Error Resilient Transmission of Video Streaming over Wireless Mobile Networks,

The third generation of mobile systems brought higher data rates that allow for provisioning of multimedia services containing also video. The real-time services like video call, conferencing, and streaming are particularly challenging for mobile communication systems due to the wireless channel quality variations. The mechanism for video compression utilizes a hybrid of temporal and spatial prediction, transform coding and variable length coding. The combination of these methods provides high compression gain, but at the same time makes the encoded stream more prone to errors. In this thesis, techniques for error resilient transmission of video streaming over wireless mobile networks are investigated. Focus is given to the recent H.264/AVC standard, although the ma jority of the proposed method apply to other video coding standards, too. The first part is dedicated to exploiting the residual redundancy of the received video stream at ...

Nemethova, O. — Vienna University of Technology


Optimization of Video Streaming over 3G Networks

VIDEO streaming over cellular networks has been made possible in the last years by better performing video codecs and wireless cellular networks oriented to data transmission. The interaction between two heterogeneous worlds, the telecommunication infrastructure and the coding video software, calls for advanced optimization mechanisms. The actors involved in the optimization process are the cellular system's access network, UMTS and HSDPA, the wireless transmission channel and the fi nal user equipped with a mobile device capable of decoding video sequences. The knowledge and characterization of each of the building blocks allow the optimization of each element to the specifi c needs of the others. This doctoral thesis discusses three main contributions. In the fi rst part, the e ffects of transmission errors on video streams are analyzed. Incorrectly received video packets are usually discarded by the lower layers and not ...

Superiori, Luca — Vienna University of Technology


Adaptive Equalisation for Downlink UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

The third generation mobile system Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) has been mainly specified to provide various multimedia capabilities and good service quality. However, since UMTS is based on direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) techniques the performance and the capacity of such systems is significantly limited by multiuser access interference (MAI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI). Therefore, robust and reliable detectors are required to mitigate these effects. Specifically, the multi-user detector exhibits a significant improvement in capacity and spectrum efficiency compared with the conventional matched filter receiver and single-user detector. Nevertheless, its complexity and prior knowledge requirement render it unsuitable for application in the downlink due to handset constraints. In this thesis, we propose a new robust and simple blind multiuser equaliser for downlink DS-CDMA systems, the so-called filtered-R multiple error CM algorithm (FIRMER-CMA) equaliser. The latter has ...

Hadef, Mahmoud — University of Southampton


System-Level Modeling and Optimization of MIMO HSDPA Networks

Interaction between the Medium Access Control (MAC)-layer and the physical-layer routines is one of the basic concepts of modern wireless networks. Physical-layer dependent resource allocation and scheduling guarantee efficient network utilization. Accordingly, classical link-level analyses, focusing only on the physical-layer are not sufficient anymore for optimum transceiver structure and algorithm development. This thesis presents the development and application of a system-level description suitable for the downlink of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) enhanced High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), with particular focus on the Double Transmit Antenna Array (D-TxAA) transmission mode. The system-level model allows for investigating and evaluating transmission systems and algorithms in the context of cellular networks. Two separate models are proposed to obtain a complete system-level description: (i) a link-quality model, analytically describing the MIMO HSDPA link quality in a so-called equivalent fading parameter structure, and (ii) a link-performance model, ...

Wrulich, Martin — Vienna University of Technology


Stochastic Schemes for Dynamic Network Resource Allocation

Wireless networks and power distribution grids are experiencing increasing demands on their efficiency and reliability. Judicious methods for allocating scarce resources such as power and bandwidth are of paramount importance. As a result, nonlinear optimization and signal processing tools have been incorporated into the design of contemporary networks. This thesis develops schemes for efficient resource allocation (RA) in such dynamic networks, with an emphasis in stochasticity, which is accounted for in the problem formulation as well as in the algorithms and schemes to solve those problems. Stochastic optimization and decomposition techniques are investigated to develop low-complexity algorithms with specific applications in cross-layer design of wireless communications, cognitive radio (CR) networks and smart power distribution systems. The costs and constraints on the availability of network resources, together with diverse quality of service (QoS) requirements, render network design, management, and operation challenging ...

Lopez Ramos, Luis Miguel — King Juan Carlos University


Transmit Beamforming to Multiple Cochannel Multicast Groups

The major contribution of this thesis is on the problem of transmit beamforming to multiple cochannel multicast groups. Two viewpoints are considered: i) minimizing total transmission power while guaranteeing a prescribed minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at each receiver; and ii) a "fair" approach maximizing the overall minimum SINR under a total power budget. The core problem is a multicast generalization of the multiuser downlink beamforming problem; the difference is that each transmitted stream is directed to multiple receivers, each with its own channel. Such generalization is relevant and timely, e.g., in the context of the emerging WiMAX and UMTS-LTE wireless networks. The joint multicast beamforming problem is in general NP-hard, motivating the pursuit of computationally efficient quasi-optimal solutions. In chapter 1, it is shown that semidefinite relaxation coupled with suitable randomization / cochannel multicast power control yield computationally efficient high-quality ...

Karipidis, Eleftherios — Technical University of Crete


Assessment and Real Time Implementation of Wireless Communications Systems and Applications in Transportation Systems

The fourth and fifth generation wireless communication systems (4G and 5G) use a physical layer (PHY) based on multicarrier modulations for data transmission using high bandwidth. This type of modulations has shown to provide high spectral efficiency while allowing low complexity radio channel equalization. These systems use OFDMA as a mechanism for distributing the available radio resources among different users. This allocation is done by assigning a subset of subcarriers to each user in a given instant of time. This provides great flexibility to the system that allows it to adapt to both the quality of service requirements of users and the radio channel state. The media access layer (MAC) of these systems is in charge of configuring the multiple OFDMA PHY layer parameters, in addition to managing the data flows of each user, transforming the higher layer packets into ...

Carro Lagoa, Ángel — University of A Coruña


Video Quality Estimation for Mobile Video Streaming

For the provisioning of video streaming services it is essential to provide a required level of customer satisfaction, given by the perceived video stream quality. It is therefore important to choose the compression parameters as well as the network settings so that they maximize the end-user quality. Due to video compression improvements of the newest video coding standard H.264/AVC, video streaming for low bit and frame rates is possible while preserving its perceptual quality. This is especially suitable for video applications in 3G wireless networks. Mobile video streaming is characterized by low resolutions and low bitrates. The commonly used resolutions are Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF,176x144 pixels) for cell phones, Common Intermediate Format (CIF, 352x288 pixels) and Standard Interchange Format (SIF or QVGA, 320x240 pixels) for data-cards and palmtops (PDA). The mandatory codec for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) streaming ...

Ries, Michal — Vienna University of Technology


Adaptive Communications for Next Generation Broadband Wireless Access Systems

In Broadband Wireless Access systems the efficient use of the resources is crucial from many points of views. From the operator point of view, the bandwidth is a scarce, valuable, and expensive resource which must be exploited in an efficient manner while the Quality of Service (QoS) provided to the users is guaranteed. On the other hand, a tight delay and link quality constraints are imposed on each data flow hence the user experiences the same quality as in fixed networks. During the last few years many techniques have been developed in order to increase the spectral efficiency and the throughput. Among them, the use of multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver (exploiting spatial multiplexing) with the joint optimization of the medium access control layer and the physical layer parameters. In this Ph.D. thesis, different adaptive techniques for ...

Ismael Gutierrez González — Universitat Ramon Llull


Iterative Multi-User Receivers for CDMA Systems

Mobile communication networks of the third and future generations are designed to offer high-data rate services like video-telephony and data-transfer. The current Rake receiver architecture will create a shortage in available bandwidth offered to the users. This is not due to a shortage in spectrum but results from inefficient receiver architectures. Spectral efficiency can be increased considerably through multi-user detection techniques in the receiver algorithms. The present thesis investigates iterative re- ceivers for encoded CDMA transmission in the uplink. The iterative receiver is a suboptimal receiver algorithm with manageable complexity. It consists of an inter- ference mitigating multi-user detector, a bank of single-user decoders, and a channel estimator. Instead of deciding on the transmitted symbols right after the first decod- ing, the receiver feeds back tentative decision symbols to mitigate multiple-access interference in the next iteration. Similarly, soft decision symbols ...

Wehinger, J. — Vienna University of Technology


Contributions to Analysis and Mitigation of Cochannel Interference in Cellular Wireless Networks

Cellular wireless networks have become a commodity. We use our cellular devices every day to connect to others, to conduct business, for entertainment. Strong demand for wireless access has made corresponding parts of radio spectrum very valuable. Consequently, network operators and their suppliers are constantly being pressured for its efficient use. Unlike the first and second generation cellular networks, current generations do not therefore separate geographical sites in frequency. This universal frequency reuse, combined with continuously increasing spatial density of the transmitters, leads to challenging interference levels in the network. This dissertation collects several contributions to analysis and mitigation of interference in cellular wireless networks. The contributions are categorized and set in the context of prior art based on key characteristics, then they are treated one by one. The first contribution encompasses dynamic signaling that measures instantaneous interference situations and ...

Cierny, Michal — Aalto University


Antenna Selection Techniques in Single- and Multi-user Systems: A Cross-layer Approach

Over the last decade, the massive demand for high data-rate wireless applications has motivated the study and design of new communication technologies. Among all of them, multi-antenna schemes have been shown to provide remarkable benefits in terms of spectral efficiency. In order to achieve channel capacity bounds, some sort of pre-processing on the transmit side must be encompassed. Unless reciprocity between the forward and reverse links can be assumed, a feedback channel is required to convey channel state information. In such a context, transmit antenna selection emerges as an effective alternative requiring a low amount of information in the feedback channel. Antenna selection algorithms are usually designed in order to maximize physical layer performance but, recently, optimization criteria based on cross-layer designs are gaining popularity. This is mainly motivated by the inefficiency observed in the direct application of the Open ...

López Vicario, José — CTTC-Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya


Multiple Objective Optimization for Video Streaming

In this thesis, we propose Multiple Objective Optimization (MOO) frameworks for efficient video streaming. Firstly, we introduce pre-roll delay-distortion optimization (DDO) for uninterrupted content-adaptive video streaming over low capacity, constant bitrate (CBR) channels using MOO. Content analysis is used to divide the input video into shots with assigned relevance levels. The video is adaptively encoded and streamed aiming minimum pre-roll delay and distortion with the optimal spatial and temporal resolutions and quantization parameters for each shot. With buffer and distortion constraints, the bitrate of unimportant shots is reduced to achieve an acceptable quality in important shots. Secondly, we introduce a cross-layer optimized video rate adaptation and scheduling scheme to achieve maximum "application layer" Quality-of-Service (QoS), maximum video throughput (video seconds per transmission slot), and QoS fairness for wireless video streaming. Using the MOO framework, these objectives are jointly optimized such ...

Ozcelebi, Tanir — Koc University


Measurement and Modelling of Internet Traffic over 2.5 and 3G Cellular Core Networks

THE task of modeling data traffic in networks is as old as the first commercial telephony systems. In the recent past in mobile telephone networks the focus has moved from voice to packetswitched services. The new cellular mobile networks of the third generation (UMTS) and the evolved second generation (GPRS) offer the subscriber the possibility of staying online everywhere and at any time. The design and dimensioning is well known for circuit switched voice systems, but not for mobile packet-switched systems. The terms user expectation, grade of service and so on need to be defined. To find these parameters it is important to have an accurate traffic model that delivers good traffic estimates. In this thesis we carried out measurements in a live 3G core network of an Austrian operator, in order to find appropriate models that can serve as ...

Svoboda, Philipp — Vienna University of Technology


Energy Efficient Network for Rural Broadband Access

This thesis proposes and discusses aspects of a low-cost wireless network called “Hopscotch” as a potential solution to the rural broadband problem. Providing broadband internet access to rural locations is challenging due to the long distances between internet backbone and households, the sparse population density and difficult terrain. Hopscotch uses a network of renewable powered base stations, termed “WindFi”, connected by point-to-point links, to deliver internet access to rural communities. A combination of frequency bands are used within Hopscotch. Standard IEEE 802.11 5GHz WiFi access technology is used for high capacity links, and an ultra high frequency TV “white space” spectrum overlay in the 600-800 MHz band provides long distance coverage. The advantages of “white space” spectrum are demonstrated for a rural wireless scenario; reducing the number of base stations required to cover a community and decreasing the transmit power ...

McGuire, Colin — University of Strathclyde

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