## Robust Methods for Sensing and Reconstructing Sparse Signals (2012)

Bayesian Compressed Sensing using Alpha-Stable Distributions

During the last decades, information is being gathered and processed at an explosive rate. This fact gives rise to a very important issue, that is, how to effectively and precisely describe the information content of a given source signal or an ensemble of source signals, such that it can be stored, processed or transmitted by taking into consideration the limitations and capabilities of the several digital devices. One of the fundamental principles of signal processing for decades is the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, which states that the minimum number of samples needed to reconstruct a signal without error is dictated by its bandwidth. However, there are many cases in our everyday life in which sampling at the Nyquist rate results in too many data and thus, demanding an increased processing power, as well as storage requirements. A mathematical theory that emerged ...

Tzagkarakis, George — University of Crete

Exploiting Sparsity for Efficient Compression and Analysis of ECG and Fetal-ECG Signals

Over the last decade there has been an increasing interest in solutions for the continuous monitoring of health status with wireless, and in particular, wearable devices that provide remote analysis of physiological data. The use of wireless technologies have introduced new problems such as the transmission of a huge amount of data within the constraint of limited battery life devices. The design of an accurate and energy efficient telemonitoring system can be achieved by reducing the amount of data that should be transmitted, which is still a challenging task on devices with both computational and energy constraints. Furthermore, it is not sufficient merely to collect and transmit data, and algorithms that provide real-time analysis are needed. In this thesis, we address the problems of compression and analysis of physiological data using the emerging frameworks of Compressive Sensing (CS) and sparse ...

Da Poian, Giulia — University of Udine

Signal acquisition is a main topic in signal processing. The well-known Shannon-Nyquist theorem lies at the heart of any conventional analog to digital converters stating that any signal has to be sampled with a constant frequency which must be at least twice the highest frequency present in the signal in order to perfectly recover the signal. However, the Shannon-Nyquist theorem provides a worst-case rate bound for any bandlimited data. In this context, Compressive Sensing (CS) is a new framework in which data acquisition and data processing are merged. CS allows to compress the data while is sampled by exploiting the sparsity present in many common signals. In so doing, it provides an efficient way to reduce the number of measurements needed for perfect recovery of the signal. CS has exploded in recent years with thousands of technical publications and applications ...

Lagunas, Eva — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

Contributions to signal analysis and processing using compressed sensing techniques

Chapter 2 contains a short introduction to the fundamentals of compressed sensing theory, which is the larger context of this thesis. We start with introducing the key concepts of sparsity and sparse representations of signals. We discuss the central problem of compressed sensing, i.e. how to adequately recover sparse signals from a small number of measurements, as well as the multiple formulations of the reconstruction problem. A large part of the chapter is devoted to some of the most important conditions necessary and/or sufficient to guarantee accurate recovery. The aim is to introduce the reader to the basic results, without the burden of detailed proofs. In addition, we also present a few of the popular reconstruction and optimization algorithms that we use throughout the thesis. Chapter 3 presents an alternative sparsity model known as analysis sparsity, that offers similar recovery ...

Cleju, Nicolae — "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi

Linear Dynamical Systems with Sparsity Constraints: Theory and Algorithms

This thesis develops new mathematical theory and presents novel recovery algorithms for discrete linear dynamical systems (LDS) with sparsity constraints on either control inputs or initial state. The recovery problems in this framework manifest as the problem of reconstructing one or more sparse signals from a set of noisy underdetermined linear measurements. The goal of our work is to design algorithms for sparse signal recovery which can exploit the underlying structure in the measurement matrix and the unknown sparse vectors, and to analyze the impact of these structures on the efficacy of the recovery. We answer three fundamental and interconnected questions on sparse signal recovery problems that arise in the context of LDS. First, what are necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a sparse solution? Second, given that a sparse solution exists, what are good low-complexity algorithms that ...

Joseph, Geethu — Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

Sparse Signal Recovery From Incomplete And Perturbed Data

Sparse signal recovery consists of algorithms that are able to recover undersampled high dimensional signals accurately. These algorithms require fewer measurements than traditional Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem demands. Sparse signal recovery has found many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, electromagnetic inverse scattering, radar/sonar imaging, seismic data collection, sensor array processing and channel estimation. The focus of this thesis is on electromagentic inverse scattering problem and joint estimation of the frequency offset and the channel impulse response in OFDM. In the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem, the aim is to find the electromagnetic properties of unknown targets from measured scattered field. The reconstruction of closely placed point-like objects is investigated. The application of the greedy pursuit based sparse recovery methods, OMP and FTB-OMP, is proposed for increasing the reconstruction resolution. The performances of the proposed methods are compared against NESTA and MT-BCS methods. ...

Senyuva, Rifat Volkan — Bogazici University

Adaptive Nonlocal Signal Restoration and Enhancement Techniques for High-Dimensional Data

The large number of practical applications involving digital images has motivated a significant interest towards restoration solutions that improve the visual quality of the data under the presence of various acquisition and compression artifacts. Digital images are the results of an acquisition process based on the measurement of a physical quantity of interest incident upon an imaging sensor over a specified period of time. The quantity of interest depends on the targeted imaging application. Common imaging sensors measure the number of photons impinging over a dense grid of photodetectors in order to produce an image similar to what is perceived by the human visual system. Different applications focus on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum not visible by the human visual system, and thus require different sensing technologies to form the image. In all cases, even with the advance of ...

Maggioni, Matteo — Tampere University of Technology

Compressive Sensing of Cyclostationary Propeller Noise

This dissertation is the combination of three manuscripts –either published in or submitted to journals– on compressive sensing of propeller noise for detection, identification and localization of water crafts. Propeller noise, as a result of rotating blades, is broadband and radiates through water dominating underwater acoustic noise spectrum especially when cavitation develops. Propeller cavitation yields cyclostationary noise which can be modeled by amplitude modulation, i.e., the envelope-carrier product. The envelope consists of the so-called propeller tonals representing propeller characteristics which is used to identify water crafts whereas the carrier is a stationary broadband process. Sampling for propeller noise processing yields large data sizes due to Nyquist rate and multiple sensor deployment. A compressive sensing scheme is proposed for efficient sampling of second-order cyclostationary propeller noise since the spectral correlation function of the amplitude modulation model is sparse as shown in ...

Fırat, Umut — Istanbul Technical University

Sparse Sensing for Statistical Inference: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications

In today's society, we are flooded with massive volumes of data in the order of a billion gigabytes on a daily basis from pervasive sensors. It is becoming increasingly challenging to locally store and transport the acquired data to a central location for signal/data processing (i.e., for inference). To alleviate these problems, it is evident that there is an urgent need to significantly reduce the sensing cost (i.e., the number of expensive sensors) as well as the related memory and bandwidth requirements by developing unconventional sensing mechanisms to extract as much information as possible yet collecting fewer data. The first aim of this thesis is to develop theory and algorithms for data reduction. We develop a data reduction tool called sparse sensing, which consists of a deterministic and structured sensing function (guided by a sparse vector) that is optimally designed ...

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar — Delft University of Technology

Robust Network Topology Inference and Processing of Graph Signals

The abundance of large and heterogeneous systems is rendering contemporary data more pervasive, intricate, and with a non-regular structure. With classical techniques facing troubles to deal with the irregular (non-Euclidean) domain where the signals are defined, a popular approach at the heart of graph signal processing (GSP) is to: (i) represent the underlying support via a graph and (ii) exploit the topology of this graph to process the signals at hand. In addition to the irregular structure of the signals, another critical limitation is that the observed data is prone to the presence of perturbations, which, in the context of GSP, may affect not only the observed signals but also the topology of the supporting graph. Ignoring the presence of perturbations, along with the couplings between the errors in the signal and the errors in their support, can drastically hinder ...

Rey, Samuel — King Juan Carlos University

Bayesian methods for sparse and low-rank matrix problems

Many scientific and engineering problems require us to process measurements and data in order to extract information. Since we base decisions on information, it is important to design accurate and efficient processing algorithms. This is often done by modeling the signal of interest and the noise in the problem. One type of modeling is Compressed Sensing, where the signal has a sparse or low-rank representation. In this thesis we study different approaches to designing algorithms for sparse and low-rank problems. Greedy methods are fast methods for sparse problems which iteratively detects and estimates the non-zero components. By modeling the detection problem as an array processing problem and a Bayesian filtering problem, we improve the detection accuracy. Bayesian methods approximate the sparsity by probability distributions which are iteratively modified. We show one approach to making the Bayesian method the Relevance Vector ...

Sundin, Martin — Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH

Search-Based Methods for the Sparse Signal Recovery Problem in Compressed Sensing

The sparse signal recovery, which appears not only in compressed sensing but also in other related problems such as sparse overcomplete representations, denoising, sparse learning, etc. has drawn a large attraction in the last decade. The literature contains a vast number of recovery methods, which have been analysed in theoretical and empirical aspects. This dissertation presents novel search-based sparse signal recovery methods. First, we discuss theoretical analysis of the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm with more iterations than the number of nonzero elements of the underlying sparse signal. Second, best-fi rst tree search is incorporated for sparse recovery by a novel method, whose tractability follows from the properly de fined cost models and pruning techniques. The proposed method is evaluated by both theoretical and empirical analyses, which clearly emphasize the improvements in the recovery accuracy. Next, we introduce an iterative two ...

Karahanoglu, Nazim Burak — Sabanci University

Compressed sensing approaches to large-scale tensor decompositions

Today’s society is characterized by an abundance of data that is generated at an unprecedented velocity. However, much of this data is immediately thrown away by compression or information extraction. In a compressed sensing (CS) setting the inherent sparsity in many datasets is exploited by avoiding the acquisition of superfluous data in the first place. We combine this technique with tensors, or multiway arrays of numerical values, which are higher-order generalizations of vectors and matrices. As the number of entries scales exponentially in the order, tensor problems are often large-scale. We show that the combination of simple, low-rank tensor decompositions with CS effectively alleviates or even breaks the so-called curse of dimensionality. After discussing the larger data fusion optimization framework for coupled and constrained tensor decompositions, we investigate three categories of CS type algorithms to deal with large-scale problems. First, ...

Vervliet, Nico — KU Leuven

General Approaches for Solving Inverse Problems with Arbitrary Signal Models

Ill-posed inverse problems appear in many signal and image processing applications, such as deblurring, super-resolution and compressed sensing. The common approach to address them is to design a specific algorithm, or recently, a specific deep neural network, for each problem. Both signal processing and machine learning tactics have drawbacks: traditional reconstruction strategies exhibit limited performance for complex signals, such as natural images, due to the hardness of their mathematical modeling; while modern works that circumvent signal modeling by training deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) suffer from a huge performance drop when the observation model used in training is inexact. In this work, we develop and analyze reconstruction algorithms that are not restricted to a specific signal model and are able to handle different observation models. Our main contributions include: (a) We generalize the popular sparsity-based CoSaMP algorithm to any signal ...

Tirer, Tom — Tel Aviv University

Signal and Image Processing Algorithms Using Interval Convex Programming and Sparsity

In this thesis, signal and image processing algorithms based on sparsity and interval convex programming are developed for inverse problems. Inverse signal processing problems are solved by minimizing the ℓ1 norm or the Total Variation (TV) based cost functions in the literature. A modiﬁed entropy functional approximating the absolute value function is deﬁned. This functional is also used to approximate the ℓ1 norm, which is the most widely used cost function in sparse signal processing problems. The modiﬁed entropy functional is continuously diﬀerentiable, and convex. As a result, it is possible to develop iterative, globally convergent algorithms for compressive sensing, denoising and restoration problems using the modiﬁed entropy functional. Iterative interval convex programming algorithms are constructed using Bregman’s D-Projection operator. In sparse signal processing, it is assumed that the signal can be represented using a sparse set of coeﬃcients in ...

Kose, Kivanc — Bilkent University

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