## Array Signal Processing Algorithms for Beamforming and Direction Finding (2009)

Adaptive interference suppression algorithms for DS-UWB systems

In multiuser ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, a large number of multipath components (MPCs) are introduced by the channel. One of the main challenges for the receiver is to effectively suppress the interference with affordable complexity. In this thesis, we focus on the linear adaptive interference suppression algorithms for the direct-sequence ultrawideband (DS-UWB) systems in both time-domain and frequency-domain. In the time-domain, symbol by symbol transmission multiuser DS-UWB systems are considered. We first investigate a generic reduced-rank scheme based on the concept of joint and iterative optimization (JIO) that jointly optimizes a projection vector and a reduced-rank filter by using the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) criterion. A low-complexity scheme, named Switched Approximations of Adaptive Basis Functions (SAABF), is proposed as a modification of the generic scheme, in which the complexity reduction is achieved by using a multi-branch framework to simplify the structure ...

Sheng Li — University of York

Sparse Array Signal Processing

This dissertation details three approaches for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation or beamforming in array signal processing from the perspective of sparsity. In the first part of this dissertation, we consider sparse array beamformer design based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM); in the second part of this dissertation, the problem of joint DOA estimation and distorted sensor detection is investigated; and off-grid DOA estimation is studied in the last part of this dissertation. In the first part of this thesis, we devise a sparse array design algorithm for adaptive beamforming. Our strategy is based on finding a sparse beamformer weight to maximize the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). The proposed method utilizes ADMM, and admits closed-form solutions at each ADMM iteration. The algorithm convergence properties are analyzed by showing the monotonicity and boundedness of the augmented Lagrangian function. In addition, ...

Huang, Huiping — Darmstadt University of Technology

Efficient Interference Suppression and Resource Allocation in MIMO and DS-CDMA Wireless Networks

Direct-sequence code-divisionmultiple-access (DS-CDMA) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless networks form the physical layer of the current generation of mobile networks and are anticipated to play a key role in the next generation of mobile networks. The improvements in capacity, data-rates and robustness that these networks provide come at the cost of increasingly complex interference suppression and resource allocation. Consequently, efficient approaches to these tasks are essential if the current rate of progression in mobile technology is to be sustained. In this thesis, linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE) techniques for interference suppression and resource allocation in DS-CDMA and cooperative MIMO networks are considered and a set of novel and efficient algorithms proposed. Firstly, set-membership (SM) reduced-rank techniques for interference suppression in DS-CDMA systems are investigated. The principals of SM filtering are applied to the adaptation of the projection matrix and reduced-rank ...

Patrick Clarke — University of York

Broadband adaptive beamforming with low complexity and frequency invariant response

This thesis proposes different methods to reduce the computational complexity as well as increasing the adaptation rate of adaptive broadband beamformers. This is performed exemplarily for the generalised sidelobe canceller (GSC) structure. The GSC is an alternative implementation of the linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, which can utilise well-known adaptive filtering algorithms, such as the least mean square (LMS) or the recursive least squares (RLS) to perform unconstrained adaptive optimisation. A direct DFT implementation, by which broadband signals are decomposed into frequency bins and processed by independent narrowband beamforming algorithms, is thought to be computationally optimum. However, this setup fail to converge to the time domain minimum mean square error (MMSE) if signal components are not aligned to frequency bins, resulting in a large worst case error. To mitigate this problem of the so-called independent frequency bin (IFB) processor, overlap-save ...

Koh, Choo Leng — University of Southampton

MVDR Broadband Beamforming Using Polynomial Matrix Techniques

This thesis addresses the formulation of and solution to broadband minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming. Two approaches to this problem are considered, namely, generalised sidelobe canceller (GSC) and Capon beamformers. These are examined based on a novel technique which relies on polynomial matrix formulations. The new scheme is based on the second order statistics of the array sensor measurements in order to estimate a space-time covariance matrix. The beamforming problem can be formulated based on this space-time covariance matrix. Akin to the narrowband problem, where an optimum solution can be derived from the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of a constant covariance matrix, this utility is here extended to the broadband case. The decoupling of the space-time covariance matrix in this case is provided by means of a polynomial matrix EVD. The proposed approach is initially exploited to design a GSC ...

Alzin, Ahmed — University of Strathclyde

Robust Direction-of-Arrival estimation and spatial filtering in noisy and reverberant environments

The advent of multi-microphone setups on a plethora of commercial devices in recent years has generated a newfound interest in the development of robust microphone array signal processing methods. These methods are generally used to either estimate parameters associated with acoustic scene or to extract signal(s) of interest. In most practical scenarios, the sources are located in the far-field of a microphone array where the main spatial information of interest is the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the plane waves originating from the source positions. The focus of this thesis is to incorporate robustness against either lack of or imperfect/erroneous information regarding the DOAs of the sound sources within a microphone array signal processing framework. The DOAs of sound sources is by itself important information, however, it is most often used as a parameter for a subsequent processing method. One of the ...

Chakrabarty, Soumitro — Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Generalized Consistent Estimation in Arbitrarily High Dimensional Signal Processing

The theory of statistical signal processing finds a wide variety of applications in the fields of data communications, such as in channel estimation, equalization and symbol detection, and sensor array processing, as in beamforming, and radar systems. Indeed, a large number of these applications can be interpreted in terms of a parametric estimation problem, typically approached by a linear filtering operation acting upon a set of multidimensional observations. Moreover, in many cases, the underlying structure of the observable signals is linear in the parameter to be inferred. This dissertation is devoted to the design and evaluation of statistical signal processing methods under realistic implementation conditions encountered in practice. Traditional statistical signal processing techniques intrinsically provide a good performance under the availability of a particularly high number of observations of fixed dimension. Indeed, the original optimality conditions cannot be theoretically guaranteed ...

Rubio, Francisco — Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya

Direction Finding In The Presence of Array Imperfections, Model Mismatches and Multipath

In direction finding (DF) applications, there are several factors affecting the estimation accuracy of the direction-of-arrivals (DOA) of unknown source locations. The major distortions in the estimation process are due to the array imperfections, model mismatches and multipath. The array imperfections usually exist in practical applications due to the nonidealities in the antenna array such as mutual coupling (MC) and gain/phase uncertainties. The model mismatches usually occur when the model of the received signal differs from the signal model used in the processing stage of the DF system. Another distortion is due to multipath signals. In the multipath scenario, the antenna array receives the transmitted signal from more than one path with different directions and the array covariance matrix is rank-deficient. In this thesis, three new methods are proposed for the problems in DF applications in the presence of array ...

Elbir, Ahmet M. — Middle East Technical Univresity

Ultra Wideband Communications: from Analog to Digital

The aim of this thesis is to investigate key issues encountered in the design of transmission schemes and receiving techniques for Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication systems. Based on different data rate applications, this work is divided into two parts, where energy efficient and robust physical layer solutions are proposed, respectively. Due to a huge bandwidth of UWB signals, a considerable amount of multipath arrivals with various path gains is resolvable at the receiver. For low data rate impulse radio UWB systems, suboptimal non-coherent detection is a simple way to effectively capture the multipath energy. Feasible techniques that increase the power efficiency and the interference robustness of non-coherent detection need to be investigated. For high data rate direct sequence UWB systems, a large number of multipath arrivals results in severe inter-/intra-symbol interference. Additionally, the system performance may also be deteriorated by ...

Song, Nuan — Ilmenau University of Technology

Distributed Space-Time Coding Techniques with Limited Feedback in Cooperative MIMO Networks

Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) wireless networks and distributed MIMO relaying wireless networks have attracted significant attention in current generation of wireless communication networks, and will play a key role in the next generation of wireless net- works. The improvement of network capacity, data rate and reliability can be achieved at the cost of increasing computational complexity of employing space-time coding (STC) and distributed STC (DSTC) in MIMO and distributed MIMO relaying networks, respectively. Efficient designs and algorithms to achieve high diversity and coding gains with low computational complexity in encoding and decoding of STC and DSTC schemes are essential. In this thesis, DSTC designs with high diversity and coding gains and efficient detection and code matrices optimization algorithms in cooperative MIMO networks are proposed. Firstly, adaptive power allocation (PA) algorithms with different criteria for a coop- erative MIMO network equipped with ...

Peng, Tong — University of York

MIMO Radars with Sparse Sensing

Multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) radars achieve high resolution of arrival direction by transmitting orthogonal waveforms, performing matched filtering at the receiver end and then jointly processing the measurements of all receive antennas. This dissertation studies the use of compressive sensing (CS) and matrix completion (MC) techniques as means of reducing the amount of data that need to be collected by a MIMO radar system, without sacrificing the system’s good resolution properties. MIMO radars with sparse sensing are useful in networked radar scenarios, in which the joint processing of the measurements is done at a fusion center, which might be connected to the receive antennas via a wireless link. In such scenarios, reduced amount of data translates into bandwidth and power saving in the receiver-fusion center link. First, we consider previously defined CS-based MIMO radar schemes, and propose optimal transmit antenna ...

Sun, Shunqiao — Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Wideband Data-Independent Beamforming for Subarrays

The desire to operate large antenna arrays for e.g. RADAR applications over a wider frequency range is currently limited by the hardware, which due to weight, cost and size only permits complex multipliers behind each element. In contrast, wideband processing would have to rely on tap delay lines enabling digital filters for every element. As an intermediate step, in this thesis we consider a design where elements are grouped into subarrays, within which elements are still individually controlled by narrowband complex weights, but where each subarray output is given a tap delay line or finite impulse response digital filter for further wideband processing. Firstly, this thesis explores how a tap delay line attached to every subarray can be designed as a delay-and-sum beamformer. This filter is set to realised a fractional delay design based on a windowed sinc function. At ...

Alshammary, Abdullah — University of Strathclyde

Signal processing algorithms for wireless acoustic sensor networks

Recent academic developments have initiated a paradigm shift in the way spatial sensor data can be acquired. Traditional localized and regularly arranged sensor arrays are replaced by sensor nodes that are randomly distributed over the entire spatial field, and which communicate with each other or with a master node through wireless communication links. Together, these nodes form a so-called ‘wireless sensor network’ (WSN). Each node of a WSN has a local sensor array and a signal processing unit to perform computations on the acquired data. The advantage of WSNs compared to traditional (wired) sensor arrays, is that many more sensors can be used that physically cover the full spatial field, which typically yields more variety (and thus more information) in the signals. It is likely that future data acquisition, control and physical monitoring, will heavily rely on this type of ...

Bertrand, Alexander — Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

Bayesian methods for sparse and low-rank matrix problems

Many scientific and engineering problems require us to process measurements and data in order to extract information. Since we base decisions on information, it is important to design accurate and efficient processing algorithms. This is often done by modeling the signal of interest and the noise in the problem. One type of modeling is Compressed Sensing, where the signal has a sparse or low-rank representation. In this thesis we study different approaches to designing algorithms for sparse and low-rank problems. Greedy methods are fast methods for sparse problems which iteratively detects and estimates the non-zero components. By modeling the detection problem as an array processing problem and a Bayesian filtering problem, we improve the detection accuracy. Bayesian methods approximate the sparsity by probability distributions which are iteratively modified. We show one approach to making the Bayesian method the Relevance Vector ...

Sundin, Martin — Department of Signal Processing, Royal Institute of Technology KTH

Bayesian Compressed Sensing using Alpha-Stable Distributions

During the last decades, information is being gathered and processed at an explosive rate. This fact gives rise to a very important issue, that is, how to effectively and precisely describe the information content of a given source signal or an ensemble of source signals, such that it can be stored, processed or transmitted by taking into consideration the limitations and capabilities of the several digital devices. One of the fundamental principles of signal processing for decades is the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, which states that the minimum number of samples needed to reconstruct a signal without error is dictated by its bandwidth. However, there are many cases in our everyday life in which sampling at the Nyquist rate results in too many data and thus, demanding an increased processing power, as well as storage requirements. A mathematical theory that emerged ...

Tzagkarakis, George — University of Crete

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