research area. In particular, handwritten signatures have long been considered one of the most valuable biometric traits. Signatures are the most popular method for identity verification all over the world, and people are familiar with the use of signatures for identity verification purposes in their everyday life. In fact, signatures are widely used in several daily transactions, being recognized as a legal means of verifying an individual’s identity by financial and administrative institutions. In addition, signature verification has the advantage of being a non-invasive biometric technique. Two categories of signature verification systems can be distinguished taking into account the acquisition device, namely, offline systems, where only the static image of the signature is available, and online systems, where dynamic information acquired during the signing process, ...

Marianela Parodi — Universidad Nacional de Rosario

Dynamic Scheme Selection in Image Coding

This thesis deals with the coding of images with multiple coding schemes and their dynamic selection. In our society of information highways, electronic communication is taking everyday a bigger place in our lives. The number of transmitted images is also increasing everyday. Therefore, research on image compression is still an active area. However, the current trend is to add several functionalities to the compression scheme such as progressiveness for more comfortable browsing of web-sites or databases. Classical image coding schemes have a rigid structure. They usually process an image as a whole and treat the pixels as a simple signal with no particular characteristics. Second generation schemes use the concept of objects in an image, and introduce a model of the human visual system in the design of the coding scheme. Dynamic coding schemes, as their name tells us, make ...

Fleury, Pascal — Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Digital Processing Based Solutions for Life Science Engineering Recognition Problems

The field of Life Science Engineering (LSE) is rapidly expanding and predicted to grow strongly in the next decades. It covers areas of food and medical research, plant and pests’ research, and environmental research. In each research area, engineers try to find equations that model a certain life science problem. Once found, they research different numerical techniques to solve for the unknown variables of these equations. Afterwards, solution improvement is examined by adopting more accurate conventional techniques, or developing novel algorithms. In particular, signal and image processing techniques are widely used to solve those LSE problems require pattern recognition. However, due to the continuous evolution of the life science problems and their natures, these solution techniques can not cover all aspects, and therefore demanding further enhancement and improvement. The thesis presents numerical algorithms of digital signal and image processing to ...

Hussein, Walid — Technische Universität München

Distributed Stochastic Optimization in Non-Differentiable and Non-Convex Environments

The first part of this dissertation considers distributed learning problems over networked agents. The general objective of distributed adaptation and learning is the solution of global, stochastic optimization problems through localized interactions and without information about the statistical properties of the data. Regularization is a useful technique to encourage or enforce structural properties on the resulting solution, such as sparsity or constraints. A substantial number of regularizers are inherently non-smooth, while many cost functions are differentiable. We propose distributed and adaptive strategies that are able to minimize aggregate sums of objectives. In doing so, we exploit the structure of the individual objectives as sums of differentiable costs and non-differentiable regularizers. The resulting algorithms are adaptive in nature and able to continuously track drifts in the problem; their recursions, however, are subject to persistent perturbations arising from the stochastic nature of ...

Vlaski, Stefan — University of California, Los Angeles

Particle Filters and Markov Chains for Learning of Dynamical Systems

Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods provide computational tools for systematic inference and learning in complex dynamical systems, such as nonlinear and non-Gaussian state-space models. This thesis builds upon several methodological advances within these classes of Monte Carlo methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the combination of SMC and MCMC in so called particle MCMC algorithms. These algorithms rely on SMC for generating samples from the often highly autocorrelated state-trajectory. A specific particle MCMC algorithm, referred to as particle Gibbs with ancestor sampling (PGAS), is suggested. By making use of backward sampling ideas, albeit implemented in a forward-only fashion, PGAS enjoys good mixing even when using seemingly few particles in the underlying SMC sampler. This results in a computationally competitive particle MCMC algorithm. As illustrated in this thesis, PGAS is a useful tool for both ...

Lindsten, Fredrik — Linköping University

Accelerating Monte Carlo methods for Bayesian inference in dynamical models

Making decisions and predictions from noisy observations are two important and challenging problems in many areas of society. Some examples of applications are recommendation systems for online shopping and streaming services, connecting genes with certain diseases and modelling climate change. In this thesis, we make use of Bayesian statistics to construct probabilistic models given prior information and historical data, which can be used for decision support and predictions. The main obstacle with this approach is that it often results in mathematical problems lacking analytical solutions. To cope with this, we make use of statistical simulation algorithms known as Monte Carlo methods to approximate the intractable solution. These methods enjoy well-understood statistical properties but are often computational prohibitive to employ. The main contribution of this thesis is the exploration of different strategies for accelerating inference methods based on sequential Monte Carlo ...

Dahlin, Johan — Linköping University

Radial Basis Function Network Robust Learning Algorithms in Computer Vision Applications

This thesis introduces new learning algorithms for Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks. RBF networks is a feed-forward two-layer neural network used for functional approximation or pattern classification applications. The proposed training algorithms are based on robust statistics. Their theoretical performance has been assessed and compared with that of classical algorithms for training RBF networks. The applications of RBF networks described in this thesis consist of simultaneously modeling moving object segmentation and optical flow estimation in image sequences and 3-D image modeling and segmentation. A Bayesian classifier model is used for the representation of the image sequence and 3-D images. This employs an energy based description of the probability functions involved. The energy functions are represented by RBF networks whose inputs are various features drawn from the images and whose outputs are objects. The hidden units embed kernel functions. Each kernel ...

Bors, Adrian G. — Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Improved State Estimation for Jump Markov Linear Systems

This thesis presents a comprehensive example framework on how current multiple model state estimation algorithms for jump Markov linear systems can be improved. The possible improvements are categorized as: -Design of multiple model state estimation algorithms using new criteria. -Improvements obtained using existing multiple model state estimation algorithms. In the first category, risk-sensitive estimation is proposed for jump Markov linear systems. Two types of cost functions namely, the instantaneous and cumulative cost functions related with risk-sensitive estimation are examined and for each one, the corresponding multiple model estate estimation algorithm is derived. For the cumulative cost function, the derivation involves the reference probability method where one defines and uses a new probability measure under which the involved processes has independence properties. The performance of the proposed risk-sensitive filters are illustrated and compared with conventional algorithms using simulations. The thesis addresses ...

Orguner, Umut — Middle East Technical University

Oscillator-plus-Noise Modeling of Speech Signals

In this thesis we examine the autonomous oscillator model for synthesis of speech signals. The contributions comprise an analysis of realizations and training methods for the nonlinear function used in the oscillator model, the combination of the oscillator model with inverse filtering, both significantly increasing the number of `successfully' re-synthesized speech signals, and the introduction of a new technique suitable for the re-generation of the noise-like signal component in speech signals. Nonlinear function models are compared in a one-dimensional modeling task regarding their presupposition for adequate re-synthesis of speech signals, in particular considering stability. The considerations also comprise the structure of the nonlinear functions, with the aspect of the possible interpolation between models for different speech sounds. Both regarding stability of the oscillator and the premiss of a nonlinear function structure that may be pre-defined, RBF networks are found a ...

Rank, Erhard — Vienna University of Technology

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